Differences Between Qualitative And Quantitative Research Methods Psychology Essay

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5/12/16 Psychology Reference this

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The aim of any science is gaining knowledge and choosing the appropriate method that allows us to know the reality is therefore essential1. The problem is to accept as true the wrong knowledge or vice versa. Inductive and deductive methods have different objectives and could be summarized as theory development and theory analysis, respectively. The inductive methods are generally associated with qualitative research while deductive method is often associated with quantitative research.

Health Social scientists using qualitative approaches now facing epistemological and methodological problems that have to do with power and ethics in data generation as well as external validity of these2.

The quantitative research is one in which data are collected and analyzed quantitative variables. qualitative research prevents quantification. Qualitative researchers make narrative records of the phenomena that are studied by techniques such as participant observation and unstructured interviews3. The fundamental difference between the methodologies is that the quantitative studies the association or relationship between quantifiable and qualitative variables makes structural and situational contexts4. Qualitative research seeks to identify the underlying nature of reality, its relations system, its dynamic structure. The quantitative research is to determine the strength of association or correlation between variables, generalization and objectivity of the results through a sample inference to a population sample from which all comes. After the study of the association or correlation seeks, in turn, make causal inferences as to why things happen or not a particular way.

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The most obvious differences between the methodologies are shown in Table 1 5.6. The fundamentals of quantitative methodology can be found in the positivism that arises in the first third of the nineteenth century as a reaction to the empiricism which was devoted to collect data without entering any knowledge beyond the field of observation. Some of the scientists this time focusing on issues related to health sciences are Pasteur and Claude Bernard, the latter being the proposed experimentation in medicine1. In the early twentieth century, neo-positivism arises or logical positivism to be one of the most important contributions to probabilistic induction. The key is logical positivism and testing hypotheses probabilistically if accepted and demonstrated in different circumstances from those develop general theories. The statistics available quantitative tools to test these hypotheses and to accept or reject a particular security7. Thus the scientific method, following an observation generates a hypothesis and subsequently broadcasts contrasting conclusions arising from that hypothesis testing. The verified repeatedly test an hypothesis does not give an absolute guarantee of generalization because, as Karl Popper points out, not it has no method can guarantee that the generalization of a hypothesis is valid8. With the example of the swans, K. Popper’s thesis refuting the generalization neopositivists on assumptions9… “all swans were white from Austria … no data are available about the color of swans outside Austria … all swans are white …”. At present there is no method to ensure that generalization of a hypothesis is valid, but one can refute a hypothesis with a shred of evidence against it. That is why science, as noted by K. Popper “looking increasingly better explanations”

Advantages and disadvantages of the methods

The advantages and disadvantages of qualitative vs. quantitative methods are shown in Table 2 11-13. In general, quantitative methods are very powerful in terms of external validity as a representative sample of the population makes inference to this population from a sample (Figure 1) With a defined security and accuracy. Therefore a limitation of qualitative methods is their difficulty to generalize. The quantitative research to test hypotheses not only eliminates the role of chance to exclude or reject a hypothesis, but to quantify the clinical relevance of a phenomenon by measuring the relative risk reduction, absolute risk reduction and number of patients needed to treat to prevent one event14. The question that obviously do qualitative and quantitative research is “how are your general particularize …?

Today there is a clear predominance of quantitative research in relation to qualitative and we can objectify it in a Medline search to date 20/4/2002 using the keywords “quantitative research” vs. “qualitative research” are 11,236 and 1,249 items respectively generating a ratio 11.236/1.249 = 8.99. The select one or other methodology may rely on different approaches: Are looking for the magnitude or nature of the phenomenon?, Is looking for an average or a dynamic structure?, ” It aims to discover laws or understand human phenomena?. When in the Medline search on the keywords above mentioned add “nursing” to focus the question in nursing work objectify the ratio of qualitative vs. quantitative items (610 vs. 535) clearly decreases to 1.14 thus showing a significant weight of qualitative research in nursing despite a predominance of the quantitative and still expanding in recent years in this group.

The use of both qualitative and quantitative procedures in an investigation would probably help correct the biases of each method, but the fact that quantitative methodology is the most widely used is not the product of chance but of the evolution of scientific method along the years. We believe in this sense that quantification increases and facilitates the compression of the universe around us and long before the logical positivists or neopositivists Galileo Galilei argued in this sense “measure what is measurable and make measurable what is not is “.

Table 1. Differences between qualitative and quantitative research5.6.

Qualitative Research

Quantitative Research

Focusing on the phenomenology and understanding

Based on the probabilistic induction of logical positivism

Uncontrolled naturalistic observation

Measuring pervasive and controlled

Subjective

Objective

Inferences from their data

Inferences beyond the data

Exploratory, inductive and descriptive

Confirmatory inferential, deductive

Process-oriented

Result oriented

Data “rich and deep”

Data “solid and repeatable”

Not generalizable

Generalizable

Holistic

Particularist

Dynamic reality

Static reality

Table 2. Advantages and disadvantages of quantitative versus qualitative methods.

Qualitative Methods

Quantitative Methods

Propensity to “comunicarse with”The study subjects11

Proneness “use of”The study subjects11

It merely ask11

Only responds11

Horizontal communication … between researcher and researched … greater ease and ability to study social factors in a natural setting12

 

They are strong in terms of internal validity, but weak in external validity, which are not generalizable to the population

They are weak in terms of internal validity, almost never know if they measure what they want to measure, but are strong in external validity, what they find is generalizable to the population13

Quantitative ask: How particularize are the findings?

Qualitative ask: Are your findings generalizable?

Figure 1. Elements of statistical inference

Quantitative methodology is one that can examine the data in figures, especially in the field of statistics.

Quantitative Methods For there is required that elements of the research problem there is a relationship whose nature is linear. This means that there is clarity between the research components that make up the problem, it is possible to define, limit and know exactly where the problem starts, in which direction to go and what kind of impact between its elements.

Quantitative research is widely used in the natural sciences and social, from physics and biology to sociology and journalism.

In the social sciencesThe term is often used in contrast to qualitative research.

Types of quantitative research [edit]

Descriptive research [edit]

It refers to the preparatory phase of scientific work that allows ordering the result of observations of the behaviors, features, The factors, Procedures and other variables of phenomena and facts. Such research is not hypothesis explained.

Analytical investigation [edit]

It is a more complex procedure with respect to descriptive research, which mainly consists in making the comparison of variables between study groups and control without applying or manipulating variables, studying them as they naturally occur in the groups. It also refers to the proposition hypothesis that the researcher is test or deny. hg

Experimental Research [edit]

It is a methodological procedure in which a group of individuals or conglomerate, are randomly divided into study groups and ontrol and are analyzed with respect to one factor or as the researcher introduced to study and assess.

INTRODUCTION

The research is a process thorough, careful and systematic which seeks to resolve problemsEither vacuum knowledge (scientific research) Or ManagementBut in both cases is organized and guarantees the production of knowledge or viable alternative solutions.

In this test Needless to say, our object of study is to establish the differences between the qualitative research and quantitative research., although both are generally part of research science, which is defined as “… a methodical and systematic process aimed at solving problems or scientific questions, by producing new knowledge, which constitute the solution or answer to these questions.

From this it is possible to reflect on the approach that there is clear: If we are trying to scientific research, it is possible to develop two major approaches: qualitative and quantitative, in the former means that the amount is part of the quality, as well as given further attention deep into the results and not its generalization, while in the quantitative approach, the important thing is the generalization or universalization of research results.

Therefore, an investigation should not speak or to Paradigm Qualitative, Methodology Qualitative or Qualitative Research, as are the qualitative or quantitative approaches to scientific research, and both can be used in one investigation, interacting methodologies.

We believe that differences are not present at the type of problem to be investigated, but in terms of the methods and instruments which each applies and the way they treat the results. We hope that the information gathered here helps to understand the importance of scientific research whatever the paradigm that is used. Finally, the combination of both paradigms help achieve optimal results research in the field of health and particularly in that the Nursing..

The Group

1 .- Qualitative Research

The qualitative methodology, as its very name, is aim the description the qualities of a phenomenon. Find a concept that can cover a part of reality. This is not to prove or to measure the degree to which a certain quality is given a certain event, but to discover so many qualities as possible.

In qualitative research should discuss in depth understanding rather than accuracy: it seeks a deep understanding as possible.

The origins of qualitative methods are found in antiquity but from the nineteenth century with the rise of science social – especially the sociology and anthropology – This methodology begins to develop gradually.

However after the Second War World there was a predominance of quantitative methodology with the dominance of functionalist and structuralist perspectives.

It is not until the ’60s that cut qualitative research methodology emerged as a front-line, mainly in United States and Britain. From this moment, in the academic and investigative there are a constant evolution theory and practice of qualitative methodology.

Among the main features of this methodology include:

Qualitative research is inductive.

It has a holistic perspective, ie considering the phenomenon as a whole.

These small studies scale which only represent themselves

It emphasizes the validity of research through proximity to the empirical reality that provides the methodology.

Not usually probe theories or hypothesis. It is primarily a method generate theories and hypoththesis.

No rules procedure. The collection method data not specified in advance. The variables are not operationally defined or are prone to measurement.

The base is in intuition. The research is nature flexible, evolutionary and recursive.

Generally does not allow analysis Statistical

You can incorporate findings that were not foreseen (Serendipity)

Qualitative researchers involved in research through interaction with the subjects they study, is the measuring instrument.

Analyze and understand the subjects and phenomena from the perspective of the last two; must delete or remove their prejudices and beliefs

1.1 .- QUALITATIVE FEATURES OF THE METHODOLOGY

The characteristics of qualitative methodology that we can point to as a synopsis are

A first characteristic of these methods has resulted in their Strategy to try to know the facts, processes, structures and people as a whole, and not through the measurement of some of its elements. The same strategy already indicates the Employment of procedures giving a character only to observations.

The second characteristic is the use of procedures that are less comparable observations in the time and in different cultural circumstances, ie, this method finds less widespread and closer to the phenomenology and symbolic interactionism.

A third important strategic feature for this work concerns the role of the researcher in their intensive-treatment-with the people involved in the research process to understand.

The researcher develops and maintains guidelines and central problems of their work during the research process itself. For this reason, the concepts found in qualitative research in most cases are not operationalized since the beginning of the investigation, ie not defined since the beginning of indicators to be taken into account during the research process. This feature points to another debate epistemological, very hot, on the question of objectivity in the social research.

2 .- RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE

Surge in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, in the process consolidation Capitalism and within the Society Western bourgeois. In order to analyze the conflict social and economic fact as Universe complex. Inspired by the Science Natural and these in physical Newtonian from knowledge of Galileo. With Claude Saint-Simon and Auguste Comte arises Sociology as Science.

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Their rationale is based on scientism and Rationalism, As institutionalists epistemological stance. Profound attachment to the tradition of Science and use of value-neutrality as a criterion of objectivity, so the knowledge is grounded in the facts, with little attention subjectivity of individuals.

His representation of reality is partial and fragmented. The expert becomes a authority really.

Hurtado and Toro (1998). “They say the research Quantitative is a linear, meaning that there is clarity between the elements of the problem, which has definitions, limitations and know exactly where the problem starts, it is also important to know what kind of impact between its elements. “

2.1 .- CHARACTERISTICS METHODOLOGY QUANTITATIVE

Quantitative methodology is one that allows us to examine the data numerically, especially in the field of Statistics.

Quantitative Methods For there is required that elements of the research problem there is a relationship whose Nature is linear. This means that there is clarity between the elements of the research problem that make the problem, it is possible to define, limit and know exactly where the problem starts, in which address going and what kind of impact between its elements.

The elements consist of a problem, research Linear, are called: variables, Ratio between variable and unit observation.

Edelmira G. La Rosa (1995) says that there should be clarity Quantitative Methodology between elements of research from which starts until it ends, the approach is static data is assigned numerical significance.

The approach of the quantitative data are statistical, demonstrates with separate aspects of all, the meaning assigned numbers and make inferences

Objectivity is the only way to achieve knowledgeAnd therefore uses the measurement comprehensive and controlled, trying to find the certainty of it.

The object of study is the unique element Empiricus. She maintains that the relationship exist independence between subject and object, since the researcher has a perspective from outside.

The theory is the fundamental element Social research, Brings its origin, context and purpose.

Explanatory and predicative understanding of reality, under an objective conception, unitary static and reductionist.

Linear conception of research through a Strategy deductive.

It method Hypothetical – Deductive.

2.2. – QUANTITATIVE RESTRICTIONS

The limitations are placed at a number risks distortion, the least of which is certainly not the conversion of the qualitative deformans in quantities previously artificially transmuted calculated on ad hoc data

Gonzalez Casanova (1975) mentions that the prospect Quantitative and emphasis are related to many other characteristics of the researcher. Overall we can say that analysis Quantitative is typical especially in the social sciences who work with people, binds to Empiricism and the Ideology the process of Social Sciences.

Sorokin researcher has indicated the limitations of quantitative research:

Quantitatively disguised subjectivity.

Quantitative conjugation groups to study the systems Social.

Take one part of system as the independent variable (cause) and all of the quantitative data that can be seen in the research traditional.

3 .- Differences between quantitative and qualitative research

The aim of any science is gaining knowledge and choosing the appropriate method that allows us to know the reality is therefore essential1. The problem is to accept as true the wrong knowledge or vice versa. methods inductive and deductive are objectives different and could be summarized as development theory and theory analysis, respectively. The inductive methods are generally associated with qualitative research while the deductive method is often associated with quantitative research.

Social scientists in health – Doctors, nurses, health technicians, etc.. – Using qualitative approaches now facing problems epistemological and methodological approaches are concerned with the can and ethics in data generation as well as external validity of these.

Quantitative research is one in which data are collected and analyzed quantitative variables.

Qualitative research prevents quantification. Qualitative researchers are records Narrative of the phenomena that are studied by techniques as participant observation and interviews unstructured.

The fundamental difference between the methodologies is that the quantitative studies the association or relationship between quantifiable and qualitative variables makes structural and situational contexts.

Qualitative research seeks to identify the underlying nature of reality, its system of relationships, structure dynamic, While quantitative research tries to determine the strength association or correlation between variables, generalization and objectivity of the results through a sample to make an inference population which shows all relevant. After the study of the association or correlation seeks, in turn, make causal inferences as to why things happen or not a particular way.

The Employment both procedures quantitative and qualitative research could probably help correct the biases of each method, but the fact that quantitative methodology is the most used is not product accident but the evolution of scientific method over the years. We believe in this sense that quantification increases and facilitates the compression of the universe around us and long before the logical positivists or neopositivists Galileo Galilei asserted in this sense “measure what is measurable and make measurable what is not.

Differences between qualitative and quantitative research

Qualitative Research

Quantitative Research

Centered phenomenology and understanding

Based on the induction probabilistic positivism logical

Uncontrolled naturalistic observation

Measuring pervasive and controlled

Subjective

Objective

Inferences from their data

Inferences beyond the data

Exploratory, inductive and descriptive

Confirmatory inferential, deductive

Process-oriented

Result oriented

Data “rich and deep”

Data “solid and repeatable”

Not generalizable

Generalizable

Holistic

Particularist

Dynamic reality

Static reality

 

Advantages and disadvantages of qualitative methods vs. quantity.

Qualitative Methods

Quantitative Methods

Propensity to “comunicarse with”The study subjects

Proneness “use of”The study subjects

It merely ask

Only responds

Horizontal communication … between researcher and researched … greater ease and ability to study social factors in a natural setting

 

They are strong in terms of internal validity, but weak in external validity, which are not generalizable to the population

They are weak in terms of internal validity, almost never know if they measure what they want to measure, but are strong in external validity, what they find is generalizable to the population

Quantitative ask: How particularize are the findings?

Qualitative ask: Are your findings generalizable?

One criticism that often make the quantitative approaches from the perspective of qualitative methods is their propensity to use more to communicate with, the study subjects.

The argument is that the polls individuals used to extract them information which is then processed without holding without any sort of “return” to those who gave rise to the data. It is further said that the situation of interview is as artificial-one simply ask the other to respond, it is possible to make very strong questions about the validity of the data thus obtained.

In change, Qualitative methods seem to find one of their sources of legitimation primaries that allow communication more horizontal-egalitarian-between the researcher and the subjects investigated. Without denying that some of the qualitative approaches such as depth interviews and life histories enable a more “natural” subjects, must be considered with more details on the conditions that make such encounters possible. In countries America America, including Cuba, Most studies are done on / socials subjects living under some form of subordination of gender (for women), sexual (in the case of sexual minorities, etc.).

In many cases it is precisely this condition of subordination which gives rise to its willingness to collaborate. Authors such as Castro and Bronfman suggest that for more “democratic” we are, access to groups subordinate is given to us by what our status is. This produces a dilemma that challenges the root of the argument made at the beginning of this section, in the sense that qualitative research itself is claimed from his “naturalism” of his supposed ability to study the social actors in its natural setting.

CONCLUSIONS

The research is a rigorous, thorough and systematic which seeks to solve problems, either from lack of knowledge (scientific research) Or ManagementBut in both cases is organized and guarantees the production of knowledge or viable alternative solutions.

Research is a methodical and systematic process aimed at solving problems or scientific questions, by producing new knowledge, which constitute the solution or answer to such questions “

Quantitative research is analyzing the various elements that can be measured and quantified. All information is obtained based on population samples and the results are extrapolated to the entire population at a given level of error and confidence level.

Qualitative research reports on the credibility of the communication, or concepts, or the benefits offered. Qualitative studies are seen to individual respondent, on the one hand, and on the other hand look at the product, or under investigation and on which survey and that is the stimulus generator of certain behaviors among individuals. These observations acquire a character probabilistic, and hence projectable to the universe in a second stage of the investigation that it will be quantitative.

Quantitative research uses numbers and statistical methods. Part of individual cases to reach a description general or check hypothesis causal. It says a quantitative systematic-generalizing.

Qualitative research includes approaches by definition, not based on numerical measures. He uses in-depth interviews and analysis materials historical. Use the method of discourse and attempts to comprehensively examine an event or unit. They say quality-humanist discourse.

From this it is possible to reflect on the approach that there is clear: If we are trying to scientific research, two approaches can be developed significant qualitative and quantitative, in the former means that the amount is part of the quality also be given greater attention to the depth of results and not its generalization, while in the quantitative approach, the important thing is the generalization or universalization of research results.

Therefore, an investigation should not speak or to Paradigm Qualitative, Qualitative or Qualitative Research Methodology, as are the qualitative or quantitative approaches to scientific research.

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