In this chapter, research methodology would define the activities of this particular research. The research models used in this study were based upon Daniel Goleman’s Five Characteristics of Emotional Intelligence (Goleman, 1995) and Bar-On’s Model (Bar-On, 1997). To be precise, every step of the research process on how this research project is carried out would be defined. The research framework is drawn to visualize the relationship between the dependent variable and independent variables. Hypothesis testing is designed and discussed in details to test the viability of the hypothesis. Furthermore, the sources of data will be discussed and the sampling procedures are included to illustrate the sampling selection, sampling design and the total size of the sample. Subsequently, a brief explanation on the data collection and data analysis techniques that will be used in this research to make sure that the hypothesis will be done. The purpose of the study is to examine emotional intelligence on the employees’ performances in commercial banks. The study is guided by the research questions stated in Chapter 1. As a brief introduction, the outcome of this project would be based on primary data.
3.2 Theoretical Framework
After conducting the survey, literature review, and defined the problem, the next step is to develop a theoretical framework. Theoretical framework represents the entire research process. A theoretical framework has great importance in conducting social research. The objective of this study is to investigate the determinants of the emotional intelligence of the employees on their performances in commercial banks. The dependent variable is the emotional intelligence of the employees while the independent variables are Self-awareness, Self-regulation, Self-motivation, Empathy, Social-Skill, Adaptability and Stress management. Figure 3.1 shows the theoretical framework of this research.
Self-awarenessIndependent Variables Dependent Variable
Employees’ Performances in Commercial Banks
A variable is simply a symbol or a concept that can assume any one of a set of values. The concept of variable is extremely important in measurement because it sets the limits on the range of values a measurement may take.
According to Sekaran (2003), “Theoretical framework is the foundation on which the entire research project is based. It is a logically develop, described, and elaborated network of association among the variables deemed relevant to the problem situation and identified through such process as interview, observation, and literature survey. Experience and intuition also guide in developing the theoretical framework.”
Based on the existing literature review, the following theoretical framework has been framed. The dependent variable is the employees’ performances in commercial banks while the independent variables are Self-awareness, Self-regulation, Self-motivation, Empathy, Social-skill, Adaptability and Stress Management.
3.3 Hypothesis Development
According to Helmenstine (2009), he stated that hypothesis is an educated guess, based on observation and can be supported or refuted through experimentation or more observation. Hypothesis is used in order to learn about what has not been found and known yet and scientific method should be implemented and an actual experiment will be carried out.
Besides that, hypotheses must be done step by step. In this chapter the researchers will discuss on the Statistical Hypothesis used for making relation between phenomena investigated. Statistical Hypothesis emphasized mathematical rigor and methods to obtain results from many sample and wider the range of distributions. Rigorous study and precise step of test will define how good the hypotheses become.
In addition, in the study there are two types of hypotheses that researchers would like to use, the null hypothesis (H0) and alternate hypothesis (Ha). A null hypothesis is a proposition that states the population between correlations is equal to zero. And the alternate hypothesis is the statement that expression of the correlation is not equal to zero (Sekaran, 2003). In other words, null hypothesis defined that there is no relationship between the variables and alternative hypothesis stated that there is relationship between the variables.
Furthermore, the employees’ performances and emotional intelligence have few variables to be tested. These variables will be tested by hypothesis test. It is to test weather there is a positive relationship or negative relationship. Hypothesis is a statement to explain the relationship between independent variables and dependent variable that involved in the study.
Other than that, it is a guideline for the researcher to do a study in a particular field. This is because all the statements being made are based on the findings from the previous researches. Based on the hypotheses test there the solutions for the problems can be found. The hypotheses that will be tested are as below:
H1: There is a significant relationship between Self-awareness and employees’ performances in commercial banks.
H2: There is a significant relationship between Self-regulation and employees’ performances in commercial banks.
H3: There is a significant relationship between Self-motivation and employees’ performances in commercial banks.
H4: There is a significant relationship between Empathy and employees’ performances in commercial banks.
H5: There is a significant relationship between Social-skill and employees’ performances in commercial banks.
H6: There is a significant relationship between Adaptability and employees’ performances in commercial banks.
H7: There is a significant relationship between Stress management and employees’ performances in commercial banks.
3.4 Questionnaire Developments and Measurement
The main instrument used to collect data throughout this research is questionnaire. The data developed to collect data the employees who are currently working in commercial banks in Malaysia will consist two sections. The survey is adapted on the basis of Bar-On’s and Daniel Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence. The instrument is designed to collect the perceptions of respondents regarding the emotional intelligence and employee’s performances in commercial banks.
In Section 1, it will ask respondents to answer multiple choices format questions, and provide basic demographic information, which includes gender, age, marital status, and years of working experience in commercial banks. It will help us to identify the respondent self-ability and background of the employees when answering the questionnaire. Also, two questions will be asked – whether the participants have good understanding about emotional intelligence and, if so, the degree to which they believe that emotional intelligence will influence them to perform well in their works.
In Section 2, it will ask questions regarding emotional intelligence affecting respondents to perform well in their works. It is all about the important variables of emotional intelligence, which might affect the employees to perform well in their works. The variables involved are Self-awareness, Self-regulation, Self-motivation, Empathy, Social-skill, Adaptability and Stress management. This part will comprise the preciseness of the relationship of independent variables with dependent variable. A five-point Likert scale is used, where (1) means strongly disagree and (5) means strongly agree to measure respondent perceptions.
There will be 7 items of Self-awareness to be used in my study to investigate the relationship between variables.
There will be 7 items of Self-regulation to be used in my study to investigate the relationship between variables.
There will be 7 items of Self-motivation to be used in my study to investigate the relationship between variables.
There will be 7 items of Empathy to be used in my study to investigate the relationship between variables.
There will be 7 items of Social-skill to be used in my study to investigate the relationship between variables.
There will be 7 items of Adaptability to be used in my study to investigate the relationship between variables.
There will be 7 items of Stress Management to be used in my study to investigate the relationship between variables.
Lastly, the questionnaire is mostly be developed and modified from previous researchers to make it more applicable in the context of what is currently researched. Most questions will be adopted from other researchers’ work in order to avoid any errors.
3.5 Data Collection Method
The data collection for this research is conducted using survey questionnaire. The data collected are from two different sources, which are self administered and Web-based enabled survey approach. The period of data collection is within 2 weeks. The primary data in this research is gathered mainly from self-administrated or self-reported questionnaire, which are formed in paper-and-pencil survey that passed to the respondents directly. This method is chosen in order to avoid misconduct.
Responses to the survey questions on the variables are entered on a five point Likert-type scale as follows: 1= Strongly Disagree, 2= Disagree, 3=Undecided, 4= Agree, 5= Strongly Agree. All the data collected from literature are to examine the determinants of emotional intelligence of the employees on their performances in commercial banks.
3.6 Analysis of Data
After data are obtained from paper-and-pencil questionnaires, the data will then be keyed into Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Data Entry Station, where SPSS 16.0 will analyze the data collected. Data analysis is important because it let researcher feel for the data, testing goodness of data and testing the hypotheses developed for the research. Besides that, testing goodness of data is referring to the testing for the reliability and validity of the measures (Sekaran, 2003).
In addition, the analysis will be used to measure the reliability of the study. Testing the reliability means testing the consistency and stability. How well the item for measuring the concept that hang together as a set is known as consistency. Cronbach’s alpha is a reliability coefficient that indicated how well the items in a set are positively correlated to one another (Sekaran, 2003). High internal consistency reliability will result in the Cronbach’s alpha closer to 1. However, it is still acceptable if the Cronbach’s alpha is above 0.5.
On the other hand, frequency distribution is a summary table in which the data obtained are true so that the data analysis and interpretation is more systematic. The frequency distribution is obtained for all the personal variables. There are age, gender, race, marital status, and years of working experience in banking sectors. The result from the frequency distribution can be obtained in term of frequency table, bar chart, histogram or pie chart. The result can be use to study the relationship of respondents profile.
Lastly, the Pearson correlation coefficient is appropriate for interval- and ratio-scaled variables. Correlation analysis is used to determine the relationship between variables. Thus, it can be said that correlation analysis helps in measuring the extent to which the variables are interconnected. If the results are normal subsequently it is using correlation coefficient but if the relationship is non-normal then it is using other non parametric. Correlation coefficient is used to test the all the hypothesis. Correlation between variable are indicated by +1.0 or -1.0, which means that there is a perfect positive correlation between the two variables or a perfect negative correlation.
This chapter is to conclude the guidelines and course of actions to be followed to accomplish the thesis. This chapter presents the overview of the research methods that will be carried out in the later chapter which is the Data Analysis. It sets forth a description of theoretical framework, hypotheses development, sampling design, data collection, as well as explanation of the procedures for analyzing data, which refers to data analysis.
Besides that, the independent and dependent variables are derived from the previous researches. The relationship of each variable is touched on in order to develop the hypothesis of this research. The development of questionnaires and measurements are mostly in Likert scale and Itemized rating scale. Sampling plan is based on 200 respondents of those employees working in commercial banks. Data collection techniques is based on self administered and web enable survey instrument. Data analysis techniques which include descriptive analysis and correlation analysis are also being discussed in this chapter of studies.
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