Effect of Peers and Gender on Risk Taking Decisions

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4th Apr 2018 Psychology Reference this

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The Effect of Peers and Gender on Risk Taking Decisions on Breaking the Rules of College Students

  • Frances Mae H. Balandan
  • Jaymie Aileen T. Huang
  • Patricia Audrey D. Lansang
  • Louie Belle M. Regente
  • Dorothy Joy S. Sy

Abstract

Keywords: peers, genders, rules, risk-taking

The researchers would like to know if clustering and gender affects the decision making of college students that involves risk. Clustering refers to the participants in whether they are classified in a group of friends or acting alone in a situation on making a risky behavior. The typical finding is that, on the average, subjects (group) shift toward greater risk; that is, the group will most likely decide on the risky option than an individual deciding on his or her own. This is the prototype of the group-induced shift toward risk, or simply the risky shift (Clark, 1973). There are theories, such as the social comparison theory, that emphasizes that people with in a group decides differently than people in isolation (Levinger and Schneider, 1969).

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In terms of gender differences, male participants are more probable to engage in risky behaviors than female participants. In social decision making, males perceive less risk and are more likely to engage in greater risk. Boys’ risk judgments were significantly predicted by their ratings of injury severity (Harris, C. R. & Jenkins, H., 2006). Female participants are less probable to engage in risk behaviors in the domains of health, gambling and recreational activities. Females judge the activities as less enjoyable than males (Harris, C. R. & Jenkins, H., 2006).

In terms of group differences, examples would be that couples on average are risk-averse in their choices, and that risk preferences are less diverse across groups than across individuals. Groups are more risk-averse in lotteries with low probabilities of winning the largest payoffs, but less risk-averse when these probabilities are high (He, H., Martinson. P., & Sutter, M., 2011).

The gender is a determinant on risky behaviors. Generally, males take more risks. But in some cases, females tend to make riskier decisions. A study showed that males tend to make riskier decision in terms of finances while females take more social risks (Menon, 2011).

Risk attitudes expressed by groups and individuals differ. In most choice problems involving a safe and a risky option groups tend to take more risk (“risky shifts”) (Stoner, 1960).

Further studies have shown that men prefer their decisions to be implemented as decisions in the group, while women are less likely to so. Risk attitudes in the individual decision-making task have no significant effect on the females’ decision, but have a positive effect for males (Gurdal, M.Y., 2010).

Other studies have also shown that adolescents are likely to do risky decision making as compared to adults, because they are prone to the influence of the peers and they tend to conform. They do not want to feel left out because they want to be part of the group, and adolescents are more easily convinced towards risky choices. This not applicable for adults, because they are more mature and self-reliant meaning they can do it independently without relying on the other’s help. (Gardner and Steinberg, 2005)

The researchers would like to know the following: Does gender affect the risky decision making of an individual? Does clustering affect the risky decision making of an individual?

In this research, the researchers generated four hypotheses:

  1. If a group of students are exposed to a risk-taking situation on breaking the rules, then the group consensus will be riskier than the average of the initial individual decisions.
  2. If an individual student is exposed to a risk-taking situation on breaking the rules, then s/he will take on a lower risk than the average of the group of students.
  3. If a male student is exposed to a risk-taking situation on breaking the rules, then he will take on a higher risk than female students whether be in group, pair or individual decision.
  4. If a female student is exposed to a risk-taking situation on breaking the rules, then he will take on a lower risk than male students whether be in group, pair or individual decision.

The purpose of the study is to know if the inclusion of a person in a group would influence his/her making risky decisions and to know if the gender of a person matters in making risky decisions. This research will be a breakthrough for parents and counselors in dealing with their son/daughters and clients in terms of risk-taking decision making on breaking the rules. This research is specified to know how and when college students are more inclined to do riskier behaviors. This can help prevent the circumstances and unfortunate effects to take place.

This research will also be helpful in terms of being a new discovery as it will be set in the Philippines. Most researches are conducted to study western participants and graduate students. In the group’s study, we will concentrate on college students. The possible difference may lay in the different religion and culture that we have from the western countries. The different concepts the Filipinos have as a community, the different beliefs and the different perceptions may influence the results of this experimental research.

Methods

Participants

The sample consisted of 200 undergraduate Lasallian students, men and women of ages 18 and above. The participants will be chosen via random sampling by asking some students for a few minutes of their time to participate in this experiment. Those willing to participate will be asked to fill up the consent form and log-in sheet before starting the experiment.

Research Design

Between-subjects mixed design will be used. The independent variables are college students. The levels are individual, and group. The dependent variable is decision upon result of risk taking.

Procedure

Participants were gathered via random sampling and participated in the experiment It will conducted in a laboratory and done in individually A participant will be asked to read risky situations, and be asked what are the chances that they will do the risky behavior (breaking the rule). The participant will be randomly placed in a risky situation where s/he will is alone or with his/her peers. In this experiment, we will measure the difference of the participants’ decision on whether they will break the rule if they are hypothetically with their group or acting alone.

References

Clark, R. D., III, Crockett, W. H., & Archer, R. L. Risk-as-value hypothesis: The relationship between perception of self, others and the risky shift. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology ,1971,20, 425-429.

Gardner, M. & Steinberg, L. (2005) Peer Influence on Risk Taking, Risk Preference, and Risky Decision Making in Adolescence and Adulthood: An Experimental Study. Developmental Psychology. Retrieved from http://uwf.edu/smathews/documents/peerroleinrisktakinggardnerandsteinberg.pdf

Gurdal, M.Y.(2010) Deciding to Decide: Gender, Leadership and Risk-Taking in Groups. Retrieved from http://eaf.ku.edu.tr/sites/eaf.ku.edu.tr/files/erf_wp_1028.pdf

Harris, C. R. & Jenkins, H. (2006). Gender Differences in Risk Assessment: Why do Women Take Fewer Risks than Men? Judgment and Decision Making, 2006, 1(1), 48–63, Retrieved from http://journal.sjdm.org/jdm06016.pdf

He, H., Martinson, P., & Sutter, M. (2011).Group Decision Making Under Risk: An Experiment with Student Couples Retrieved from https://gupea.ub.gu.se/bitstream/2077/28122/1/gupea_2077_28122_1.pdf

He, H., Martinson. P., & Sutter, M. (2011). The Influence of Religious Priming on Self-Control and Risk Taking http://archives.ubalt.edu/ub_archives/inspired_discoveries/pdf/ADAMDspFINAL.pdf

Jiang F. X., Jiang, Z. Kim. K. A., & Zhang, M. (2013). Family-firm risk-taking: does religion matter? http://www.lingnan.net/seminar/upload/file/20130922/20130922103555225522.pdf

Levinger, G. and Scheinder, D. J. (1969): “Test of the ”risk is value” hypothesis,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 11, 165-169

Menon, D. (2011, July 25). PRESS RELEASE. Association for Psychological Science RSS. Retrieved January 19, 2014, from http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/news/releases/who-takes-risks.html

Stoner (1961): “A comparison of individual and group decisions under risk,” unpublished thesis, MIT School of Management.

 

Instruments

Individual:

Instructions: Read each situation carefully. Rate yourself to how much you are willing to do the stated situation, with 1 being the lowest and 10 being the highest.

1. You noticed that your teacher in your math class rarely checks the attendance. Everyone also noticed that some of your classmates are usually absent and cutting their class because the professor’s style of teaching is mundane. You sometimes ditch class with your classmates, but you noticed that you already exceeded the maximum number of absences allowed. You cannot cut the class more than 5 times. You are still tempted to cut the class, because you know that the professor rarely checks attendance. The risk is that the professor might have a roll call, thus leading you to a failing grade at the end of the term.

The chances are __ in 10 that I will cut that class.

012345678910

2. You are required to write a group research paper for an English class. The topic must be new and something relevant to your course. You must contribute to writing the research paper. The paper is almost finished except for one significant part of the paper. The deadline is fast approaching you only have until 10pm of that night to finish the paper. You are tempted to plagiarize a portion of someone else’s work by claiming the paragraph of the person’s paper as your own without citation. The risk here is with rise of sophisticated anti-plagiarism software free for use on the Internet, there will be a chance of being caught with the act of plagiarism that will merit a failing grade.

The chances are __ in 10 that I will plagiarize, copy a portion of that person’s work and not cite this person’s work.

012345678910

3. You are a part of a cheating chain (a group of students who pass the answers of one to another during a quiz). There are ten of you in the cheating chain a class. The teacher normally sleeps during examination, but he records the class on his phone. After two quizzes of not getting caught cheating, despite the presence of the phone, on the third exam, one of your cheating buddies was caught through the recording camera of the phone. He was the only one who was caught, and only received a warning and a zero on the exam instead of failing the entire course with a disciplinary demerit. The fourth exam is in a few minutes, and the only way to pass is through cheating. You are in desperate need of a high grade. With the fact that out of three exams, one out of the ten of you was only caught cheating, and that the teacher may be stricter due to catching one. What are the chances of you still partaking in the group’s cheating activities or abstain from it?

The chances are __ in 10 that I will partake in the cheating chain.

0 1 2345678910

Group:

Instructions: Read each situation carefully. Rate yourself to how much you are willing to do the stated situation, with 1 being the lowest and 10 being the highest.

1. You and your four friends noticed that your teacher in your math class rarely checks the attendance. Everyone also noticed that some of your classmates are usually absent and cutting their class because the professor’s style of teaching is mundane. You sometimes ditch class with your classmates, but you noticed that you already exceeded the maximum number of absences allowed. You cannot cut the class more than 5 times. You and your four friends are still tempted to cut the class, because you know that the professor rarely checks attendance. The risk is that the professor might have a roll call, thus leading you to a failing grade at the end of the term.

The chances are __ in 10 that I will cut that class.

012345678910

2. You and your seven friends are required to write a group research paper for an English class. The topic must be new and something relevant to your course. Each member of the group must contribute to writing the research paper. The paper is almost finished except for one significant part of the paper. The deadline is fast approaching you only have until 10pm of that night to finish the paper. Your group is tempted to plagiarize a portion of someone else’s work by claiming the paragraph of the person’s paper as your own without citation. The risk here is with rise of sophisticated anti-plagiarism software free for use on the Internet, there will be a chance of being caught with the act of plagiarism that will merit a failing grade.

The chances are __ in 10 that I will plagiarize, copy a portion of that person’s work and not cite this person’s work.

012345678910

3. You are a part of a cheating chain (a group of students who pass the answers of one to another during a quiz). There are ten of you in the cheating chain a class. The teacher normally sleeps during examination, but he records the class on his phone. After two quizzes of not getting caught cheating, despite the presence of the phone, on the third exam, one of your cheating buddies was caught through the recording camera of the phone. He was the only one who was caught, and only received a warning and a zero on the exam instead of failing the entire course with a disciplinary demerit. The fourth exam is in a few minutes, and the only way to pass is through cheating. You are in desperate need of a high grade. With the fact that out of three exams, one out of the ten of you was only caught cheating, and that the teacher may be stricter due to catching one. Will the cheating chain be active during the fourth exam?

The chances are __ in 10 that I will partake in the cheating chain.

0 1 2345678910

The Effect of Peers and Gender on Risk Taking Decisions on Breaking the Rules of College Students

  • Frances Mae H. Balandan
  • Jaymie Aileen T. Huang
  • Patricia Audrey D. Lansang
  • Louie Belle M. Regente
  • Dorothy Joy S. Sy

Abstract

Keywords: peers, genders, rules, risk-taking

The researchers would like to know if clustering and gender affects the decision making of college students that involves risk. Clustering refers to the participants in whether they are classified in a group of friends or acting alone in a situation on making a risky behavior. The typical finding is that, on the average, subjects (group) shift toward greater risk; that is, the group will most likely decide on the risky option than an individual deciding on his or her own. This is the prototype of the group-induced shift toward risk, or simply the risky shift (Clark, 1973). There are theories, such as the social comparison theory, that emphasizes that people with in a group decides differently than people in isolation (Levinger and Schneider, 1969).

In terms of gender differences, male participants are more probable to engage in risky behaviors than female participants. In social decision making, males perceive less risk and are more likely to engage in greater risk. Boys’ risk judgments were significantly predicted by their ratings of injury severity (Harris, C. R. & Jenkins, H., 2006). Female participants are less probable to engage in risk behaviors in the domains of health, gambling and recreational activities. Females judge the activities as less enjoyable than males (Harris, C. R. & Jenkins, H., 2006).

In terms of group differences, examples would be that couples on average are risk-averse in their choices, and that risk preferences are less diverse across groups than across individuals. Groups are more risk-averse in lotteries with low probabilities of winning the largest payoffs, but less risk-averse when these probabilities are high (He, H., Martinson. P., & Sutter, M., 2011).

The gender is a determinant on risky behaviors. Generally, males take more risks. But in some cases, females tend to make riskier decisions. A study showed that males tend to make riskier decision in terms of finances while females take more social risks (Menon, 2011).

Risk attitudes expressed by groups and individuals differ. In most choice problems involving a safe and a risky option groups tend to take more risk (“risky shifts”) (Stoner, 1960).

Further studies have shown that men prefer their decisions to be implemented as decisions in the group, while women are less likely to so. Risk attitudes in the individual decision-making task have no significant effect on the females’ decision, but have a positive effect for males (Gurdal, M.Y., 2010).

Other studies have also shown that adolescents are likely to do risky decision making as compared to adults, because they are prone to the influence of the peers and they tend to conform. They do not want to feel left out because they want to be part of the group, and adolescents are more easily convinced towards risky choices. This not applicable for adults, because they are more mature and self-reliant meaning they can do it independently without relying on the other’s help. (Gardner and Steinberg, 2005)

The researchers would like to know the following: Does gender affect the risky decision making of an individual? Does clustering affect the risky decision making of an individual?

In this research, the researchers generated four hypotheses:

  1. If a group of students are exposed to a risk-taking situation on breaking the rules, then the group consensus will be riskier than the average of the initial individual decisions.
  2. If an individual student is exposed to a risk-taking situation on breaking the rules, then s/he will take on a lower risk than the average of the group of students.
  3. If a male student is exposed to a risk-taking situation on breaking the rules, then he will take on a higher risk than female students whether be in group, pair or individual decision.
  4. If a female student is exposed to a risk-taking situation on breaking the rules, then he will take on a lower risk than male students whether be in group, pair or individual decision.

The purpose of the study is to know if the inclusion of a person in a group would influence his/her making risky decisions and to know if the gender of a person matters in making risky decisions. This research will be a breakthrough for parents and counselors in dealing with their son/daughters and clients in terms of risk-taking decision making on breaking the rules. This research is specified to know how and when college students are more inclined to do riskier behaviors. This can help prevent the circumstances and unfortunate effects to take place.

This research will also be helpful in terms of being a new discovery as it will be set in the Philippines. Most researches are conducted to study western participants and graduate students. In the group’s study, we will concentrate on college students. The possible difference may lay in the different religion and culture that we have from the western countries. The different concepts the Filipinos have as a community, the different beliefs and the different perceptions may influence the results of this experimental research.

Methods

Participants

The sample consisted of 200 undergraduate Lasallian students, men and women of ages 18 and above. The participants will be chosen via random sampling by asking some students for a few minutes of their time to participate in this experiment. Those willing to participate will be asked to fill up the consent form and log-in sheet before starting the experiment.

Research Design

Between-subjects mixed design will be used. The independent variables are college students. The levels are individual, and group. The dependent variable is decision upon result of risk taking.

Procedure

Participants were gathered via random sampling and participated in the experiment It will conducted in a laboratory and done in individually A participant will be asked to read risky situations, and be asked what are the chances that they will do the risky behavior (breaking the rule). The participant will be randomly placed in a risky situation where s/he will is alone or with his/her peers. In this experiment, we will measure the difference of the participants’ decision on whether they will break the rule if they are hypothetically with their group or acting alone.

References

Clark, R. D., III, Crockett, W. H., & Archer, R. L. Risk-as-value hypothesis: The relationship between perception of self, others and the risky shift. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology ,1971,20, 425-429.

Gardner, M. & Steinberg, L. (2005) Peer Influence on Risk Taking, Risk Preference, and Risky Decision Making in Adolescence and Adulthood: An Experimental Study. Developmental Psychology. Retrieved from http://uwf.edu/smathews/documents/peerroleinrisktakinggardnerandsteinberg.pdf

Gurdal, M.Y.(2010) Deciding to Decide: Gender, Leadership and Risk-Taking in Groups. Retrieved from http://eaf.ku.edu.tr/sites/eaf.ku.edu.tr/files/erf_wp_1028.pdf

Harris, C. R. & Jenkins, H. (2006). Gender Differences in Risk Assessment: Why do Women Take Fewer Risks than Men? Judgment and Decision Making, 2006, 1(1), 48–63, Retrieved from http://journal.sjdm.org/jdm06016.pdf

He, H., Martinson, P., & Sutter, M. (2011).Group Decision Making Under Risk: An Experiment with Student Couples Retrieved from https://gupea.ub.gu.se/bitstream/2077/28122/1/gupea_2077_28122_1.pdf

He, H., Martinson. P., & Sutter, M. (2011). The Influence of Religious Priming on Self-Control and Risk Taking http://archives.ubalt.edu/ub_archives/inspired_discoveries/pdf/ADAMDspFINAL.pdf

Jiang F. X., Jiang, Z. Kim. K. A., & Zhang, M. (2013). Family-firm risk-taking: does religion matter? http://www.lingnan.net/seminar/upload/file/20130922/20130922103555225522.pdf

Levinger, G. and Scheinder, D. J. (1969): “Test of the ”risk is value” hypothesis,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 11, 165-169

Menon, D. (2011, July 25). PRESS RELEASE. Association for Psychological Science RSS. Retrieved January 19, 2014, from http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/news/releases/who-takes-risks.html

Stoner (1961): “A comparison of individual and group decisions under risk,” unpublished thesis, MIT School of Management.

 

Instruments

Individual:

Instructions: Read each situation carefully. Rate yourself to how much you are willing to do the stated situation, with 1 being the lowest and 10 being the highest.

1. You noticed that your teacher in your math class rarely checks the attendance. Everyone also noticed that some of your classmates are usually absent and cutting their class because the professor’s style of teaching is mundane. You sometimes ditch class with your classmates, but you noticed that you already exceeded the maximum number of absences allowed. You cannot cut the class more than 5 times. You are still tempted to cut the class, because you know that the professor rarely checks attendance. The risk is that the professor might have a roll call, thus leading you to a failing grade at the end of the term.

The chances are __ in 10 that I will cut that class.

012345678910

2. You are required to write a group research paper for an English class. The topic must be new and something relevant to your course. You must contribute to writing the research paper. The paper is almost finished except for one significant part of the paper. The deadline is fast approaching you only have until 10pm of that night to finish the paper. You are tempted to plagiarize a portion of someone else’s work by claiming the paragraph of the person’s paper as your own without citation. The risk here is with rise of sophisticated anti-plagiarism software free for use on the Internet, there will be a chance of being caught with the act of plagiarism that will merit a failing grade.

The chances are __ in 10 that I will plagiarize, copy a portion of that person’s work and not cite this person’s work.

012345678910

3. You are a part of a cheating chain (a group of students who pass the answers of one to another during a quiz). There are ten of you in the cheating chain a class. The teacher normally sleeps during examination, but he records the class on his phone. After two quizzes of not getting caught cheating, despite the presence of the phone, on the third exam, one of your cheating buddies was caught through the recording camera of the phone. He was the only one who was caught, and only received a warning and a zero on the exam instead of failing the entire course with a disciplinary demerit. The fourth exam is in a few minutes, and the only way to pass is through cheating. You are in desperate need of a high grade. With the fact that out of three exams, one out of the ten of you was only caught cheating, and that the teacher may be stricter due to catching one. What are the chances of you still partaking in the group’s cheating activities or abstain from it?

The chances are __ in 10 that I will partake in the cheating chain.

0 1 2345678910

Group:

Instructions: Read each situation carefully. Rate yourself to how much you are willing to do the stated situation, with 1 being the lowest and 10 being the highest.

1. You and your four friends noticed that your teacher in your math class rarely checks the attendance. Everyone also noticed that some of your classmates are usually absent and cutting their class because the professor’s style of teaching is mundane. You sometimes ditch class with your classmates, but you noticed that you already exceeded the maximum number of absences allowed. You cannot cut the class more than 5 times. You and your four friends are still tempted to cut the class, because you know that the professor rarely checks attendance. The risk is that the professor might have a roll call, thus leading you to a failing grade at the end of the term.

The chances are __ in 10 that I will cut that class.

012345678910

2. You and your seven friends are required to write a group research paper for an English class. The topic must be new and something relevant to your course. Each member of the group must contribute to writing the research paper. The paper is almost finished except for one significant part of the paper. The deadline is fast approaching you only have until 10pm of that night to finish the paper. Your group is tempted to plagiarize a portion of someone else’s work by claiming the paragraph of the person’s paper as your own without citation. The risk here is with rise of sophisticated anti-plagiarism software free for use on the Internet, there will be a chance of being caught with the act of plagiarism that will merit a failing grade.

The chances are __ in 10 that I will plagiarize, copy a portion of that person’s work and not cite this person’s work.

012345678910

3. You are a part of a cheating chain (a group of students who pass the answers of one to another during a quiz). There are ten of you in the cheating chain a class. The teacher normally sleeps during examination, but he records the class on his phone. After two quizzes of not getting caught cheating, despite the presence of the phone, on the third exam, one of your cheating buddies was caught through the recording camera of the phone. He was the only one who was caught, and only received a warning and a zero on the exam instead of failing the entire course with a disciplinary demerit. The fourth exam is in a few minutes, and the only way to pass is through cheating. You are in desperate need of a high grade. With the fact that out of three exams, one out of the ten of you was only caught cheating, and that the teacher may be stricter due to catching one. Will the cheating chain be active during the fourth exam?

The chances are __ in 10 that I will partake in the cheating chain.

0 1 2345678910

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