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Comparison of Depression and Anger as Responses to Stress

3927 words (16 pages) Essay in Psychology

08/02/20 Psychology Reference this

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Treatment Paper

Abstract

Two types of stress that remain unaddressed include depression and anger. They pose a potential risk to various individuals. Anger refers to a short-span annoyance, irritation, and rage. On the other hand, depression is a long-term period characterized by sadness and social detachment that ranges from weeks to months. Stressful events impair the functionality of an individual in the workplace and society. However, several interventions with proper practice are essential for those suffering from anger and depression. Meditation, mindfulness, and yoga are fundamental interventions. Moreover, nutrition plays a vital role in the treatment of depression. Although the exact date of origin of meditation and yoga is unknown, it is thought to originate from the Ancient East, specifically India and China. Additionally, meditation existed before the recorded history. Both meditation and yoga are appropriate treatment of depression and anger. Meditation involves focusing on a particular thing after diverting the mind from negative issues or objects. It requires time, energy, and dedication. Its most prominent technique is mindfulness meditation. Furthermore, yoga is a body-mind practice involving meditation and physical exercise. The well-known method is hatha yoga. Through this paper, it is seen that meditation is an effective intervention, because it involves redirecting the mind to a particular point of focus such as breathing. Also, according to the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, yoga improves the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid, thus reducing the chances of one suffering from depression. Moreover, anger is a short-lived period of irritability. Individuals who practice meditation can control their minds; hence, this serves as a significant role in anger management. Therefore, it is essential to practice both yoga and meditation to enhance control over mind and increase concentration.

Stress is a reaction generated by the body when the normal physiology is altered. It can manifest itself emotionally, mentally, or physically. It is a normal reaction in our lives and can be a result of thoughts, body, or environment alterations. According to an investigation conducted by the British Association of Social Workers and Community Care, stress levels escalate because of increased workload and deteriorated working conditions. Two types of stress that are overlooked are depression and anger. These can result from various factors including workplaces hazards among others. Depression influences how an individual acts, thinks and feels (Bartolomucci & Leopardi, 2009). It causes feelings of sadness and lack of interest in things that the individual once enjoyed. Symptoms of the condition include thoughts of suicide, feeling valueless, and changing in appetite. Additionally, the victim is in a low mood most of the times. Luckily, it is a treatable illness.

Furthermore, anger is an emotional response of antagonism. It is the feeling of annoyance and displeasure. An individual can get angry when infuriated by his/her fellow. However, how people express anger varies from one person to another. Most of the people tend to show their emotions outwardly, and this is referred to as aggressive anger. Also, others may decide to turn them inwards, thus, they end up with depression. According to Sigmund Freud, anger plays a significant role in depression, and this contributes to the severity of symptoms of depressed individuals. It is essential to deal with this condition appropriately. Otherwise, it can result in devastating situations in one’s life. Furthermore, interventions of anger and depression include meditation and mindfulness, and Hatha Yoga (Bonura & Tenenbaum, 2014). Additionally, nutrition plays a crucial role in intervention strategies.

Comparison of Two Problems

Depression

Most of the people who are under significant pressure in the workplace tend to experience depression at some point. However, the impact of the condition is based on its severity. Managers in the various organizations who interact with people in an aggressive manner or overwork their minds end up being stressed (Rao, T.S, Asha, Ramesh, & Rao, K.J. 2008). Depression is not a chronic condition, unlike other mental disorders. It is generally treatable and has less probability of recurrence. However, a few numbers of the population seek medical care regarding it. To manage depression, it is essential to understand the three stages of assessment. These include the identification of risk factors, manifestations, and complications related to psychological, medical, physical, behavioral well-being. Furthermore, the signs and symptoms of depression vary with gender. Men who are depressed may appear aggressive or angry, instead of being sad. Their friends and families may not recognize symptoms of the condition (Rao et al., 2008).

Furthermore, men are less likely to share their problem compared to their female counterparts. More men are affected by depression than women. The condition in men at the workplace may manifest with digestive issues, ongoing headaches, and racing heart rate. Hence, more men will see their doctors because of physical symptoms, but not for emotional manifestations. Most of the people with the depression, especially men, tend to turn to alcohol among other drugs to cope with their situation. In contrast, women will attempt suicide. Thus, men are likely to die because of using fatal methods to deal with depression. However, with proper management, most of the people recover from depression and resume their normal health status. They also gain interest in their families, friends, and hobbies.

Moreover, victims of depression have two main features: irritability and altered sleep pattern. People spend the night turning and tossing. They might sleep excessively than normal, or wake up earlier than usual. Irritability results from lack of sleep, which makes depressed people unable to cope with daily challenges. Also, their nutrition status is affected, thus, worsening the situation. Additionally, the victims are socially detached and sad. According to Lerner et al., depressed employees are at risk of adverse work outcomes (Lerner, Adler, Rogers, Lapitsky, McLaughlin, & Reed, 2010). Thus, work performance depends on the alertness and ability to relate to other people in the workplace. The study tested presenteeism and absenteeism among the employees. It was found that the group with depression had worse figures than those without it. Furthermore, Luca et al. assert that public workers with tight schedules have a high tendency of suffering from depression (Luca et al., 2014). According to the World Health Organization (2017), more than 300 million people suffer from depression, which is the leading cause of disability.

Anger

Charles Spielberger defines anger as “an emotional state that varies in intensity from mild irritation to intense fury and rage.” It is a feeling whereby an individual gets annoyed for a short period. Like any other emotional feeling, anger is accompanied by biological and psychological changes. These comprise a surge in adrenaline and noradrenaline that prepare the individual for flight or fight. Additionally, anger is characterized by rage, aggressive behavior, increased blood pressure, rapid heartbeat. In contrast, depression is a consistent feeling of deep hopelessness or sadness that lasts for several weeks or even longer (Fava & Rosenbaum, 1999). Anger is mostly related to an underlying condition such as drug addiction, anxiety, and depression among other mental health issues. People should try to calm themselves in such situations because anger is entirely natural.

Moreover, anger is a compound psychological behavior and construct. It is more common than depression, because it is short-lived. In our daily lives, we may come across an annoying person or situation. Then, we act at that particular time. For instance, somebody may deliberately knock you, and you end up getting irritated. Consequently, you may act physically, emotionally, or orally. It is crucial to be aware of your inner ‘self.’ This is essential for those who are as to whether you are temperamental. This is helpful because you will be able to control yourself (Luca et al., 2014). Anger has a significant impact on an individual’s behavior, health, and societal productivity. As a result of its influence, the scientists focus on understanding the nature of anger. This is essential in explaining why some people are constantly angry, while for others, it is hard to become annoyed.

Furthermore, in the management of anger, it is essential to consider the A-B-C-D Model. It is a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) technique founded by Albert Ellis. The letters refer to Activating event, Belief system, Consequences, and Dispute. Activating event is what triggers the situation. Belief system refers to how an individual interprets the trigger. Consequences result from A+B, which manifest with the clenching of fist and shallow breaths among others. Finally, the Dispute is the key in the management of anger. It involves diverting the mind from reinforcing the already set anger to other harmless situations. This helps to overcome anger and reduce its impacts. However, some people may be unable to control it, thus, leading to bouts of an outburst, especially the teens.

Description of Models

Mediation and yoga have been effective management strategies of various mental concerns such as anxiety, depression, and anger. They exert their effect on the brain that, in turn, modifies the body’s homeostasis (Pilkington, Kirkwood, Rampes, & Richardson, 2005). Thus, settling various derangement of hormones that are involved in emotional expression. Meditation refers to the state of diverting one’s attention from destructive thoughts into one point of reference. An individual can focus on a word, bodily sensations, or on the breath. People need to learn how to manage their thoughts, which requires dedication, energy, and time. The victims of depression benefit from both meditation and yoga practices. Additionally, anger is easily managed by meditation. This is because it controls the Inner Critic that plays a key role in the physiology of anger. Hatha Yoga is a mind-body and a physical exercise that involves meditation, breathing techniques, and body poses (Pilkington et al., 2005).

History of Meditation

Meditation has existed since long ago as a mind-trainer approach. It has its roots in India and China. Today, it is an essential treatment modality of mental conditions. Meditation originated from diverse traditions and cultures. Both mediation and mindfulness are older than the recorded history. Hence, the exact date when this intervention was coined is unknown. According to Larson, ancient history predicted that meditation existed more than 3,000 years ago (Larson, 1997). Additionally, it has been an important practice in major religions in the world. These include Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Christianity, and Islam. Mindfulness-based therapies have been developed that are founded on Buddhist paradigms. The term ‘meditate’ was derived from a Latin word “meditatum”, meaning, “to ponder”. This was during the 12th century AD. It is believed that meditation was practiced in India in ancient times. With time, several neighboring nations adopted the practice, which is incorporated in various religious beliefs today. Additionally, archeological findings suggest that hunters and gatherers practiced some form of mediation.

Moreover, meditation was found in the ancient religions in the East as a crucial component of a ‘spiritual path’ related to Buddhism. According to Buddha’s teaching, meditative concentration is one of the three pieces of training that result in enlightenment. The other two are the ‘wisdom of seeing things as they truly are’ and ‘appropriate ethical conduct.’ Thus, ‘awakening’ by practicing the Buddhism meditation was highly valued. This is because people could find peace of mind, and thus, relieve stresses of the world. From the Eastern world, meditation moved to the West as a popular practice that inspired many people. It moved to the United States in the late 19th century. It was not until the mid-20th century that meditation become popular in the Western world. Meditation’s introduction in the West was accompanied by yoga practices, which served similar functions. Thus, most of the major religions have a connection to meditation. In the Islamic faith, meditation is referred to as Tafakkhur through which people gain enlightenment.

Techniques of Meditation

Several types of meditation exist. However, there are two major branches; mindfulness and concentration. Most of other techniques stemmed from mindfulness meditation, which is considered the mother of the rest. In concentration meditation, the individual should focus on a single point. This could be concentrating counting beads, repeating a word or mantra, following your breath, and staring at something such as a flaming candle. Thus, the meditators should refocus on the object in case they notice their mind is drifting. This is essential for people suffering from depression, because they have random thoughts they pursue. Additionally, mindfulness meditation encourages the meditator to observe the ‘wandering thoughts’ as they drift in mind. Therefore, they should not get involved, but be aware of each of the thought as it arises. With time, they can judge something as ‘bad’ or ‘good’ before acting immediately. This is important for those suffering from anger bouts.

The History of Yoga

Same as meditation, the exact origin of yoga is unknown. However, several scholars speculate that it originated in ancient India during the 6th century. It is evidenced by “a number of seals and fossil remains of Indus Saraswati Valley civilization with Yotic motives.” In ancient India, the practice of meditation, breathing, and exercise has been prevalent for about 5 thousand years ago. Today, researchers have found out why most of the Americans practice yoga to manage stress, anxiety, and depression.

Furthermore, yoga has been effective in the management of depression and anger. According to Shapiro et al., yoga is considered a complementary treatment of depression (Shapiro et al., 2007). This is because it influences mood. Bridges and Sharma, yoga has been approved as an effective treatment modality of depression (Bridges & Sharma, 2017).

Techniques of Yoga

Yoga has several techniques that are effective. These include Hatha, Bikram, Kripalu, and Ananda. Yoga is generally safe when properly practiced. It is important, as it improves concentration. It is available in many varieties that are suitable for both beginners and experts. Anada’s techniques lay emphasis on meditation, and how to direct energy to particular parts of the body. Hatha Yoga, the commonest and most effective of all, incorporates slower and gentler paced movements. It is suitable for beginners (Shapiro et al., 2007). Bikram is practiced in a hot room. It is based on a series of moves to enable blood flow. Additionally, yoga is classified based on breathing, poses, and meditation. Moreover, Hatha Yoga has been recommended to be effective in handling stressful moments.

Comparison of Interventions

Both meditation and yoga are effective interventions in the management of depression and anger. However, each of them is useful individually although combination offers better results. According to Andy Puddicombe, a depressed person needs only ten mindful minutes. This helps to reduce the distraction that makes us forget the life we live. Meditation helps people to familiarize themselves with the present moment (Bridges & Sharma, 2017). Physical exercise is more practiced in yoga than in meditation. Additionally, focusing on what matters contributes to the meaning of life. According to Esfahani Smith, to cultivate the meaning of life, you must consider the four pillars. These include purpose, belonging, storytelling, and transcendence.

Furthermore, yoga incorporates meditation and physical exercise, unlike meditation. Stressed people, especially those suffering from depression, have a series of thoughts running through their minds. People who are depressed tend to always be sad. Sophie Scott suggests that a person is thirty times more likely to laugh while in a group compared to when he or she is lonely. Moreover, Keren Thompson recommends people to meditate and teach their brain on how to disregard things that do not matter in life. She presents the story of sailors on the whaleship Essex to explain how fear influences decision-making.

Additionally, people should learn how to live while focused on their life to avoid getting angered by negligible issues. According to Safwat Saleem, ‘one should not give up no matter what others say about them. Saleem explains this in the talk entitled “Why I keep speaking up, even when people mock my accent.” We need to learn how to appreciate the little we have. Agreeing with Laura Trice, saying ‘thank you’ is a powerful praising tool.

Efficacy of Models

Depression

Various researchers approve mindfulness meditation as an intervention with high efficacy, because meditation involves redirecting the mind into one point of focus. Depressed people have many thoughts. Thus, meditation plays a crucial role in their management. Additionally, depression should be considered from a nutrition perspective. This is because nutrition plays a vital role in the onset, as well as the severity and duration of depression. For instance, depression is associated with skipping meals and lack of appetite.

Moreover, yoga has shown promising results as a complementary treatment modality of depression (Bridges & Sharma, 2017). It is easy to implement and cost-effective. According to Shapiro et al., yoga was found to be useful as a Complimentary and Alternative Treatment of Depression. The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) is boosted by exercise. This means that low of GABA is associated with anxiety and depression. Thus, people practicing yoga have high levels of GABA. This is according to the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

 

Anger

In the management of anger, meditation takes the lion share in compared to yoga. This is because mindfulness meditation influences the Inner Critic that plays a key role in anger physiology (Bonura & Tenenbaum, 2014). Furthermore, angry people tend to lose their mind and act without proper consideration. Safwat Saleem suggests that people need to mediate and teach the mind on how to control things. Thus, it is essential to control anger before it eats one’s life. Conversely, yoga involves physical exercise that enables the brain to focus doing one particular thing such as body poses. This enables the mind to relax. However, in anger, the major problem is the level of flight or fight hormones that can be controlled by mindfulness meditation rather than body poses. Thus, people who suffer from anger should practice meditation. This is because they will learn how to differentiate the ‘bad’ from ‘good.’ Thus, avoiding regrettable action taken during the period of anger.

Conclusion

Depression and anger are two types of stresses that are mostly overlooked. They have a devastating effect on the victims, especially depression. Different people experience similar feelings, but their expressions differ. Thus, the complexity of emotional and mental problems. To enhance an organization’s productivity, it is essential to ensure that none of the employees is emotionally disturbed.

Meditation and yoga are both effective interventions that addresses depression and anger. They influence the mind and body to shape them towards a better point of focus. Mindfulness meditation and hatha yoga are cost-effective and could be done in many places. From these interventions, an individual can learn how to manage stress, improve mood, and optimistically alter the mind. To cope with depression, one should meditate and practice yoga to enhance their body and mind control. Anger is manageable by practicing meditation. I recommend people who suffer from depression and anger to put into practice these interventions.

References

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  • All it takes is 10 mindful minutes | Andy Puddicombe, retrieved from <https://elearn.uta.edu/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_449521_1&content_id=_7661326_1>
  • Bartolomucci, A., & Leopardi, R. (2009). Stress and depression: preclinical research and clinical implications. PloS one4(1), e4265.
  • Bonura, K. B., & Tenenbaum, G. (2014). Effects of yoga on psychological health in older adults. Journal of Physical Activity and Health11(7), 1334-1341.
  • Bridges, L., & Sharma, M. (2017). The efficacy of yoga as a form of treatment for depression. Journal of evidence-based complementary & alternative medicine22(4), 1017-1028.
  • Department of Health & Human Services. “Anxiety and Depression in Men.” Better Health Channel, Department of Health & Human Services, 30 Nov. 2014, www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/anxiety-and-depression-in-men.
  • Fava, M., & Rosenbaum, J. F. (1999). Anger attacks in patients with depression. The Journal of clinical psychiatry.
  • Finding meaning in life by contributing to others | Author Emily Esfahani Smith, retrieved from <https://elearn.uta.edu/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_449521_1&content_id=_7661306_1>
  • Larson, G. J. 1997. Foreward. In D. R. Brooks, S. Durgananda, P. E. Muller-Ortega, W. K. Mahony, C. R. Bailly, & S. P. Sabharathnam (Eds.), Meditation revolution: A history and theology of Siddha yoga lineage (p. xiii). South Fallsburg, NY: Agama Press.
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  • Lerner, D., Adler, D. A., Rogers, W. H., Lapitsky, L., McLaughlin, T., & Reed, J. (2010). Work performance of employees with depression: the impact of work stressors. American Journal of Health Promotion24(3), 205-213.
  • Luca, M., Bellia, S., Bellia, M., Luca, A., & Calandra, C. (2014). Prevalence of depression and its relationship with work characteristics in a sample of public workers. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment10, 519.
  • Pilkington, K., Kirkwood, G., Rampes, H., & Richardson, J. (2005). Yoga for depression: the research evidence. Journal of affective disorders89(1-3), 13-24.
  • Rao, T. S., Asha, M. R., Ramesh, B. N., & Rao, K. J. (2008). Understanding nutrition, depression and mental illnesses. Indian Journal of Psychiatry50(2), 77.
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