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Clinical Psychology: History, Applications and Research

1218 words (5 pages) Essay in Psychology

05/04/18 Psychology Reference this

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Clinical Psychology

What is clinical psychology?

Clinical psychology is the “discipline that utilizes what is recognized in relation to the human behavior principles to assist people with their several concerns and troubles they incidence throughout the path of life in their emotions, relationships, and physical selves” (Plante, 2011). The paper will talk about the history and budding nature of clinical psychology and how psychology is yet overtime changing. Next, the paper will talk about the functions that research and statistics participate into clinical psychology. Lastly, the paper will comprise the differences amid clinical psychology and additional health professions types, such as psychiatry versus clinical psychology, social work versus clinical psychology, and school psychology versus clinically psychology.

History and Evolving Nature of Clinical Psychology

Clinical psychology has transformed above the last 25 years. To begin with the DSM-III was published in addition to the standards of APA were revised. The American Psychological Society was founded, in addition to the APA published the Presidential Task force findingsfor evidence-practice. Two of the major approaches evolved would be the Approach of Cognitive-Behavioral in addition to the Humanistic Approach. In the 1970s the Approach of Cognitive-Behavioral was well-liked and they were utilized for depression in addition to “treatment spotlighting on feeling, changing thinking, and expectations become as significant as the objective of changing explicit actions” (Plante, 2011). The Humanistic Approach was further founded off of theory and the philosophy that humans can develop from understanding behaviors and experiences. The humanistic approach supposed in considering compassion in addition to positive unconditional reinforcement. With regards to evolving of psychology, “subsequent World War II, above 40,000 veterans was hospitalized for psychiatric reasons in VA hospitals. The irresistible want for services of clinical for these men effected in a enormous enhancement in clinical psychologists offering a complete variety of inclusive psychological services, as well as psychotherapy, psychological testing, consultation, and research” (Plante, 2011). Subsequent that, above 4,000 psychologists was occupied in the course of the VA. In the 1950s throughout 1970s, there were considered approaches of intervention that made psychotherapy an preservative in services in “behavioral, the family systems, cognitive-behavioral, and humanistic approaches to intervention materialized as popular and compelling alternatives to the additional customary interventions and theories” (Plante, 2011). This demonstrated a huge influence on clinical psychology. Finally, in the biopsychosocial approach in the 1970s was deemed the most excellent approach to understanding psychological illnesses. In addition, it was decisive that all illness shoot from an fundamental problem such as, psychological, biological,or social issues.

Role of Research and Statistics in Clinical Psychology

Research is “activity of clinical psychology use of the scientific method to counter questions of interest to society and researchers” (Plante, 2011). “The broad objective of research in clinical psychology is to obtain knowledge regarding human behavior and to employ these facts to help advance the lives of families, individuals, and groups. The scientific method is a set of procedures and rules that explain, clarify, and forecast a exacting phenomenon” (Plante, 2011). Consecutively to recognize totally how clinical psychologists discover research, there requires being a hypothesis, in a few cases requires to alter hypotheses and to recognize new data that will be assembled and examined. The primary stage of research is that psychologists have got to affirm a phenomenon. A device that is usually utilized is the DSM-IV-TR which was circulated by the American Psychiatric Association. “The instruction manual explains several clinical syndromes and catalogs extremely precise criteria of diagnostic for every psychiatric problem, consequently enable researchers to superiorly make certain that the similar criterion are used to describe each population researched” (Plante, 2011). The research will then slim down precise features that contract with emotions, thoughts, and behavior that are connected with the definite syndrome that was initially assessed hypothetically. “Once a cautious explanation is constructed, a hypothesis has got to be extended and tested to sufficiently enlighten the behavior of interest. For instance, researchers might be interested in learning additional regarding changes in the sexual response incidence by patients using Prozac versus Elavil, two extremely diverse antidepressants” (Plante, 2011). Sometimes In regards to research, there might be additional pressing issues that can be influence cognitive functions. Just the once the hypothesis is concluded, then it is tested to perceive if there is correctness or even inconsistent and consistent findings. “Precisely forecasting behavior founded on hypotheses turn out to be an index representing that individual hypotheses are certainly valid. Several diverse types of research investigations and experiments are utilized to check hypotheses” (Plante, 2011).

Differences Between Clinical Psychology and Other Mental Health Professions

Clinical Psychology Versus Social Work

Social work is “in general a discipline of master’s-level that has traditionally centered on patient advocacy, patient case management, and a link to finest social service benefits and agencies” (Plante, 2011). Clinical psychology is utilized on a daily basis in social work. The Social Work Practice Research Module applies to the training of social work from courses of clinical psychology. “Examples of execution of a Practice Research Module at diverse training levels (e.g., practicing clinical social workers, master’s level students, and doctoral students) are provided. It is concluded that the want for a PRM is expected to add to experience of social work practitioners pressure to account for their efficiency in clinical psychology” (Turnbull & Dietz-Uhler, 1995).

Clinical Psychology versus Psychiatry

Psychiatry is a “medical area of expertise that spotlights on abnormal behaviors” (Plante, 2011). Psychiatry and Clinical psychology are two major disciplines in psychological study and health. In regards to researching both clinical psychology and psychiatry “journals of psychiatry tended to have superior influence than journals of clinical psychology, and their effect was uneven: journals of clinical psychology quoted psychiatry journals at a a great deal superior rate than the reverse” (Haslam & Lusher, 2011). With regards to clinical journals, “journals of clinical psychology were lesser assimilated than journals of psychiatry, and health psychology/behavioral medicine and clusters of neuropsychology were comparatively marginal to the network” (Haslam & Lusher, 2011).

Clinical Psychology Versus School Psychology

School psychologists are “experts who utilize knowledge regarding human behavior and affect that knowledge in a setting of school” (Plante, 2011). Many high schools about the world, have either a school counselor or a school psychologist to assist children with listening, counsel and a fit way to liberate internal feelings. In a latest study to observe if college undergraduates recognize the distinction amid clinical and school psychology, the results were equally surprising low in knowledge and disciplines. “Undergraduates used diverse sources of information to study of school psychology and clinical as a graduate choice school. Additional, psychology majors rated clinical psychologists as being additional engaged in individual therapy, consultation, assessment, and research than school psychologists” (Gilman & Handwerk, 2001).

Conclusion

This paper In conclusion, has conversed the history and evolution about clinical psychology that to this day, psychology is varying every moment. It also discussed how research and statistics are essential to understanding clinical psychology. Lastly, the paper discussed distinctions amid clinical psychology and diverse mental health professions types.

References

Haslam, N. N., & Lusher, D. D. (2011). The structure of mental health research: networks of influence among psychiatry and clinical psychology journals. Psychological Medicine, 41(12), 2661-2668. doi:10.1017/S0033291711000821

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