Effectiveness of the Lasallian Values Inventory (LVI)

2459 words (10 pages) Essay

3rd Apr 2018 Psychology Reference this

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Statement of the Problem

The study seeks to determine the effectiveness of the Lasallian Values Inventory or LVI in measuring Lasallian values. It aims to validate the instrument as a measure of Lasallian values. The specific research objectives examined in this study are as follows:

  1. To determine the reliability estimate of the Lasallian Values Inventory.
  2. To establish evidence of construct validity by exploring and extracting the underlying constructs as assessed by the Lasallian Values Inventory and to confirm the extracted factor structure.
  3. To examine if there are differences in Lasallian values among contrast groups such as loyal students versus transfer students, and student leaders versus non student leaders.
  4. To correlate behavioral domains of the Lasallian Values Inventory to the identified values indicators as a basis for content analysis.
  5. To profile the Lasallian values results of one batch from their 1st year up to 4th year level for reference purposes.

Hypothesis

Based on the research objectives and the related literature review gathered, the following hypotheses are tested:

  1. The scores in the LVI will show consistency in the assessment of Lasallian values.
  2. There will be a significant difference in the mean scores for the Lasallian value constructs among the loyal and transferee students, and the student leaders and non student leaders respondents.
  3. Factor analysis will yield a meaningful and similar factor structure as the theory of Lasallian Core Values.
  4. The behaviour dimensions of the Lasallian Values Inventory will have a correlation to the Lasallian values indicators
  5. The Lasallian values profile will show progress in the Lasallian core values of the 4th Year students since 1st year high school.

Significance of the Study

Being a true Lasallian can be gauged through the extent of how much Lasallian students practice the Lasallian values. Since the Lasallian values are the very core of being a Lasallian, it is only necessary that a valid instrument to measure the Lasallian values be utilized so as to check the effectiveness of the school in teaching the Lasallian values to the students. Through this study the psychometric properties of the Lasallian Values Inventory as used in DLSZ is established. It is important that a valid instrument on Lasallian values be available to generate valid results. Likewise, the dynamics of the development of Lasallian values of students in high school is ascertained which can give further information about which among the Lasallian values are integrated strongly and inadequately and who among the respondents have strongly imbibed the Lasallian values. Moreover, the information about the Lasallian values can be useful in the decisions and planning related to values integration program of the school.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

This paper aims to validate the constructs of the Lasallian Values Inventory. In line with the goal of obtaining an effective measure of Lasallian values, the constructs of the inventory which are the Lasallian values of Faith, Service and Communion are analysed for exploration and confirmatory purposes. One of the members of De La Salle Philippines basic schools known as De La Salle Santiago Zobel School is the source of data of this study and the Lasallian values results in the inventory utilized came from the year-end responses of the DLSZ high school students of school year 2013-2014.

Definition of Terms

Values a) the ultimate criteria that people use in order to choose and justify their actions as well as evaluate people including their own selves and the circumstances and events surrounding them (Schwartz, 1997); b) can be considered as the very springboard for action of every individual as well as an internal compass that guides the decision of a person (Oyserman, 2001); c) a standard of excellence and as a standard that individuals strive to achieve; are desirable characteristics which people utilize in order to make decisions as well as guide their every action. (Jocano, 1997); d) a desirable mode of behavior or an end-state which has a transcendental quality to it (Rokeach, 1973)

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Lasallian a) a true Lasallian is a Christian, confident, competent, committed to excellence, concerned for the marginalized, contributes to the society, cares for the earth, is a future leader, and is a proud Filipino (LSGH Pupil Handbook SY 2011-2012); b) Lasallians are unique and gifted individuals who strive to integrate Gospel perspectives and values in the conduct of their daily lives; are committed to excellence in order to be of greater service to God and country; take progressive responsibility for their own learning and development; express concern and compassion for the plight of the vulnerable and marginalized sectors of society and respond to their needs; work together creatively, constructively and enthusiastically to support the Lasallian mission. (DLSZ Faculty Manual SY 2007-2012)

Psychometric properties a) these are the technical criteria that assessment professionals use to evaluate the quality of tests. The two key aspects are reliability and validity of tests, reliability is the extent to which measurements are consistent or repeatable, and validity is a general term referring to a judgment regarding how well a test or other measurement tool measures what it purports to measure (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010).

Lasallian Values Inventory a) instrument utilized in De La Salle Santiago Zobel school that may help gauge the Lasallian students’ beliefs and behavior toward being an ideal Lasallian (IPA, 2011); b) it is referred to in this study as LVI, it is an inventory meant to be responded by the students to self-rate their Lasallian values and by the advisers to rate their students for a comparison of responses made and to have an outsider’s perspective on what is being measured.

Loyal Student Participants a) De La Salle Santiago Zobel high school students who are candidates of loyalty award for attending the school since Junior Prep

Student Leaders Participants a) The active De La Salle Santiago Zobel students who are leaders in one or more of the school’s clubs or organizations. Students that are rated by their advisers as acceptable to exemplary on items associated to values that a student leader should possess found on items as “respects others”, “volunteers to help others”, “shares God-given talents to serve others”, “obeys school rules and regulations” and “practices sportsmanship”.

Non-Leader Student Participants a) The passive De La Salle Santiago Zobel students who has scored in the Beginning level based on the adviser’s rating in the item, has no leadership roles in the classroom or in any clubs or organizations.

Method

Research Design

This study aims to describe the reliability, construct validity of the Lasallian Values Inventory in measuring the Lasallian values, and LVI profile of the 4th year students AY1415 thus, it will make use of the descriptive research strategy and the survey research design. The survey method is used to help define the relationship of the items to the construct, the item relationship to one another and items designation to a specific Lasallian values factor. Furthermore, this design and method will allow for understanding the the Lasallian values development of the respondents.

Participants

The respondents for this study are the high school students of the De La Salle Zobel School from Grade 7 until 4th year high school, ages 13-18 years old, mixed girls and boys, they were chosen due to their maturity in responding to the survey as opposed to the grade school level. A total of 2202 high school students LVI data were employed for this study. Majority of the DLSZ students come from the middle to upper social class. Stratified random probability sampling is applied in the selection of for the contrast group validation. The contrast-groups consist of loyal students versus transferees from Grades 7 to higher levels, and student leaders versus the non leaders across the high school levels. The names of the participants are requested from the concerned units in the school particularly the Registrar’s Office, Campus Ministry Office and the Student Clubs/Organization Office. Another way of determining the student leaders and the non leaders is through the rating of the advisers on some items in the LVI that is believed to be correlated to student leadership. These are items number 5, 6, 10, 12 and 13 or “respects others”, “volunteers to help others”, “shares God-given talents to serve others”, “obey school rules and regulations” and “practices sportsmanship”. Participants for leaders and non leaders are 544 and 1658 respectively, while for transferees and loyal students are 83 and 765. On the other hand, the responses of the whole high school population with a total of 2202 participants are utilized for other purposes such as in factor analysis and the reliability analysis.

Instrument

The instrument utilized for this study is called the Lasallian Values Inventory (LVI) high school form. It is a values inventory especially developed for the use of the teachers and the students of the DLSZ to gauge their Lasallian values. An older version has been developed in 1991 by Br. Peralta entitled as “The Development of an Inventory to Determine the Practice of the Lasallian Values by High School Graduates of La Salle Schools” which was reported to be valid and reliable. The old version has a reliability coefficient of .547000 after item analysis was performed. Only items with a minimum factor loading of .30000 were included in item analysis for the exploratory stage of validation. Content validity was further established by a group of brothers and three invited experts. Items that were all classified by the three experts were included for statistical treatment and resulted to items grouped into seven content domains after the application of the third factor analysis. The final instrument consists of 46 items.

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A newer version was initially used in the school year 2011-2012, while a revised version was made for the school year 20132-2013 in the collaborative efforts of the Lasallian Formation and Mission Department and the Christian Living Department. The LVI has 30 items and adopted the Likert’s scaling technique of rating the items as Beginning, Developing, Acceptable and Exemplary. The 2011-2012 results were analyzed to acquire reliability estimate and to compare the difference in responses between two terms.

The Cronbach Alpha generated acceptable findings with 0.921 for adviser’s form and 0.944 for the student’s form. Four items were revised due to its low reliability coefficient. Content validity was made based on the experts’ review of items to be included in the content domain. Experts are represented by teachers, academic service faculty members and administrative personnel. The committee has relied heavily on the first Lasallian values instrument by Peralta (1991) and the Lasalle Greenhills values inventory. The updated and modified Lasallian Values Inventory for the school year 2013-2014 was made shorter by the same committee which includes only fifteen items.

Procedure

The LVI is administered to the high school students for the second term or mid-year of the current school year and third term a few minutes during one of their classes. The third term high school results is used for this study due to conclusiveness of the responses gathered. It is a requirement of the school to measure the Lasallian values of the students. Approximately 10-15 minutes are taken to accomplish the LVI and the subject teachers administer the LVI online. The results are extracted online and eventually analyzed by the assessment and research office of the school. For this study, the responses of the participants are selected for data analysis. Results across levels are used for factor analysis, reliability and profiling, while results of selected participants are utilized for determining the difference in values of contrast-groups.

Data Analysis

In the investigation of the construct validity of the LVI, factor analysis and correlations of the items of LVI to behavioral indicators are determined. Confirmatory and exploratory methods are employed to analyze the responses of the students in order to validate the factor structure and items of the LVI. The researcher used the confirmatory method to test the existing 3-factor model of the LVI. The exploratory analysis is applied to extract the factor components of the data gathered from the sample, then confirmatory analysis is also performed to the extracted factors. The correlation among items to behavioural dimensions are content analyzed through an FGD participated by selected Lasallian partners representative from different departments and offices. In the checking of reliability of the LVI, the method of internal consistency is used to determine the inter-correlations of the items, whether the items measured the same construct. Moreover, in the aspect of ascertaining the possible difference between values measured from the contrast-groups the statistical treatment t-test is carried out. Finally, the Lasallian values profile of the batch 2015 senior high school students since the school year 2011-2012, are composed of the computed mean scores.

Methodological Limitations

The methods used in this study are bound to affect certain weaknesses on the results. It is expected that the validity of the results measured by the LVI is only applicable to DLSZ school students since it is the population of the study. The results between that of the loyal and transferee students may or may not have significant difference if the latter also came from a Catholic school that develops and teaches similar values to Lasallian core values to their students. The LVI instrument itself although reliable, may not be a strong instrument to measure the Lasallian values of the students since it continuously goes to changes over the years and has not been construct validated yet.

Statement of the Problem

The study seeks to determine the effectiveness of the Lasallian Values Inventory or LVI in measuring Lasallian values. It aims to validate the instrument as a measure of Lasallian values. The specific research objectives examined in this study are as follows:

  1. To determine the reliability estimate of the Lasallian Values Inventory.
  2. To establish evidence of construct validity by exploring and extracting the underlying constructs as assessed by the Lasallian Values Inventory and to confirm the extracted factor structure.
  3. To examine if there are differences in Lasallian values among contrast groups such as loyal students versus transfer students, and student leaders versus non student leaders.
  4. To correlate behavioral domains of the Lasallian Values Inventory to the identified values indicators as a basis for content analysis.
  5. To profile the Lasallian values results of one batch from their 1st year up to 4th year level for reference purposes.

Hypothesis

Based on the research objectives and the related literature review gathered, the following hypotheses are tested:

  1. The scores in the LVI will show consistency in the assessment of Lasallian values.
  2. There will be a significant difference in the mean scores for the Lasallian value constructs among the loyal and transferee students, and the student leaders and non student leaders respondents.
  3. Factor analysis will yield a meaningful and similar factor structure as the theory of Lasallian Core Values.
  4. The behaviour dimensions of the Lasallian Values Inventory will have a correlation to the Lasallian values indicators
  5. The Lasallian values profile will show progress in the Lasallian core values of the 4th Year students since 1st year high school.

Significance of the Study

Being a true Lasallian can be gauged through the extent of how much Lasallian students practice the Lasallian values. Since the Lasallian values are the very core of being a Lasallian, it is only necessary that a valid instrument to measure the Lasallian values be utilized so as to check the effectiveness of the school in teaching the Lasallian values to the students. Through this study the psychometric properties of the Lasallian Values Inventory as used in DLSZ is established. It is important that a valid instrument on Lasallian values be available to generate valid results. Likewise, the dynamics of the development of Lasallian values of students in high school is ascertained which can give further information about which among the Lasallian values are integrated strongly and inadequately and who among the respondents have strongly imbibed the Lasallian values. Moreover, the information about the Lasallian values can be useful in the decisions and planning related to values integration program of the school.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

This paper aims to validate the constructs of the Lasallian Values Inventory. In line with the goal of obtaining an effective measure of Lasallian values, the constructs of the inventory which are the Lasallian values of Faith, Service and Communion are analysed for exploration and confirmatory purposes. One of the members of De La Salle Philippines basic schools known as De La Salle Santiago Zobel School is the source of data of this study and the Lasallian values results in the inventory utilized came from the year-end responses of the DLSZ high school students of school year 2013-2014.

Definition of Terms

Values a) the ultimate criteria that people use in order to choose and justify their actions as well as evaluate people including their own selves and the circumstances and events surrounding them (Schwartz, 1997); b) can be considered as the very springboard for action of every individual as well as an internal compass that guides the decision of a person (Oyserman, 2001); c) a standard of excellence and as a standard that individuals strive to achieve; are desirable characteristics which people utilize in order to make decisions as well as guide their every action. (Jocano, 1997); d) a desirable mode of behavior or an end-state which has a transcendental quality to it (Rokeach, 1973)

Lasallian a) a true Lasallian is a Christian, confident, competent, committed to excellence, concerned for the marginalized, contributes to the society, cares for the earth, is a future leader, and is a proud Filipino (LSGH Pupil Handbook SY 2011-2012); b) Lasallians are unique and gifted individuals who strive to integrate Gospel perspectives and values in the conduct of their daily lives; are committed to excellence in order to be of greater service to God and country; take progressive responsibility for their own learning and development; express concern and compassion for the plight of the vulnerable and marginalized sectors of society and respond to their needs; work together creatively, constructively and enthusiastically to support the Lasallian mission. (DLSZ Faculty Manual SY 2007-2012)

Psychometric properties a) these are the technical criteria that assessment professionals use to evaluate the quality of tests. The two key aspects are reliability and validity of tests, reliability is the extent to which measurements are consistent or repeatable, and validity is a general term referring to a judgment regarding how well a test or other measurement tool measures what it purports to measure (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010).

Lasallian Values Inventory a) instrument utilized in De La Salle Santiago Zobel school that may help gauge the Lasallian students’ beliefs and behavior toward being an ideal Lasallian (IPA, 2011); b) it is referred to in this study as LVI, it is an inventory meant to be responded by the students to self-rate their Lasallian values and by the advisers to rate their students for a comparison of responses made and to have an outsider’s perspective on what is being measured.

Loyal Student Participants a) De La Salle Santiago Zobel high school students who are candidates of loyalty award for attending the school since Junior Prep

Student Leaders Participants a) The active De La Salle Santiago Zobel students who are leaders in one or more of the school’s clubs or organizations. Students that are rated by their advisers as acceptable to exemplary on items associated to values that a student leader should possess found on items as “respects others”, “volunteers to help others”, “shares God-given talents to serve others”, “obeys school rules and regulations” and “practices sportsmanship”.

Non-Leader Student Participants a) The passive De La Salle Santiago Zobel students who has scored in the Beginning level based on the adviser’s rating in the item, has no leadership roles in the classroom or in any clubs or organizations.

Method

Research Design

This study aims to describe the reliability, construct validity of the Lasallian Values Inventory in measuring the Lasallian values, and LVI profile of the 4th year students AY1415 thus, it will make use of the descriptive research strategy and the survey research design. The survey method is used to help define the relationship of the items to the construct, the item relationship to one another and items designation to a specific Lasallian values factor. Furthermore, this design and method will allow for understanding the the Lasallian values development of the respondents.

Participants

The respondents for this study are the high school students of the De La Salle Zobel School from Grade 7 until 4th year high school, ages 13-18 years old, mixed girls and boys, they were chosen due to their maturity in responding to the survey as opposed to the grade school level. A total of 2202 high school students LVI data were employed for this study. Majority of the DLSZ students come from the middle to upper social class. Stratified random probability sampling is applied in the selection of for the contrast group validation. The contrast-groups consist of loyal students versus transferees from Grades 7 to higher levels, and student leaders versus the non leaders across the high school levels. The names of the participants are requested from the concerned units in the school particularly the Registrar’s Office, Campus Ministry Office and the Student Clubs/Organization Office. Another way of determining the student leaders and the non leaders is through the rating of the advisers on some items in the LVI that is believed to be correlated to student leadership. These are items number 5, 6, 10, 12 and 13 or “respects others”, “volunteers to help others”, “shares God-given talents to serve others”, “obey school rules and regulations” and “practices sportsmanship”. Participants for leaders and non leaders are 544 and 1658 respectively, while for transferees and loyal students are 83 and 765. On the other hand, the responses of the whole high school population with a total of 2202 participants are utilized for other purposes such as in factor analysis and the reliability analysis.

Instrument

The instrument utilized for this study is called the Lasallian Values Inventory (LVI) high school form. It is a values inventory especially developed for the use of the teachers and the students of the DLSZ to gauge their Lasallian values. An older version has been developed in 1991 by Br. Peralta entitled as “The Development of an Inventory to Determine the Practice of the Lasallian Values by High School Graduates of La Salle Schools” which was reported to be valid and reliable. The old version has a reliability coefficient of .547000 after item analysis was performed. Only items with a minimum factor loading of .30000 were included in item analysis for the exploratory stage of validation. Content validity was further established by a group of brothers and three invited experts. Items that were all classified by the three experts were included for statistical treatment and resulted to items grouped into seven content domains after the application of the third factor analysis. The final instrument consists of 46 items.

A newer version was initially used in the school year 2011-2012, while a revised version was made for the school year 20132-2013 in the collaborative efforts of the Lasallian Formation and Mission Department and the Christian Living Department. The LVI has 30 items and adopted the Likert’s scaling technique of rating the items as Beginning, Developing, Acceptable and Exemplary. The 2011-2012 results were analyzed to acquire reliability estimate and to compare the difference in responses between two terms.

The Cronbach Alpha generated acceptable findings with 0.921 for adviser’s form and 0.944 for the student’s form. Four items were revised due to its low reliability coefficient. Content validity was made based on the experts’ review of items to be included in the content domain. Experts are represented by teachers, academic service faculty members and administrative personnel. The committee has relied heavily on the first Lasallian values instrument by Peralta (1991) and the Lasalle Greenhills values inventory. The updated and modified Lasallian Values Inventory for the school year 2013-2014 was made shorter by the same committee which includes only fifteen items.

Procedure

The LVI is administered to the high school students for the second term or mid-year of the current school year and third term a few minutes during one of their classes. The third term high school results is used for this study due to conclusiveness of the responses gathered. It is a requirement of the school to measure the Lasallian values of the students. Approximately 10-15 minutes are taken to accomplish the LVI and the subject teachers administer the LVI online. The results are extracted online and eventually analyzed by the assessment and research office of the school. For this study, the responses of the participants are selected for data analysis. Results across levels are used for factor analysis, reliability and profiling, while results of selected participants are utilized for determining the difference in values of contrast-groups.

Data Analysis

In the investigation of the construct validity of the LVI, factor analysis and correlations of the items of LVI to behavioral indicators are determined. Confirmatory and exploratory methods are employed to analyze the responses of the students in order to validate the factor structure and items of the LVI. The researcher used the confirmatory method to test the existing 3-factor model of the LVI. The exploratory analysis is applied to extract the factor components of the data gathered from the sample, then confirmatory analysis is also performed to the extracted factors. The correlation among items to behavioural dimensions are content analyzed through an FGD participated by selected Lasallian partners representative from different departments and offices. In the checking of reliability of the LVI, the method of internal consistency is used to determine the inter-correlations of the items, whether the items measured the same construct. Moreover, in the aspect of ascertaining the possible difference between values measured from the contrast-groups the statistical treatment t-test is carried out. Finally, the Lasallian values profile of the batch 2015 senior high school students since the school year 2011-2012, are composed of the computed mean scores.

Methodological Limitations

The methods used in this study are bound to affect certain weaknesses on the results. It is expected that the validity of the results measured by the LVI is only applicable to DLSZ school students since it is the population of the study. The results between that of the loyal and transferee students may or may not have significant difference if the latter also came from a Catholic school that develops and teaches similar values to Lasallian core values to their students. The LVI instrument itself although reliable, may not be a strong instrument to measure the Lasallian values of the students since it continuously goes to changes over the years and has not been construct validated yet.

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