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Development of Adolescents in Nairobi Slums

1745 words (7 pages) Essay in Psychology

08/02/20 Psychology Reference this

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Human Growth and Development

Infancy, puberty, maturity, and the elderly are all aspects of the human growth and development, that leads to a constant course of corporeal, interactive, intellectual, and expressive evolution and transformation. While exploring this area, we have discovered that there are several phases of development, evolving influences, old fashioned and contemporary tendencies, and communal and divergence concerns associated with growth. Childhood and adolescence are the areas of concentration for synopses and conversation.

The first synopses and conversation are on a psychosocial and behavioral study in the slums of Nairobi with adolescence leaving home and transitioning into adulthood. In this article, there are diverse components that participate into these adolescences departing their homes and transitioning into adulthood. Emigrating from home is a significant occurrence due to the reliance and effects accompanied with independent living and provisional conducts. Motives for these teens evacuating home in their adolescences are due to congestion and insufficient lodging represent these tenement housing where these modules are very meager and erected with deficient supplies such as steely pieces, dirt or lumber.

Another reason for Nairobi’s youth defecting is they have a background to a variety of tribal cliques where diversity portrays a significant position in shaping the formation of self-sufficient homes by juveniles. The conventional beliefs for particular ethnic congregations are boys, at the age of thirteen (13), will survive on their own once they have endured circumcision, a rite of passage that signifies the conversion into maturity. Lastly, financial incomes create an autonomous dwelling to these adolescences wholly related to elevated intensities of lack and economic collapse. These slums of Nairobi are branded by an excessive unemployment percentage and a scarcity of industrious assets where community facilities such as fresh water, connection to power and steady resources of revenue are absent.

The developmental theories applicable to these youth in Nairobi were based on Erik Erikson’s theory where he alleged that every phase a person encounters a calamity that must be dealt accurately to advance civilly and independently. Erikson alleged that every phase is defined by our upbringing and the care-giving strategies or experiences to which we are exposed. The conclusions were that universal customs facilitated young gentlemen domestic liberation while requiring young girls to vacate her parents’ residence upon matrimony consequently, the young girls are permitted less independence and assigned enormous parental supervising. While entertaining associates who participate in dangerous activities and afterwards instigate adult-adolescent quarrels, in confined situations and the absence of monetary funds to aid self-sufficient dwelling could diminish the probability of passage to adulthood.

The second synopses and conversation are associated with Turkish‐origin migrants in Germany; youngsters from cultural and ethnic popular and marginal families, increasing in disparate (and “super disparate”) zones in the United Kingdom; bi-cultural youngsters; native Dutch, Turkish Dutch, and Moroccan Dutch youngsters; and culturally assorted German adolescence; opinions of the Roma society in Macedonia among Roma, Macedonian, Albanian, and Turkish adolescents in Macedonia; British youngsters’ response to ethical and spiritual matters in various societies in the United Kingdom. Population studies propose that British people arriving in an era of enlarged social mixture. For example, by 2056 in the United Kingdom, ethnological and traditional oppositions are projected to shape one third of the whole populace (Coleman, 2010). A disparate mindset attains an assortment of personalities in a set as the subject’s primary goal and try to discover crowd conduct from a diverse aspect or an enhanced genuine manner. The viewpoint of progressive thinking by accepting variety is a reasoning ability that facilitates accepting that there are diverse units, knowing one’s personality as a participant of certain parts of the units, and knowing various clusters possess assorted viewpoints.

 The changing framework as a reasoning foundation and the mission of the evolving youngster is cognizant and connecting the theoretical and relational realms of activity. Developing with variety is often a riddle that youngsters should unravel under a course of individuality progress that travels in conjunction with growing values in a complicated civil society that is multifaceted in several customs. Developing these customs are significant in comprehending what manner adolescences mold connections, study on how to grow into knowledgeable artists, recognize prejudice, fairness, integrity which most often are manipulated by relatives and companions. A progressive mindset identifies the youth as the crucial phase in the expansion of cultural and ethnic distinctiveness.

There is a growing intellectual and mandate on youngsters to intermingle with others in valuable and proper behaviors and to comprehend and cope amidst this rising collective range of struggle. The common realism of relocation necessitates that youngsters have frequently adopted numerous personalities or beliefs as a segment of themselves. The greatest distinctive significant trials confronting nomadic adolescents or adolescents from migratory relatives is equalizing several personalities by embracing general and racial or intellectual uniqueness, however these characteristics are supposed as discordant, triggering anxiety and an undesirable welfare. The magnitude of this social mixture proposes that various populations develop an innate progressive conclusion on intersect cultural companionship selections in adolescents and multiplicity generates intersect racial attachments.

The third synopses and conversation will concentrate on the unity amongst personality and raising environments and the significance of care-givers and educators by altering their trainings to tailor to kids’ needs. We will investigate by what method care-givers backing could aid kids in lowering their propensity of frightful responses to difficult situations. A basis for the investigation of substantial aspects to incorporate principles in the improvement of character and its associations with civil and mental adjustments, which highlights the position of communal developments in intervening educational impact on individual growth. According to Vygotsky (1978), values offer direction for collective methods in the process to identify with demonstrative means to include dialectal, emblems, and signs from the relational concentration to the internal and emotional state. Grownups and colleagues demonstrate their opinions that replicate their identification of social customs and beliefs, however encouraging assessments and answers to embrace admiration and cheer, enlighten kids that their exhibition is viewed as proper and must remain sustained where disapproving assessments and replies to include displeasure and a negative response instigates anxiety on kids to change their actions.

The demands for public approval, friendly interactions, and the wisdom of safety and fitting are essential energies that motivate kids to participate in teamwork, to join into public response, and to create feedbacks. Kids must to be thoughtful to the positions of others, recognize their views, and alter actions that provoke undesirable public reactions in order to gain community approval and friendship. Conducts features that are strong to transform, these kids must study to manage them or communicate these behaviors in publicly satisfactory behaviors, but the kids who neglect to carry out this transformation might undergo irritation, hardship, and additional adverse feelings, which ultimately advance to expressing difficulties if these feelings are targeted to others and by suppressing difficulties if these feelings are guided on himself or others.

Blood relation families in North America, China and Korea exhibit elevated expectancies of their kids to utilize constraint in public and private situations. However, Chinese mommies demanded their children to uphold an advanced degree of social restraint than Canadian mommies. Little restraint in kids was intensified with parental displeasure and dismay although this is discussed that motherly reassurance of kids’ self-discipline in East Asian cultures is associated with the societal idea that kids’ personalities are pliable and an obstruction to regulate individual actions is measured as an absence of attempt. The revelation to various ideals and living patterns has turn out to be a valuable element of events of kids and adults.

The final synopses and conversation will center on the impact of partner alliances and the influence of familial experience with the value of personal connections in the progress of disruptive conduct and misbehavior in juveniles, furthermore studies have proven that child-rearing habits and friend bands intermingle, they mutually impact the growth of rebellious and negligent actions. The function of these public influences is not stationary, but transforms over the course of juvenile maturity, although juvenile self-sufficiency and individuality is transpiring, the impact of relative’s perspective diminishes and the pull of friend weight increases.

Child-rearing customs were considerable concerning vicious conduct, where various studies propose that little domestic understanding and inadequate household supervision are connected with extra brutality and enduring rebellious actions. Likewise, the tendency for aggression was facilitated by irregular attachments and the minor appetite regarding cruelty was incidentally linked to peaceful and ferocious conduct during the growing connections with disruptive associates. However, youthful impactful curriculums are successful in impeding and decreasing behavioral matters and disruptive displays. Throughout history, and in all walks of life, individuals are continually changing from beginning unto death however, lifetime progress discovers a constant course of studying the fleshly being, his intellectual growth and social success that are fashioned by the atmosphere incorporating our families, our friends, and our background. In my findings, one truth is consistent, in every language, ethnicity and beliefs, parenting is a continual joy and also a continual job.

  • Egondi, T., Kabiru, C., Beguy, D., Kanyiva, M., & Jessor, R. (2013). Adolescent home-leaving and the transition to adulthood: A psychosocial and behavioral study in the slums of Nairobi. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 37(4), 298-308. Retrieved from doi: 10.1177/0165025413479299
  • Wiley, J. (2017). Growing up with diversity: psychological perspectives. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 339-346. doi: 10.1002/casp.2330
  • Chen, X. (2018). Culture, temperament, and social and psychological adjustment. Developmental Review, 50, 42–53
  • Cutrín, O., Gómez-Fraguela, J. A., Maneiro, L., Sobral, J. (2017). Applied to Legal Context Effects of parenting practices through deviant peers on nonviolent and violent antisocial behaviors in middle- and late-adolescence. The European Journal of Psychology, 75-82. Retreived from
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