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This document seeks to review and discuss the results of the two peer-reviewed journal articles ‘The development of adolescent self-regulation’ and ‘The cause and consequences of social exclusion and peer rejection among children and adolescents’ on social exclusion. It will recognise the ideas, causes and effects of social exclusion. Different factors, including the reasons, results, and prevention methods, will be analysed, and validating the strengths and weaknesses associated with both journals.
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The Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion (CASE) was created with financing from the Economic and Social Research Council in October 1997. They examine different dimensions of social disadvantage and analyse the impact of public policy.
Although the notion of social exclusion is not new, its extensive use in social policy is. Despite the growing use of the word, there is no single definition of social exclusion and the word is used with a multitude of meanings in mind (Levitas et al., 2007). From this view, social exclusion is a method of long-term non-participation in the commercial, civic, and social standards that incorporate and regulate the community in which a person lives (Burchardt et al., 1999). Everyone in life wants to be accepted, regardless of their characters, behaviours, social background, economic abilities, each society wants to fit in. They want to interact, have friends, go to school, get married, attend weddings, be around people, and be under no pressure to prove or justify anything about being present.
Nonetheless, different factors may result in exclusion, either as individually imposed or society-imposed. Another term may be segregation where people are often excluded from community life while many do this out of their own will. Maybe due to deaths of loved ones, mental issues, or physical appearance. Most are excluded by society either for similar or other reasons. Regardless of the reason for excluding individuals, these actions have consequences.
In most cases, exclusion results are psychologically harmful and have a heavyweight on the affected members. The long-term impact of exclusion could be catastrophic, depending on how one encounters and manages the treatment. It is essential to realise the reasons why people are excluded. In schools, bullying is a form of exclusion which encompasses a brutal way of life. Children may be harassed because they are obese, small or tall, or brighter than other students, referred to as nerds. To avoid this treatment, they may choose to alienate themselves from the rest of the crowd. Alienation of people within social boundaries, maybe because their ancestors are associated with black magic, divorces, racism, deaths of loved ones, and poverty, all of which have a daunting effect on the lives of these individuals. Psychologically, social exclusion is very affecting as it could lead to suicide, depression, and withdrawal. Social exclusion is both imposed and of will, and it is essential to obtain different avenues which help reduce social exclusion and its consequences.
As indicated above, the exclusion is both voluntary and community-imposed. While in most cases, segregation is a result of community stereotyping, it could also be the will of the excluded to be that way, as the feeling of being unacceptable can be overwhelming. This is especially so for individuals with weak emotional control, who at times will do more than they should, to be accepted. Failure of recognition may lead to depression, and some individuals develop suicidal mentalities.
While growing up, everyone must pass through the adolescent stage, which is an essential part of growth, and ultimately determines the type of life one will lead as an adult. The concept discussed in this article relates to self-regulation. This involves taking time off from the hustle and bustle of society and keeping some time to oneself. This is observed among adolescents and teenagers. It is a voluntary way of self-exclusion, which encompasses different advantages and disadvantages depending on one’s view. Based on the article, parental and peer counselling ‘The Development of Adolescent Self-regulation’ is a determining factor on how self-regulation functions and plays an enormous part in this type of exclusion, where they provide guidance on various life-related issues (Farley et al., 2014). This study sought to identify what role friends and peers play in self-regulation as a form of social exclusion. In school, self-alienation could be termed in different ways by friends and peers. Others might feel that one is prideful, while this is never the case at all. Occasionally, all one wants is to have time to pursue one’s interests, possibly, privacy. However, teenagers and people in schools may take advantage of this ‘lone wolf’ mentality to harass and bully individuals. Friends and peers, on the other hand, may identify it as a way of “acting out.” Self-regulation, to some point, is essential as it enables one to self-plan and set targets for the future. It could also, however, be the cause of harassment and wrong judgement from friends. The article, however, does not disclose how one can balance self-regulation while at the same time, create avenues to interact with other individuals.
Growing up, most people have encountered rejection and exclusion from peers. In the article, ‘Cause and Consequence of Social Exclusion’ reports that these situations are not always meant to cause the emotional torment and psychological damage they do (Mulvey et al., 2017). Nonetheless, the psychological trauma of dismissal and exclusion has impacts on the impacted individuals mental and behavioural health. Being unaccepted could leave individuals wondering what they have done wrong. Other effects may be on academic and may also lead to low self-esteem. These forms of rejection are categorising into two categories, which include intergroup and interpersonal forms of rejection. For the intergroup, it takes place within a peer group who may be discriminatory due to ethnical backgrounds, nationality, and socioeconomic status. For the interpersonal, it takes place when other individuals segregate an individual due to character, attractiveness, and social deficits. People have, for a long time, described these forms of rejection as bullying. While to an extent it is harassment, part of it is not. Mulvey (2017), presents the example of excluding a boy from a basketball team because he does not know how to dribble. This though is segregation, is not bullying unlike when he is excluded because he is Hispanic of origin. Whether interpersonal or intergroup exclusion, the long-term emotional effects are severely damaging as they could lead to withdrawal, depression or suicide, which may require rehabilitation. They are also costly due to medical bills at rehab and burials. Both options deprive the society of potential individuals leading normal healthy lives.
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Self-regulation enables an individual to do self-planning, which can provide personal space to make decisions. It is an effective way of determining real and fake friends, but bullies may use this to harm unsuspecting students. Unfortunately, one may lose friends due to what people term as pride.
While constructive, the journals do not provide amicable ways of dealing with these forms of exclusion. Exclusion occurs when people segregate due to race, income level, and ethnic backgrounds. This is experienced in places of work, which may result in poor performance and withdrawal. Interpersonal exclusion takes place among adolescents, which may be due to physical appearance, social deficits, and character.
The articles provide enough insight into the forms of exclusion. Mulvey (2017) explains that not all forms of exclusion are bullying. Different reasons presented for why people face social exclusion resulting in mental and behavioural changes, which may be the result of social exclusion. The articles do not provide enough data on how to handle exclusion. It is essential to obtain strategies to manage exclusion.
To summarise, social exclusion is a typical event in life. There are mainly three forms of exclusion: self-regulation, intergroup, and interpersonal. Exclusion is both advantageous and disadvantageous as it enables one to self-plan and makes decisions, but it also leads to withdrawal, depression, and suicidal thoughts. It is essential to obtain solutions and regulate social exclusion, stop bullying, and enable people to live together in harmony.
- Farley, J. P., Jungmeen, K. S. (2014). The development of adolescent self-regulation: Reviewing the role of parent, peer, friend and romantic relationships. Journal of Adolescence, 37.4:433-440.
- Mulvey, K. L., Boswell, C., & Zheng, J. (2017). Cause and consequences of social exclusion and peer rejection among children and adolescents. Report on Emotional & Behavioural Disorders in Youth, 17(3), 71.
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