Causes of Ketamine Addiction

1770 words (7 pages) Essay

5th Apr 2018 Psychology Reference this

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Psychology of Drug Addictions

  • Stephanie Boaz

ABSTRACT

Ketamine was first discovered in 1961 but not synthesized until 1962 by a man of the name of Calvin Stevens that worked with Parke Davis Labs (http://azarius.net/encyclopedia/39/Ketamine). Stevens discovered Ketamine when searching for a replacement for PCP anesthetics. It was not until 1965 that Ketamine was later used as a relational drug which was discovered by Edward Domino (http://azarius.net/encyclopedia/39/Ketamine).

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Ketamine is considered to be a fast acting, dissociative anesthetic (http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine). Ketamine is not like your customary anesthetics it works by blocking the brains activity from the body. Without stimulation the brain’s perceptions increase causing the brain to start a hallucinogenic state of mine also known as the emergence phenomena (http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine). Ketamine has the chemical name: 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-cyclohexanone (http://azarius.net/encylopedia/39/Ketamine).

How Does a Person Get Hooked on Ketamine

Ketamine is used in many different ways. It is used an anesthetic on humans it is primarily used on children or the elderly and people of third world countries due to the emergence phenomena (http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine). When using Ketamine as a recreational drug is comes in many forms such as powder, tablet, or in a liquid form which are taken orally, anally, snorting, or injected in the muscle or veins. Once administered intramuscularly it takes roughly two minutes to take effect (Julien, Advokat, & Comaty, 2011, pg.530). If snorted it takes about 5-10 minutes to take effect, peak times are different according to the way the drug is administered ( http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine).

With the use of Ketamine it has psychic sensations that may occur such as mood state and body images, floating sensations, vivid dreams or illusions and the occasional frank delirium (http://ceaccp.oxfordjournals.org/content/7/2/59.full). Ketamine is also known as Special K on the streets. It has the similar effects as to what PCP would have on a person. Once the drug is ingested the body can feel the effects for up to 24 hours after (http://casapalmera.com/uses-symptoms-and-effects-of-ketamine). Special K is also a drug that is very well known for its use in date rape. This drug is both odorless and has no taste at all. There are many street names for this drug that include: (http://casapalmera.com/uses-symptoms-and-effects-of-ketamine).

  • Special K
  • K
  • Super Acid
  • Kit kat
  • Vitamin K
  • Jet
  • Honey oil
  • Purple
  • Cat Valium

Ketamine or Special K has many signs and symptoms that accompany the use of this drug which consist of and are not limited to (http://casapalmera.com/uses-symptoms-and-effects-of-ketamine):

  • Hallucinations
  • Poor vision
  • Amnesia
  • Strange heart rate patterns
  • Nausea
  • Identity confusion
  • Elevated heart rate
  • Numbness
  • Out of body experiences
  • Delirium
  • Rash
  • Confusion of time
  • Depression
  • Poor coordination
  • Seizures
  • Realistic dreams

There are many long term side effects from the use of Ketamine/Special K (http://casapalmera.com/uses-symptoms-and-effects-of-ketamine):

  • Permanent memory loss
  • Anxiety
  • Respiratory complication
  • Neuroses
  • Inability to pay attention
  • Poor learning ability
  • Night terrors
  • Mental disorders
  • PTSD
  • Increase in blood pressure
  • Flashbacks
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Depression
  • Insomnia

Once Ketamine /Special K is used on a regular basis the drug begins to build up in the person body thus forming a tolerance to the drug. Once this is done it requires that more and more of the drug be utilized in order to feel the high that the person is seeking. Once the drug has been used for a long period of time the effects may take many years to overcome. In order to completely overcome the addiction it requires the use of drug rehabilitation (http://casapalmera.com/uses-symptoms-and-effects-of-ketamine).

With the use of Ketamine/Special K a person is seeking the feeling of detachment from reality. The person feels free from life. Although Ketamine/Special K is an addictive drug it is also know to be relatively safer compared to some drugs due to the fact that if one is administering the drug to themselves that they are more likely to pass out before injection or ingesting to much of the drug to cause an overdose, unless they are administering a large dose very quickly (http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine). If administered in a high dose it can cause the person to become immobilized or even to become transfixed. Over many years there have been deaths due to the use of Ketamine/Special K but not because of an overdose but due to the fact that the person suffered from the side effects on a physical aspect. Such as but not limited to falling down or hitting something due to the black outs that occur when under the influence of the drug (http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine). Although Ketamine/Special K is not considered to physically addictive it is however psychologically addictive (http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine).

Due to addiction of Ketamine/Special K the withdrawals of this drug are considered to be somewhat nonexistent. There are symptoms from chronic users that consist of minor tension, twitchiness, poor attention spans and restlessness which could be caused from the sedatives in the drug itself may linger in the blood stream for a period of time (http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine).

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As of this date there is only one country that Ketamine/Special K is legal an considered to be an unscheduled drug and that is in Iran http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine). Other countries have made the drug illegal to possess unless they have a license to administer the drug or prescribe as a medication legally.

According to 1 Corinthians 10:13 “No temptation has overtaken you that is not common to man. God is faithful, and he will not let you be tempted beyond your ability, but with the temptations he will also provide the way of escape, that you may be able to endure.”

Conclusions

In conclusion, Ketamine/Special K has been around for quite some time in this country. And as we have learned there are many side effects that come with the use of this drug. Many people whom are addicted to this drug have the choice of not allowing it to consume them or just giving into the addiction. I learned that this drug is readily available and is used in many different ways such as a date rape drug and a drug to just be able to disassociate yourself from your problems. I can see someone using this drug in order to escape the troubles of everyday life. Also, that the side effects of coming off of the drugs are not as noticeable as other drugs.

References

http://azarius.net/encyclopedia/39/Ketamine/

http://casapalmera.com/uses-symptoms-and-effects-of-ketamine, Addiction to Special K

http://ceaccp.oxfordjournals.org/content/7/2/59.full, Ketamine

http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine

Julien, R.M., Advokat, C.D., & Comaty, J.E. (2011). A primer of drug action (12th ed.).New York, NY: Worth.

Holly Bible, King James Version

Psychology of Drug Addictions

  • Stephanie Boaz

ABSTRACT

Ketamine was first discovered in 1961 but not synthesized until 1962 by a man of the name of Calvin Stevens that worked with Parke Davis Labs (http://azarius.net/encyclopedia/39/Ketamine). Stevens discovered Ketamine when searching for a replacement for PCP anesthetics. It was not until 1965 that Ketamine was later used as a relational drug which was discovered by Edward Domino (http://azarius.net/encyclopedia/39/Ketamine).

Ketamine is considered to be a fast acting, dissociative anesthetic (http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine). Ketamine is not like your customary anesthetics it works by blocking the brains activity from the body. Without stimulation the brain’s perceptions increase causing the brain to start a hallucinogenic state of mine also known as the emergence phenomena (http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine). Ketamine has the chemical name: 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-cyclohexanone (http://azarius.net/encylopedia/39/Ketamine).

How Does a Person Get Hooked on Ketamine

Ketamine is used in many different ways. It is used an anesthetic on humans it is primarily used on children or the elderly and people of third world countries due to the emergence phenomena (http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine). When using Ketamine as a recreational drug is comes in many forms such as powder, tablet, or in a liquid form which are taken orally, anally, snorting, or injected in the muscle or veins. Once administered intramuscularly it takes roughly two minutes to take effect (Julien, Advokat, & Comaty, 2011, pg.530). If snorted it takes about 5-10 minutes to take effect, peak times are different according to the way the drug is administered ( http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine).

With the use of Ketamine it has psychic sensations that may occur such as mood state and body images, floating sensations, vivid dreams or illusions and the occasional frank delirium (http://ceaccp.oxfordjournals.org/content/7/2/59.full). Ketamine is also known as Special K on the streets. It has the similar effects as to what PCP would have on a person. Once the drug is ingested the body can feel the effects for up to 24 hours after (http://casapalmera.com/uses-symptoms-and-effects-of-ketamine). Special K is also a drug that is very well known for its use in date rape. This drug is both odorless and has no taste at all. There are many street names for this drug that include: (http://casapalmera.com/uses-symptoms-and-effects-of-ketamine).

  • Special K
  • K
  • Super Acid
  • Kit kat
  • Vitamin K
  • Jet
  • Honey oil
  • Purple
  • Cat Valium

Ketamine or Special K has many signs and symptoms that accompany the use of this drug which consist of and are not limited to (http://casapalmera.com/uses-symptoms-and-effects-of-ketamine):

  • Hallucinations
  • Poor vision
  • Amnesia
  • Strange heart rate patterns
  • Nausea
  • Identity confusion
  • Elevated heart rate
  • Numbness
  • Out of body experiences
  • Delirium
  • Rash
  • Confusion of time
  • Depression
  • Poor coordination
  • Seizures
  • Realistic dreams

There are many long term side effects from the use of Ketamine/Special K (http://casapalmera.com/uses-symptoms-and-effects-of-ketamine):

  • Permanent memory loss
  • Anxiety
  • Respiratory complication
  • Neuroses
  • Inability to pay attention
  • Poor learning ability
  • Night terrors
  • Mental disorders
  • PTSD
  • Increase in blood pressure
  • Flashbacks
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Depression
  • Insomnia

Once Ketamine /Special K is used on a regular basis the drug begins to build up in the person body thus forming a tolerance to the drug. Once this is done it requires that more and more of the drug be utilized in order to feel the high that the person is seeking. Once the drug has been used for a long period of time the effects may take many years to overcome. In order to completely overcome the addiction it requires the use of drug rehabilitation (http://casapalmera.com/uses-symptoms-and-effects-of-ketamine).

With the use of Ketamine/Special K a person is seeking the feeling of detachment from reality. The person feels free from life. Although Ketamine/Special K is an addictive drug it is also know to be relatively safer compared to some drugs due to the fact that if one is administering the drug to themselves that they are more likely to pass out before injection or ingesting to much of the drug to cause an overdose, unless they are administering a large dose very quickly (http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine). If administered in a high dose it can cause the person to become immobilized or even to become transfixed. Over many years there have been deaths due to the use of Ketamine/Special K but not because of an overdose but due to the fact that the person suffered from the side effects on a physical aspect. Such as but not limited to falling down or hitting something due to the black outs that occur when under the influence of the drug (http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine). Although Ketamine/Special K is not considered to physically addictive it is however psychologically addictive (http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine).

Due to addiction of Ketamine/Special K the withdrawals of this drug are considered to be somewhat nonexistent. There are symptoms from chronic users that consist of minor tension, twitchiness, poor attention spans and restlessness which could be caused from the sedatives in the drug itself may linger in the blood stream for a period of time (http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine).

As of this date there is only one country that Ketamine/Special K is legal an considered to be an unscheduled drug and that is in Iran http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine). Other countries have made the drug illegal to possess unless they have a license to administer the drug or prescribe as a medication legally.

According to 1 Corinthians 10:13 “No temptation has overtaken you that is not common to man. God is faithful, and he will not let you be tempted beyond your ability, but with the temptations he will also provide the way of escape, that you may be able to endure.”

Conclusions

In conclusion, Ketamine/Special K has been around for quite some time in this country. And as we have learned there are many side effects that come with the use of this drug. Many people whom are addicted to this drug have the choice of not allowing it to consume them or just giving into the addiction. I learned that this drug is readily available and is used in many different ways such as a date rape drug and a drug to just be able to disassociate yourself from your problems. I can see someone using this drug in order to escape the troubles of everyday life. Also, that the side effects of coming off of the drugs are not as noticeable as other drugs.

References

http://azarius.net/encyclopedia/39/Ketamine/

http://casapalmera.com/uses-symptoms-and-effects-of-ketamine, Addiction to Special K

http://ceaccp.oxfordjournals.org/content/7/2/59.full, Ketamine

http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Ketamine

Julien, R.M., Advokat, C.D., & Comaty, J.E. (2011). A primer of drug action (12th ed.).New York, NY: Worth.

Holly Bible, King James Version

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