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The cognitive theory of development is derived by Mr. Jean Piaget in this theory he discussed how mental world of built by child Mr. Piaget also disagreed with the ideas of other intelligent who prove that and he believes that the process of cognitive development happens due to biological maturation and interaction with the environment. In the 1920s he is working with Binet institute and in this institute, his job is to convert French versions to English tests which are used for checking the other people intelligence.
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Sometimes he shows their interested when the child gives wrong answers to his question without thinking logically and he is also this that wrong answer of the questions shows the difference between thinking of adult people and child. In 1936 Piaget was a person who makes the study of cognitive development systematic as a first psychologist and his biggest contribution in it is that he includes the child cognitive theory on a stage that observes the child with cognitive development in detailed and study about them. Piaget makes several different types of intelligence tests which also use for cheeking the cognitive thinking of the child.
In addition to it, in this theory, let Piaget try to measure the child’s performance you can calculate, spell or deal with problems through your I.Q. In this theory, Piaget represents the young man-children to perceive various forms compared to adults. Based on Piaget, child fertility is always born with the basic psychological structure learning and knowledge is based.
This theory is better related to each child apprentice Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development does not like to learn by itself focus on the development of children’s perception because it does not solve this problem the process of knowledge or specific behavior discrete Stages of Development, characterized by different qualities, compared with little by little Increase in the quantity and complexity of information, behavior or concepts (Saul McLeod, 2018). The theory holds that children will face four different stages of psychological development this life The theory of cognitive development of Jean Piaget focuses on the abilities of children how do they obtain information, knowledge and how do they understand its nature? intelligence According to him, there are four stages, they are the starting point of the sensory-motor stage two years after the birth of the child, another stage emerged, the preoperative stage lasting seven years Again, the specific phase of the next phase begins from the age of 7 to 11 years, the final stage of this theory is called the official stage of operation begin at the age of 12 years. According to this theory, he believes that children will play an important role in the learning process. (Cherry, the 4 Stages of Cognitive Development, 2019)
In 1905, Freud proposed the psychological development of childhood in a specific stages. According to Freud, there are five psychosexual stages that take place during the childhood. These stages are: oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital. Each stage represents the fixation of libido on specific parts of the body. According to Freud, life is based around two emotions- tension and pleasure. According to this theory, tension is due to built-up libido while pleasure comes from its discharge. The term ‘sexual’ in this theory has been used generally to represent all pleasurable actions and thoughts.
This is the first stage of this theory. It occurs between birth and 1 year of age. At this stage, libido is centered in a baby’s mouth and the baby gets satisfaction by putting all sorts of things in its mouth. This stage is oral orientated such as sucking, biting and breastfeeding. Freud believes that this early oral stimulation can have lifelong effects and people with such fixations may grow up to be smokers, nail biters, finger-chewers and thumb suckers especially when under stress.
This is the second stage that occurs between the ages of 1 to 3 years old. This is the stage where libido is focused on the anus and hence the child derives pleasure from defecating. This is the stage where ego is developed and the child begins understanding that they are different and their wishes can create conflict with others. These conflicts occur because the child doesn’t like being told what to do. It is observed during the potty training. The child is told by the adults when and where he/she can defecate. This interaction with authority can determine the child’s reaction to authority for their entire life. If the parents are too harsh, the child may grow up to being obsessively tidy, punctual and respectful of the authority. Else, they can turn out to be stubborn and possessive with their possessions.
This is the stage that occurs between the age of 3 to 6 years old. This is the stage where sensitivity is focused in the genital area and the child begins understanding the anatomical sex differences. It leads to resentment, jealousy and fear. The boys admire their mothers and compete with the fathers and vice versa for the girls. This is then resolved by the process of identification. The child starts identifying themselves with the parent of the same sex and starts adopting and copying their characteristics.
This is the fourth stage that occurs between 6 years of age to puberty. As the name suggests, this is the hidden stage of development as there is no further psychosexual development that occurs at this stage. The libido is dormant and most of the sexual impulses are repressed and that energy is focused on school work, hobbies, friendships and family. at the stage, most of the child’s energy is focused on acquiring knowledge and learning new skills. Mostly, at this stage, kids play together with kids of their own gender.
This is the last stage that occurs between puberty and adulthood. This is the stage where the person starts having sexual instincts towards other people and the proper outlet of these instincts happens via intercourse. It can be affected by the previous stages and the fixations developed in the previous stages (Simply Psychology, 2019).
In what both the theory different from each other
The main concept of the attachment theory is psychological development which means that the attachment among each other. Firstly, the theory deals with the connection between individual with feeling and also physically, it gives a sense of security and stability while facing problems or taking risks. Similarly, this theory has a broader plan; design has a variety of expressions, and better understands it by observing the expression which they express.
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Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development says about the reasonable different views of children as well as adults, while this theory explains briefly the ability to how to maintain a relationship with other person emotionally or physically, we have the ability recognizing the impact of child development and on Piaget’s education children of cognitive theory can get ideas about the world of their environment. This theory focuses on child safety through parents and Piaget’s theory focuses on how children get knowledge from his or her surroundings. (Attachment Theory, 2019)
Difference between the attachment theory and “Freud’s” Theory of “Psychosexual stages of Development”
The theory aims to focuses on how individuals establish relationships with the next person where did it start, and the psychosexual theory of Freud’s is also one of the stages of the development theory it describes about antisocial personality, Neurotic behaviour / disease. In the theory of attachment says that there will be no rise of any ego issues, where as in Freud’s theory, there will be the develop of ego can seen as well as super ego also Through the theory of attachment, we can understand the impact of education and social psychology, and through Freud’s theory, we can able to realize the difference between conscious state and unconscious state of the mind. (Attachment Theory, 2019)
Impact of Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive development in the delivery of “Mental health and addiction” clients in New Zealand
In task 1 Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development support the perception of offspring in different ways and also research has various important milestones among the child intellectual developmental. Jean theory also triggers the public mind which developed an interest in developmental and cognitive psychology in them. The cognitive theory of Jean Piaget the development also helps us to understand the capacity of cognitive development for people who live with (mental health and addictions) issues. After the research is done it was concluded that the child is an initial version of an adult, but for Piaget, children are a unique and important period of personal development. The Piaget’s theory influences the psychology of development by changing people’s attention development research (Verywell mind, 2019).
While considering New Zealand, there is majority of children’s who suffering from mental health and addiction issues. Mental health professionals have found different strategy of dealing with children mental illness. Also jean Piaget’s theory is used to support abused children and the children with mental illness for improvement. The theory provide hypothesis: deductive reasoning and propositional ideas, which can be applied in New Zealand for the treatment (Oswalt, 2019).
Impact of Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development in delivery of “Mental Health and addiction” clients in New Zealand
The theory of psychological development of Sigmund Freud is the most versatile and well-known theory. Which take the person to the develop or successful completion of a healthy personality. By applying the theoretical individual of Freud it can develop, identity, superego, people will realize by this individual can be able to distinguish between the unconscious mind and a conscious mind to determine the psychology of the individual Health condition due to Freud’s theory, individuals can recognize its importance. This theory describes the antisocial personality, neuroticism diseases / behaviours in all stages. Freud’s theory also focuses on Develop the personality of the client.
For example, while considering New Zealand, most counsellors use communication therapy to deal with the lives of clients who are suffering from mental health and addictions to create a healthy personality, this idea comes from Freud’s theory of sexual psychology. (Thomas, 1996)
Authoritative parenting is one of the parenting styles which shape individuality with reasonable demand and high response capacity. Who are the parents? The authorities expect their children to be better, but they will help and support their children to reach their goals those are set by the child and parent provide all kind of support which help the child to achieve their set goal. This type of parent will listen to the needs and problems of the child and also allow love to improve its themes and thinking and always permute the positive things, which is accepted by society. Authoritative parents also able to understand and feel the emotions and feelings of the child and help of the child on this basis the same is true for the reactions of authoritative parents of children set high expectations for their children and set some rules and regulation so they can be the part of the society and understand their issues and provide the proper support which is required for the child growth and development.
If the parents are more authoritative the child will able to learn more and intelligent if and able to share their thoughts and feeling with their parents and they can also get help from their parents if they have any issues and discuss before taking decision and if parents give support to the child which meet to their expectation he/she will grow more and in holistic way. On the other hand child of strict parents they always think about their parent do not able to discuss about their issues with their parents always get scared not able to make discussions always depend on their parent it is also effect on their mental and physical health and not able to set any goal because they do not have proper support from their parents which help them to set any particular goal and they do not also know how to achieve this goal.
Authoritative parenting prove that child of Authoritative parents more advanced as compare to others because they get full support from their parents and parents always boost to their children’s because they want to give a better life to their children’s they want if their child like he/she will be come under any problem he/she need to know how to overcome that issues and Childers of Authoritative parent also understand the emotional and feelings and they are very well in decision making and they are also very helpful and their mental health is very well. But on the other hand child of strict parents always depend on their parents decision they do not know how to cope up with issues and how to face the problematic situations because they always wait for others order they do not make their own strategies to come out from the problem and they are always scared from their parents and also they are not mentaly health
The research carried out by the MSD (Ministry of Social Development) found that children are under the authority of being parents; they will develop good social skills, like being respectful towards their elders, able to show their love and affection towards children. Children those are under Authoritative parenting they set some limits and boundaries and they can also respond easily to people. Children under authoritative parenting will be cooperative they have less risk of suffering from depression, addiction, mental disorders, any addiction and suicide etc. because they can share their emotions and feelings with their family members and their friends and elders, and their parents will it is also supportive and helpful at every step of life of their children and help them also taking any decision and the Childers those are under the authoritative parenting they can able to make their decisions by them self but they can also take a help from their parents because they always support to the child decision and if they make any wrong decision they also help them to come out from the issues.
For example, in New Zealand parents are more supportive towards their child they always support them like if their child want to be a part of any sports and their family try to fulfil their goal like they enrolled their child to sports school so he or she will learn and face all the rules and regulations about the game which he she like to play from the professionals and if their children want to be a doctor, lower and want to joint any other professional they support to their children and help them to achieve their set goal and create that kind of environment which encourage them to more towards their goal and they feel comfortable and similar with the new environment and it also boost up their ability when their family help them and support to their decision they become more energetic in 1907 in newspaper and articles print about the child need and expectations and also about how the parents encourages their child to towards their goals and how they can help them to achieve it. (LEVY, 2019)
First time gambling introduced in New Zealand in 1908 by the first European he gave idea about the gambling like horse racing initially they just introduce the racing gambling is legal all the other were not legally introduced till now just the racing is legal because they give their some of the contribution to the New Zealand community but now online gambling is more famous it is not have any relation with any community (Ministry of Social Development, 2019)
In 19th century the horse racing firstly start in new Zealand and in 1835 it was held firstly bay of island and in starting it was introduced as the source of entertainment but with the passage of time people start betting on horses and it develops and it becomes the as a part of the gambling and in starting not most of people were not aware with this they took it as source of entertainment but in the mid of 19th century they star spending a lot on horse races and they suffer with many health issues like they start getting depressed, start taking drugs and got addicted with drugs and they also suffer with other mental health and addicted issues.
In 1980s in July lotteries is introduces and it was spread all over the new Zealand in year 1987 and all people got award with this and Lotteries Commission was firstly introduced Lotteries and Pokies. In New Zealand in starting this game with buying lottery tickets and after introducing the result the start giving small random gifts but after 20-30 years after introducing the lotteries the 68% of population of the New Zealand start playing lotto. In addition to it more than 400,000 people start attracting to words lotto because they start waiting the lotto’s result on their homes like on TV because most of the results declared on weekend because of that not most of people do not want to go to their jobs. In starting people think that that is the easy way to making money so they start with the small investments but with the time they invests a lot on lotto’s and its result was that they become homeless because they sale their houses for buying lotto tickets and because of that they suffer with lots of mental health and addiction issues (Ministry of Social Development, 2019)
As in 1989, the council offers too many gaming clubs and give licenced to club so people will come and do the gambling and club get profit in all around the New Zealand there are more than 1500 clubs and it is proves that the number will be increased because people become more money minded they do not want to do the jobs for making money and they want to rich in one night without any work so they join these clubs and play cards and other games and spent money on gambling and have fun and people start firstly with small bits but when he/she once win they start spending a lot and after some time they get addicted with gambling and drugs they ask people more money so they can spend on gambling and their family is worried about them because they spend whole money on gambling and when he/she losing everything their family will also suffer with them because they do not have money for fulfil their basic need and it also influence’s the family living standard they start getting depressed and many other health issues.
In 1990 near about 20-21 billion New Zealand dollars people spend on online gambling. In online gambling they play a game which they like and start investing on that like blackjack, baccarat, slots and on other online games sometime they invest so they will able to maintain their interest as an individual but sometimes they get addicted with online gambling. It also a kind of major issues in New Zealand because in each and every year people spent more than 2 billion US dollars and this amount is not fixed because research proves that it will be increase in following years this also influence the economy of the country and standard of living and the people health and education. It can also cause problems such as Anxiety and frustration and its withdrawal symptoms can also be irritating to the people near or around.
This is also one of the growing problems for New Zealanders, many people invest in online sports .By betting on funds for different sports, for example They include a wide range of games, matches and events, to include American football, MLB baseball, basketball, boxing, cricket, cycling, football (soccer), golf, hockey, mixed martial arts, motorsports, netball, rugby, surfing and tennis, they will join and start investing in certain clubs through the Internet, which will have several negative effects on people, since people will have loans or any other issues related to money and people start misguide them and trying to make them participate in negative things like gambling to solve their issue’s. Money and also has several of other symptoms that can lead to withdrawal symptoms and mental health and other addiction disorders (Ministry of Social Development, 2019)
On the basis of the research it is prove that 1.8 adults percentage or 1 in 59 in New Zealand are addicted with gambling and having a risk of gambling it is proved by PGSI index (Problem Gambling Severity Index). According to a survey conducted by Health Sponsorship, in fact, 36% of people think that people who live around them or their family members have problems with gambling, which is on high level according to reports around more than 15% of people have already caused financial loans or property losses. In New Zealand they have difference in level of gambling issues is different demographic community like in new Zealand we can take the example of Maori people and pacific while compared the gambling problem then we get the result these two communities have gambling rate more four times greater. In this present year people stop using the traditional forms of gambling they move towards the latest introduced versions of gambling like casinos and online gambling and electronic machines. This year, the game has entered a less traditional environment, namely, the casinos, the mobile game. The spending on bets in 2010/11 reached $ 1.97 billion, or approximately $ 5.4 million per day. Of this year’s total expenses, 44% of the expenses come from non-casino and latest form of gambling like from electronic machines, 22% from casinos, 20% from lottery tickets and the remaining 14% from betting contests and from races. Research shows that in last couple of years, spending on non-casino gambling has decreased. An electronic machine that remain in the casino or that are not retained in the casino also causes gambling issues, with a greater proportion of women than men, with 89% women and 67% men. Recently many casinos have been established, with a variety of facilities such as Sky City Auckland, Sky City Hamilton, Sky City Queenstown, Dunedin Casino and Marina Casino as the needs of people of several luxury hotels people live in New Zealanders they spend around $ 2 million (US dollars) a year in online gambling, such as blackjack. (What Do We Know About Gambling In New Zealand?)
Gambling should be looked at as a source of fun and nothing more than that. Gambling can become an addiction if not controlled. There are many incidents where people end up losing all their savings because they get addicted to gambling. Therefore, kit is important to practice responsible gambling. Responsible gambling is introduced as widely used concept in which there are various methods that are used to ensure that individual doesn’t gamble when they cannot afford it. Responsible gambling means knowing that they shouldn’t take gambling as means of making money but they should take as time pass. This concept also instruct people to bet the money that they can afford not more than that as a simple term spend money by limiting.
Responsible gambling means having several policies and requirements that are applied to the gambling stakeholders to ensure that the highest standards are maintained. It also means offering a safe user experience that helps in protecting the users from potential negative consequences that can result from gambling. Gambling needs to be treated a way of recreation.
It is important for the gamblers to act with discretion and play responsibly. But it is also the casino or the gambling platform’s responsibility to ensure that the gambling taking place is responsible. It includes strict policies regarding prevention of underage gambling. ID proof should be checked at all times. The operators need to be aware and the online platforms need to verify the ID details. The gambling should be done ethically and not as a competition. The casinos need to ensure that there is a safe and secure environment for the users. Alcohol consumption should be supervised as well. The users should be observed and if they seem drunk, no further alcohol should be served. If a player seems to be getting addicted, the casino should look into the matter and apply limits of amounts that can be spent.
If a person gambles irresponsibly then he/she may end up losing all the money and would not even have money for basic needs and/or pay the bills. This can result in many family issues as well as the family would be troubled as well due to the gambling addiction. This can cause many personal and financial problems and the gambler may end up losing all the savings and even the relationships. This can get very depressing and the gambler may face many mental health issues that can be a result of this addiction (An Unsafe Bet?, 2011)
Research proves that the committing suicidal rate of New Zealander is more as compare to other in last year it was near about 667 people who committing suicide after that is is also proved by the research the suicidal rate was continuously increased from last two couple of years. According to the boss’s investigation coroner Marshall has increased the number of people who committing suicide in the last 3 years it increased from 26 to 43.In addition to it, 100,000 the proportion of individuals in the previous year increased from 12.33 to 12.64. The study also support to the information after comparing all age groups result shows that the highest percentages of all the age group the people who are come under the age 19 to 25 they committed more suicide rather than other age groups the last year more than 78 people died because of suicide. Furthermore, it is also shows that the highest rate of committing suicide of Maori peoples are more as comparatively other groups and it was increased by year and year like it year 2017 it was near about 131 and in year 2018 the number was increased the people who committing suicide and died it was increased from 131 to 141. According to the information collected by Judge Marshall, the people who come under the age of 20 to 24 years committing more suicide last year it was 79 in numbers after that people those come under the age of 45-49 around 67 people die because of suicide. According to the Auckland District Board of Health includes that the suicidal rate is higher in Auckland as compare to the other cities it is near about 70 percentages of all one million people. Again the mortality rate of New Zealand youth between the ages of 15 to 20 in 2010 is approximately 15.6 per 100,000. The research proves that the information collected in July 1 to July 30, 2014, with a total number of 238 people who committed suicide and they come under the age of 12 to 24 years. The Maori adult committed more suicide as compare to Non-Maori it is proved by the research the ratio of Maori adults it is near about 49.0% and the Non –Maori young once death rate is approximately 17.0% in 2012. Since 1996, Non-Maori suicide death rates have decreased the Maori suicide rate remains the same but the suicide rate is different and it depends on area where they are located like some Maori people are located in cities and some of them are living in small villages. It is also proves from the research that the New Zealand on the second position of highest suicidal rate and the research also give the figure which shows that the suicide rate increased from 57,000 to 78,000 and most of the people are come under the 15 to 20 age group in this suicide percentage of New Zealand. (Suicide prevention, 2019)
Culture plays very important role in every person’s life and every culture have their own personal values and myths and customs which they follow all the times.
A study conducted by the CDC (centre for Diseases) showed that approximately 40,000 Americans died here each year, trying to commit suicide through them, majority of the population belongs to the African-Americans the main characteristics of committing suicide is that sometimes individual feel sham, lees confident and lack of family and friends support and the support they get it is meet with their need and also below from their expectations.
An article called “International Journal of Child Development” 2008 shows that African-Americans living in rural areas face more suicide compared to people living in urban areas because people who live here these areas face a variety of problems, such as being isolated from others by others culture, and its culture, are economically private suicide Other studies collected by the “Journal of Black” Psychology in 2006 also found African-Americans who work in the church and who believe in God and going to church every day they have a lower suicide rate as compared to the people who are not participate or not engaged in the church activities, because they will get more support from the church when they participate in activities of church and get more support which meet to their expectations and father of church also motivate and encourage them and give the new way of live and with this motivation they get the hope for live longer. (JT1., 1997)
In Japan, the suicidal rate is higher as compared to African Americans like few last years ago the ratio of people who die because of suicide it was nearby 24000 and more than 65 people die while attempting suicide. In addition to it, Japanese elders die more as compare to African America because of loneliness that stays at home without a person who takes care of them in the past family give support to their family to take care of their elders. Now it case gets worse because they live alone in their homes and elders get neglected (Zayas, 2011).When people neglect their elders and then they start feeling isolated so they attempt suicide so time they have some different case behind attempting suicide and suicide is not acceptable in Japanese culture sometimes they attempt suicide because they have to get loan and not able to pay off their loans for getting their insurance to pay off their loan they attempt suicide. Furthermore, in Japan people and families are more supportive to attempt suicide like in Japan people think their life is worthless might be if they get die they get insurance and they think that it will be more worth because after that his or her family get insurance money and they can pay off their loans. In Japan young people also attempt more suicide and the people under the age group of 19 to 40 they attempt more suicide rather them others for different issues like bad relationship status, Family problems and one of the major cause of attempting suicide in Japan is unemployment, people who are not able to get the relevant job after getting education and after the year 1998 the ratio of suicidal attempt get raised and they do not able to the government opportunities and there are very few people how can get the job other stays at home and think a lot and make the decision of attempting suicide and Japan people do not want to discuss their problem with other and they keep their anger and frustration which make them unstable and cause other mental health and addiction problems like anxiety, anger, and stress. In Japan people do not agree to leave their homes and they do not want to go for their treatment to some ware else because they afraid if they leave their home their social life will disturb and in Japanese culture people do not approach Mental health practitioner for discussing about Mental health and addiction problems because environment and culture play an important role in balance the mental health of the person (Zayas, 2011)
To in conclude, jean Piaget theory of child development theory in this theory I learn about how child learn from their surrounding it this the duty of the parents and caregivers provide the environment to their child so they can grow not only physically as well as mental give some freedom so they can make their decision by them self like the thoughts and the answers of some question the child give with thinking them logically and jean make some question for checking the mental capacity of the child and adults but it is the duty of the guardian to check the child is mentally fit. It happen when the parents are authoritative and able to understand their child and talk with them discuss with them and help them in making decision and if they make any decision by them self-agree with them and approach to their children’s it positive way if they get strict all the time the child will develop only physically not mentally he or she will always depend on other people so they not will able to make their design not able to cope up with their problems and when they not able to get the solution of their problems they start getting stress and suffer with other mental health and addiction issues that is the responsibility of the parents to give freedom to their Childers and set some limitations and boundaries so the child is able to understand what is wrong and right and how to make decision and how to make the solution of the problems by them self. In addition to it, gambling first introduced in New Zealand as source of entertainment in 1908 by the European in the form of horse racing but take it on wrong way they start betting on horses and they make it the business they spend whole their saving on gambling and start feel guilt when they do not have any single money for the basic need of their family they start thinking too much which lead to the stress and become burnout and other mental illnesses after the racing they introduce the other sources of gambling like casino and online betting and online betting become more popular in youth and these all gambling’s are illegal people need to get aware about all these so they do not feel guilt after spend their whole saving they need to think before spending on gambling about their family and their basic need. On the other hand the suicide attempt in New Zealand it more as compare to the other countries and it is more popular in people those are come under the age of 15 to 20 some time they attempt when they not able to get the proper family and friends support and when they feel shame and some time when they not able to the solution of their problems and after too much hard work when they not able to get the job then they think about attempting suicide is the best solution of the problem but we need to aware the people and distribute the knowledge about that the suicide is not the solution of the problem make them aware motivate them make them confident so they will able to discuss about their problems and get the solution of their issues and make some strategies to decrease the mortality rate of the young people of New Zealand because in New Zealand the Japanese people suicidal rate is more because they have some rituals and values because of that they feel a sham and do not discuss about their issues with others rather it is physical or mental issues because they do not have the enough knowledge about English and they think if they approach to the doctor and they not able to explain their problem the doctor make fun of them that way they think suicide is the best option for them but we need to make the client comfortable and respect the all the cultures and values and approach the people in holistic and positive way.
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