Gender Differences in Motives of Prosocial-Sharing

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11th Sep 2017 Psychology Reference this

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Gender Differences in Motives of Prosocial-Sharing Behavior in Preschoolers’ Peer Interactions

Abstract

The goal of this study was to observe and report any gender differences in motives of prosocial-sharing behavior. Past research has reported gender differences in sharing behavior (Burford et. al., 1996) and in prosocial altruistic behavior (Persson, 2005). In general boys engaged in more egocentric acting than girls, it was also found that girls share experiences more than objects. Male preschoolers engaged in more egocentric acting than female preschoolers in different sex peer interactions, while female preschoolers engaged in more nonegocentric acting than male preschoolers in different sex peer interactions. There were no differences reported in motivation in male-initiated same sex peer interactions, as well as for female-initiated same sex peer interactions. Findings provide beneficial information to parents and those who work with children. This information also contributes to past research on children’s prosocial behavior and research on motivation (Burford et. al., 1996; Person, 2005). Further research in this study may want to consider the context of peer relationships.

Keywords:  gender differences, prosocial behavior, sharing behavior, egocentric acting, nonegocentric acting.

Gender Differences in Motives of Prosocial-Sharing Behavior in Preschoolers’ Peer Interactions

Prosocial behavior can be influenced by gender-role stereotypes, leading to gender differences in this behavior. Burford, Foley, Rollins, and Rosario (1996), reported that at an early age girls and boys experience respective differences in socialization. Gender differences become apparent by the time children enter preschool due to an increase in sex-typing during this period. Subsequently, girls are nurtured to have female sex-typed, or feminine, characteristics which include communal traits such as tenderness, selflessness, and passiveness; while boys are nurtured to have male sex-typed, or masculine, characteristics which include agentic traits such as independence, competitiveness, and assertiveness. Consequently, girls and boys integrate these gender-role stereotypes into their gender schema, which influences their prosocial behavior (Burford et al., 1996).

Motives in Prosocial-Sharing Behavior

In a longitudinal study, where underlying motives of preschoolers’ prosocial behavior were explored, Persson (2005) defined prosocial behaviour as “voluntary acting intended to benefit another person” (p.81). Sympathy, empathy, and altruism, are the characteristics of prosocial behavior. Researchers have shown that for children to engage in prosocial-sharing behavior they must have these characteristics (Burford et al., 1996). Persson (2005) states children display sympathy, empathy and altruism at an early age. Sharing an object, such as a toy, and sharing of experiences, in children’s peer interactions, are considered as a display of prosocial-sharing behaviour. (In this current study prosocial-sharing behavior will be operationally defined as so).

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Persson (2005) also promotes a broader prosocial concept, in which there are differentiated motives of prosocial-sharing behavior that exhibit distinctive social orientations and have differing cognitive significances. Furthermore, this broader prosocial concept incorporates behavior that might be driven because of self-serving or less virtuous motives, e.g., attempting to attain a personal goal. Person (2005) differentiated these motivated prosocial behaviors into three classifications: prosocial requested behaviour, prosocial altruistic behavior, prosocial non-altruistic behavior.

Prosocial requested behavior “is motivated by explicit appeals from peers and therefore not self-initiated” (Persson, 2005, p. 81). Prosocial altruistic behavior “is self-initiated and motivated by seemingly unselfish concerns for a peer” (p.81). Prosocial non-altruistic behaviour “is self-initiated and . . .  motivated by selfish interests . . ..” (p.81). Moreover, prosocial altruistic behavior is displayed by nonegocentric acting (e.g., Armando gives Fernando his cookie without any observable expectancy of reciprocation), while prosocial non-altruistic behavior is displayed by egocentric acting (e.g. in Armando’s case, if there was an observable expectancy of reciprocation) (Persson, 2005). This current study is interested in only observing the motives of children who engage in self-initiated prosocial-sharing behavior, therefore motives will be categorized as either nonegocentric acting or egocentric acting.

Gender Differences

Burford et al. (1996) focused on preschoolers’ prosocial-sharing behavior within same sex groups and different sex groups. Their results showed that girls engaged more frequently in prosocial-sharing behavior than boys did, indicating that girls are more interested in preserving or achieving group harmony, while boys are interested in obtaining personal desires. Although girls try to achieve their own personal wants, they have a second motive that supersedes their wants, which is to satisfy the other peer that they are interacting with.

Girls were found to be more polite and cooperative than boys in peer interactions, while boys were found to be more demanding and direct (Burford et. al., 1996). Suggesting that girls are less coercive than boys and that boys are more self-assertive than girls. It was also stated that when boys interacted with their female peers, they were more assertive, than when they interacted with their male peers.

Persson (2005) reported a single gender difference in prosocial altruistic behavior among preschool-aged children, favoring girls. No other gender difference was reported, nor was there any data showing if there was or wasn’t any gender differences in motives of prosocial behavior between same sex peer interactions or different sex peer interactions. The goal of this study is to observe and report any gender differences in motives of prosocial-sharing behavior in preschooler’s same sex peer interactions and different sex peer interactions.

Hypothesis

Based on past research (Burford et. al., 1996; Persson, 2005) stating that boys are more assertive with female peers than with male peers, and that preschool-aged girls engage in prosocial altruistic behavior more than preschool-aged boys; it was hypothesized that male preschoolers would engage in more egocentric acting than female preschoolers in different sex peer interactions. It was further hypothesized that female preschoolers would engage in more nonegocentric acting than male preschoolers in different sex peer interactions.

Sample

This observational study took place at a religious community center in the city of Montebello, California, where childcare is provided during sermons. The researcher did not request consent to observe the children because they volunteer at the religious community center’s childcare services, and was not obtrusive. In order to preserve the safety of the children the researcher did not recorded any personal identifying information. The sample consisted of 40 preschool-aged (ranging from 4 years to 5 years of age) children, majority of the children were of Hispanic ethnicity, while a very few were of non-Hispanic ethnicity. Other information such socioeconomic status was not collected because it could not be requested due to the nature of the study. Since the researcher was only interested in observing motives in prosocial-sharing behavior, only children who initiated in the act of sharing were recorded, thus no children were omitted form the final analysis.

Procedure

There were six specific time periods (known as “play time”), each consisting thirty minutes in duration, in which observations of prosocial-sharing behavior in peer interactions were made. Observations were made in three nonconsecutive days. Again, the researcher only focused on peer interactions that involved the act of sharing. Due to the limitation of time in each “play time” period and the occurrence of the act of sharing among boys (Burford et. al., 1996) each peer interaction was observed for only five minutes (Persson, 2005).

Each peer interaction was between two subjects only, and was categorized into one of the following dyads: male-initiated same sex peer interaction (M/m), male-initiated different sex peer interaction (M/f), female-initiated different sex peer interaction (F/m), and female-initiated same sex peer interaction (F/f). The researcher purposefully recorded ten of each dyad for the final analysis. After five minutes of observation, each dyad was recorded to be either motivated by egocentric goals or nonegocentric goals.

Coding categories.

Again, this current study only focused on two motivational categories, egocentric acting and nonegocentric acting. Egocentric acting was coded as initiating a peer interaction with the expectancy of reciprocation (e.g., when child (a) shares an object or experience with child (b) to obtain another object and or be included into a group activity.) (Persson, 2005). Nonegocentric acting was coded as initiating a peer interaction without the expectancy of reciprocation, (e.g., child (a) shares an object or experience with child (b) without any observable behavior that inferred expectancy of reciprocation.) (Persson, 2005). When the initiator of the interaction displayed any observable behavior that was inferred to be egocentric acting, within the five-minute period, the interaction was reported to be motivated by egocentric goals. When the initiator of the interaction did not display any observable behavior that could be inferred as egocentric acting, within the five-minute period, the interaction was reported to be motivated by nonegocentric goals.

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The data recorded was analyzed by using the statistical software PSPP (2016). The researcher focused on four main areas: frequency of motives between genders, frequency of sharing acts (sharing an object or experience) between genders, frequency of sharing acts within dyads, and frequency of motives between and within dyads. Results show (see Figure 1.) that male preschoolers engage in egocentric acting 55% of the time, while female preschoolers engaged in egocentric acting only 45% of the time. Results also show (see Figure 2.) that females tend to share experiences 65% of the time, while male preschoolers tend to share experiences only 45% of the time.

Results also report (see Figure 3.) that in male-initiated same sex peer interactions, male preschoolers tend to share objects more than experiences. In male-initiated different sex peer interactions, there are no differences in sharing act. Contrastingly, in female-initiated different sex peer interactions, female preschoolers tend to share experiences more than objects, as well as for female-initiated same sex interactions.

Results also show (see Figure 4.) there are no differences in motivation in male-initiated same sex peer interactions, as well as for female-initiated same sex peer interactions. However, in male-initiated different sex peer interactions, male preschoolers tend to engage in egocentric acting 60% of the time. Contrastingly, in female-initiated different sex peer interactions, female preschoolers tend to engage in nonegocentric acting 60% of the time. The author would like to emphasize that these results do not indicate any significant gender difference, just observed gender differences.

The goal of this study was to observe and report any gender differences in motives of prosocial-sharing behavior in preschooler’s same sex peer interactions and different sex peer interactions. In general boys engaged in more egocentric acting than girls, implying that they use prosocial behaviors for self-serving motives (Persson, 2005). The fact that girls engaged in more nonegocentric acting is consistent with past research (Persson, 2005) showing that girls engage in more prosocial altruistic behavior than boys. It is interesting to see that overall, girls share experiences more than objects, it can be said that this might be a tactic that girls use to maintain group harmony (Burford et. al, 1996), further research needs to be conducted on this theory. The finding that in female-initiated different sex peer interactions, female preschoolers share experiences more than objects, might be explained by the fact some objects, such as toys, are sex-typed which discourages either gender from sharing or receiving non-gender appropriate objects (Burford et. al., 1996).

Results showed that there is an observed gender difference in the motives of preschoolers’ sharing behavior. The first hypothesis that male preschoolers would engage in more egocentric acting than female preschoolers in different sex peer interactions was supported. The second hypothesis that female preschoolers would engage in more nonegocentric acting than male preschoolers in different sex peer interactions was also supported. Both findings provide beneficial information to parents and those who work with children, and they may use it to understand how children interact with other peers or siblings in everyday situations, as it has been reported that prosocial behavior at 4-5 years of age strongly predicts prosocial behavior in adulthood (Persson, 2005). This information also contributes to past research on children’s prosocial behavior and research on motivation (Burford et. al., 1996; Person, 2005). One limitation to this study was that relationship context was not considered; further research in this study may want to take into consideration the context of peer relationships

References    

Burford, H. C., Foley, L. A., Rollins, P. G., & Rosario, K. S. (1996). Gender Differences in Preschoolers’ Sharing Behavior. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11(5), 17-25.

Persson, G. E. (2005). Developmental perspectives on prosocial and aggressive motives in preschoolers’ peer interactions. International Journal of Behavioral Development,29(1), 80-91. doi:10.1080/01650250444000423

Frequency of Motives Between Genders

Clustered column chart showing the values of 3 series for 4 categories

Figure 1. Females engaged in nonegocentric 55% of the time while, males only 45%. Males engaged in egocentric acting 55% of the, while females only 45%

Frequency of Sharing Acts Between Genders

Clustered column chart showing the values of 3 series for 4 categories

Figure 2. Females shared experiences 65% of the time, while males only 45%. Males shared objects 55% of the time, while females only 35%

Frequency of Sharing Acts Within Dyads

Clustered column chart showing the values of 3 series for 4 categories

Figure 3. M/m, 60% of the time, shared objects, while only 40% for experiences. M/f, 50% of the time, shared objects and experiences. F/m, 70% of the time, shared experiences, while only 30% for objects. F/f, 60% of the time, shared experiences, while only 40% for objects.

Frequency of Motivation Between and Within Dyads

Clustered column chart showing the values of 3 series for 4 categories

Figure 4. M/m and F/f, no difference in motivation. M/f, 60% of the time egocentric motive, while only 40% of the time nonegocentric. F/m, 60% of the time nonegocentric motive, while only 40% of the time egocentric motive.

Gender Differences in Motives of Prosocial-Sharing Behavior in Preschoolers’ Peer Interactions

Abstract

The goal of this study was to observe and report any gender differences in motives of prosocial-sharing behavior. Past research has reported gender differences in sharing behavior (Burford et. al., 1996) and in prosocial altruistic behavior (Persson, 2005). In general boys engaged in more egocentric acting than girls, it was also found that girls share experiences more than objects. Male preschoolers engaged in more egocentric acting than female preschoolers in different sex peer interactions, while female preschoolers engaged in more nonegocentric acting than male preschoolers in different sex peer interactions. There were no differences reported in motivation in male-initiated same sex peer interactions, as well as for female-initiated same sex peer interactions. Findings provide beneficial information to parents and those who work with children. This information also contributes to past research on children’s prosocial behavior and research on motivation (Burford et. al., 1996; Person, 2005). Further research in this study may want to consider the context of peer relationships.

Keywords:  gender differences, prosocial behavior, sharing behavior, egocentric acting, nonegocentric acting.

Gender Differences in Motives of Prosocial-Sharing Behavior in Preschoolers’ Peer Interactions

Prosocial behavior can be influenced by gender-role stereotypes, leading to gender differences in this behavior. Burford, Foley, Rollins, and Rosario (1996), reported that at an early age girls and boys experience respective differences in socialization. Gender differences become apparent by the time children enter preschool due to an increase in sex-typing during this period. Subsequently, girls are nurtured to have female sex-typed, or feminine, characteristics which include communal traits such as tenderness, selflessness, and passiveness; while boys are nurtured to have male sex-typed, or masculine, characteristics which include agentic traits such as independence, competitiveness, and assertiveness. Consequently, girls and boys integrate these gender-role stereotypes into their gender schema, which influences their prosocial behavior (Burford et al., 1996).

Motives in Prosocial-Sharing Behavior

In a longitudinal study, where underlying motives of preschoolers’ prosocial behavior were explored, Persson (2005) defined prosocial behaviour as “voluntary acting intended to benefit another person” (p.81). Sympathy, empathy, and altruism, are the characteristics of prosocial behavior. Researchers have shown that for children to engage in prosocial-sharing behavior they must have these characteristics (Burford et al., 1996). Persson (2005) states children display sympathy, empathy and altruism at an early age. Sharing an object, such as a toy, and sharing of experiences, in children’s peer interactions, are considered as a display of prosocial-sharing behaviour. (In this current study prosocial-sharing behavior will be operationally defined as so).

Persson (2005) also promotes a broader prosocial concept, in which there are differentiated motives of prosocial-sharing behavior that exhibit distinctive social orientations and have differing cognitive significances. Furthermore, this broader prosocial concept incorporates behavior that might be driven because of self-serving or less virtuous motives, e.g., attempting to attain a personal goal. Person (2005) differentiated these motivated prosocial behaviors into three classifications: prosocial requested behaviour, prosocial altruistic behavior, prosocial non-altruistic behavior.

Prosocial requested behavior “is motivated by explicit appeals from peers and therefore not self-initiated” (Persson, 2005, p. 81). Prosocial altruistic behavior “is self-initiated and motivated by seemingly unselfish concerns for a peer” (p.81). Prosocial non-altruistic behaviour “is self-initiated and . . .  motivated by selfish interests . . ..” (p.81). Moreover, prosocial altruistic behavior is displayed by nonegocentric acting (e.g., Armando gives Fernando his cookie without any observable expectancy of reciprocation), while prosocial non-altruistic behavior is displayed by egocentric acting (e.g. in Armando’s case, if there was an observable expectancy of reciprocation) (Persson, 2005). This current study is interested in only observing the motives of children who engage in self-initiated prosocial-sharing behavior, therefore motives will be categorized as either nonegocentric acting or egocentric acting.

Gender Differences

Burford et al. (1996) focused on preschoolers’ prosocial-sharing behavior within same sex groups and different sex groups. Their results showed that girls engaged more frequently in prosocial-sharing behavior than boys did, indicating that girls are more interested in preserving or achieving group harmony, while boys are interested in obtaining personal desires. Although girls try to achieve their own personal wants, they have a second motive that supersedes their wants, which is to satisfy the other peer that they are interacting with.

Girls were found to be more polite and cooperative than boys in peer interactions, while boys were found to be more demanding and direct (Burford et. al., 1996). Suggesting that girls are less coercive than boys and that boys are more self-assertive than girls. It was also stated that when boys interacted with their female peers, they were more assertive, than when they interacted with their male peers.

Persson (2005) reported a single gender difference in prosocial altruistic behavior among preschool-aged children, favoring girls. No other gender difference was reported, nor was there any data showing if there was or wasn’t any gender differences in motives of prosocial behavior between same sex peer interactions or different sex peer interactions. The goal of this study is to observe and report any gender differences in motives of prosocial-sharing behavior in preschooler’s same sex peer interactions and different sex peer interactions.

Hypothesis

Based on past research (Burford et. al., 1996; Persson, 2005) stating that boys are more assertive with female peers than with male peers, and that preschool-aged girls engage in prosocial altruistic behavior more than preschool-aged boys; it was hypothesized that male preschoolers would engage in more egocentric acting than female preschoolers in different sex peer interactions. It was further hypothesized that female preschoolers would engage in more nonegocentric acting than male preschoolers in different sex peer interactions.

Sample

This observational study took place at a religious community center in the city of Montebello, California, where childcare is provided during sermons. The researcher did not request consent to observe the children because they volunteer at the religious community center’s childcare services, and was not obtrusive. In order to preserve the safety of the children the researcher did not recorded any personal identifying information. The sample consisted of 40 preschool-aged (ranging from 4 years to 5 years of age) children, majority of the children were of Hispanic ethnicity, while a very few were of non-Hispanic ethnicity. Other information such socioeconomic status was not collected because it could not be requested due to the nature of the study. Since the researcher was only interested in observing motives in prosocial-sharing behavior, only children who initiated in the act of sharing were recorded, thus no children were omitted form the final analysis.

Procedure

There were six specific time periods (known as “play time”), each consisting thirty minutes in duration, in which observations of prosocial-sharing behavior in peer interactions were made. Observations were made in three nonconsecutive days. Again, the researcher only focused on peer interactions that involved the act of sharing. Due to the limitation of time in each “play time” period and the occurrence of the act of sharing among boys (Burford et. al., 1996) each peer interaction was observed for only five minutes (Persson, 2005).

Each peer interaction was between two subjects only, and was categorized into one of the following dyads: male-initiated same sex peer interaction (M/m), male-initiated different sex peer interaction (M/f), female-initiated different sex peer interaction (F/m), and female-initiated same sex peer interaction (F/f). The researcher purposefully recorded ten of each dyad for the final analysis. After five minutes of observation, each dyad was recorded to be either motivated by egocentric goals or nonegocentric goals.

Coding categories.

Again, this current study only focused on two motivational categories, egocentric acting and nonegocentric acting. Egocentric acting was coded as initiating a peer interaction with the expectancy of reciprocation (e.g., when child (a) shares an object or experience with child (b) to obtain another object and or be included into a group activity.) (Persson, 2005). Nonegocentric acting was coded as initiating a peer interaction without the expectancy of reciprocation, (e.g., child (a) shares an object or experience with child (b) without any observable behavior that inferred expectancy of reciprocation.) (Persson, 2005). When the initiator of the interaction displayed any observable behavior that was inferred to be egocentric acting, within the five-minute period, the interaction was reported to be motivated by egocentric goals. When the initiator of the interaction did not display any observable behavior that could be inferred as egocentric acting, within the five-minute period, the interaction was reported to be motivated by nonegocentric goals.

The data recorded was analyzed by using the statistical software PSPP (2016). The researcher focused on four main areas: frequency of motives between genders, frequency of sharing acts (sharing an object or experience) between genders, frequency of sharing acts within dyads, and frequency of motives between and within dyads. Results show (see Figure 1.) that male preschoolers engage in egocentric acting 55% of the time, while female preschoolers engaged in egocentric acting only 45% of the time. Results also show (see Figure 2.) that females tend to share experiences 65% of the time, while male preschoolers tend to share experiences only 45% of the time.

Results also report (see Figure 3.) that in male-initiated same sex peer interactions, male preschoolers tend to share objects more than experiences. In male-initiated different sex peer interactions, there are no differences in sharing act. Contrastingly, in female-initiated different sex peer interactions, female preschoolers tend to share experiences more than objects, as well as for female-initiated same sex interactions.

Results also show (see Figure 4.) there are no differences in motivation in male-initiated same sex peer interactions, as well as for female-initiated same sex peer interactions. However, in male-initiated different sex peer interactions, male preschoolers tend to engage in egocentric acting 60% of the time. Contrastingly, in female-initiated different sex peer interactions, female preschoolers tend to engage in nonegocentric acting 60% of the time. The author would like to emphasize that these results do not indicate any significant gender difference, just observed gender differences.

The goal of this study was to observe and report any gender differences in motives of prosocial-sharing behavior in preschooler’s same sex peer interactions and different sex peer interactions. In general boys engaged in more egocentric acting than girls, implying that they use prosocial behaviors for self-serving motives (Persson, 2005). The fact that girls engaged in more nonegocentric acting is consistent with past research (Persson, 2005) showing that girls engage in more prosocial altruistic behavior than boys. It is interesting to see that overall, girls share experiences more than objects, it can be said that this might be a tactic that girls use to maintain group harmony (Burford et. al, 1996), further research needs to be conducted on this theory. The finding that in female-initiated different sex peer interactions, female preschoolers share experiences more than objects, might be explained by the fact some objects, such as toys, are sex-typed which discourages either gender from sharing or receiving non-gender appropriate objects (Burford et. al., 1996).

Results showed that there is an observed gender difference in the motives of preschoolers’ sharing behavior. The first hypothesis that male preschoolers would engage in more egocentric acting than female preschoolers in different sex peer interactions was supported. The second hypothesis that female preschoolers would engage in more nonegocentric acting than male preschoolers in different sex peer interactions was also supported. Both findings provide beneficial information to parents and those who work with children, and they may use it to understand how children interact with other peers or siblings in everyday situations, as it has been reported that prosocial behavior at 4-5 years of age strongly predicts prosocial behavior in adulthood (Persson, 2005). This information also contributes to past research on children’s prosocial behavior and research on motivation (Burford et. al., 1996; Person, 2005). One limitation to this study was that relationship context was not considered; further research in this study may want to take into consideration the context of peer relationships

References    

Burford, H. C., Foley, L. A., Rollins, P. G., & Rosario, K. S. (1996). Gender Differences in Preschoolers’ Sharing Behavior. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11(5), 17-25.

Persson, G. E. (2005). Developmental perspectives on prosocial and aggressive motives in preschoolers’ peer interactions. International Journal of Behavioral Development,29(1), 80-91. doi:10.1080/01650250444000423

Frequency of Motives Between Genders

Clustered column chart showing the values of 3 series for 4 categories

Figure 1. Females engaged in nonegocentric 55% of the time while, males only 45%. Males engaged in egocentric acting 55% of the, while females only 45%

Frequency of Sharing Acts Between Genders

Clustered column chart showing the values of 3 series for 4 categories

Figure 2. Females shared experiences 65% of the time, while males only 45%. Males shared objects 55% of the time, while females only 35%

Frequency of Sharing Acts Within Dyads

Clustered column chart showing the values of 3 series for 4 categories

Figure 3. M/m, 60% of the time, shared objects, while only 40% for experiences. M/f, 50% of the time, shared objects and experiences. F/m, 70% of the time, shared experiences, while only 30% for objects. F/f, 60% of the time, shared experiences, while only 40% for objects.

Frequency of Motivation Between and Within Dyads

Clustered column chart showing the values of 3 series for 4 categories

Figure 4. M/m and F/f, no difference in motivation. M/f, 60% of the time egocentric motive, while only 40% of the time nonegocentric. F/m, 60% of the time nonegocentric motive, while only 40% of the time egocentric motive.

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