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Annotated Bibliography on the Impact of Parental Bonding

2896 words (12 pages) Essay in Psychology

08/02/20 Psychology Reference this

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Meites M. T., Ingram E. R., & Siegle J. G. (2012). Unique and shared aspects of affective symptomatology: the role of parental bonding in depression and anxiety profiles. Cognitive

 Therapy Research, 36(3) , 173-181. doi:10.1007/s10608-011-9426-3

 This article tests the relation of parent-child bond with mental illness such as anxiety or depression. Meites, Ingram, and Siegle (2012), found that there are a plenty of behaviors that can affect the parent-child bond, two of the main factors being care and protection. In contrast, a negative environment consists of neglect or controlling behaviors (Meites et al. 2012). Meites et al. found that there is a large association between these mental illnesses and the parent-child bond. The parent-child bond is not the only contributing factor, but parenting patterns also play a role (Meites et al.). In the study it says, “An individual with perceived low levels of maternal care may begin to assume that she is unlovable and unworthy of other’s care and consideration… These negative schemas may then be translated into cognitive vulnerabilities; parental bonding may function as a mediating factor in the development of anxiety and depression through the emergence of these schemas.” (p. 178; Meites 2012). In other words, when a child is not given proper care and nurturance, they then perceive themselves as someone who is not capable of feeling love and affection in other relationships.

Abell, L., Lyons, M., & Brewer, G. (2014). The relationship between parental bonding, machiavellianism and adult friendship quality. Individual Differences Research, 12(4-B) ,

 191-197. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267024171/download

 This article tests the relationship between parent-child bond and Machiavellian personality (Abell, Lyons & Brewer, 2014). This person is described to be someone who easily deceives others, and navigates through social situations protecting and paying close attention to how they present themselves to various groups of people (Abell et al. 2014). Abell et al. found that parental bond does, in fact, influence this personality type as well as adult relationships. A negative environment with decreased levels of care played a significant role, (Abell et al.) as well as paternal overprotection. This information could be helpful in offering insight to parents with children that display this type of behavior.

Willinger, U., Radner, D-G., Willnauer, R., Jorgal, G., & Hager, V. (2005). Parenting stress and parental bonding. Behavioral Medicine, 31(2) , 63-69. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7631225_Parenting_Stress_and_Parental_Bonding

 This article is about the relation between parenting stress and parent-child attachment. “One of the most influential theories in explaining the association between children’s early family experiences and their social and emotional development is attachment theory.” (p.63; Willinger 2005). According to Willinger, Radner, Willnauer… and Hager et al. (2005), in a well balanced environment, parental attachment styles foreshadow future relationships. “The attachment relationships are also reflected in the child’s degree of self-confidence, sociability, and capacity to cope with challenge and stress.” (p. 64; Willinger 2005). Living in a positive environment encourages healthy development of social relationships and a positive self-image. This article talks mostly about attachment theory, and the title is misleading.

Bourne, K., Berry, K., Jones, L. (2014). The relationship between psychological mindedness, parental bonding and adult attachment. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 87(2), 161-177. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12007

 Psychological mindedness is an individual’s ability to develop an insight to one’s own feelings and behaviors, as well as others (Bourne, Berry & Jones 2014). This article tests how the idea relates to parental-child bond. Bourne et al. (2014) tested this theory through examining adult’s psychological mindedness, and their recollection of childhood memories with parental attachment. Psychological mindedness tested positive in relation to parental attachment through maternal love (Bourne et al.). On the other end, traumatic events such as divorce and abuse can cause a negative impact on the security children feel through attachment (Bourne et al.). Bourne et al. also investigated into different forms of adult attachment, and these can be broken down into two forms, such as, attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Individuals with attachment anxiety are usually characterized with self-esteem issues, and a fear of neglect or abandonment. People with attachment avoidance only depend on themselves and avoid social interaction. “The authors found that psychological mindedness was strongly, negatively correlated with attachment avoidance, but there was no relationship between attachment anxiety and psychological mindedness” (p. 169; Bourne 2014).

Hiroko, H., Akinori, I., Hitoshi, T., Isao, O., and Toyoki, O. Low level of parental bonding might be a risk factor among women with prolonged depression: a preliminary investigation. Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 63( ) , 721-729. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2009.0208.x

 Some of the components that influence long term depression involve age, gender, income, genetic history, and educational level (Hiroko, Akinori, Hitoshi… & Toyoaki 2009). This study investigated the connection between parental attachment and long term depression in men and women (Hitoshi et al. 2009). They tested their hypothesis using a parental bonding instrument to weigh the influence of long term depression on the male and female gender (Hitoshi et al.). The study concluded that decreased childhood care may result in long depression for women (Hitoshi et al.). In comparison to men, the study did not find a relation to negative parent-child bond and long term depression. Instead, Hitoshi et al. determined that men were more likely to experience depression if their fathers were overprotective.

Cruz, D., Narciso, I., Pereira, R., & Sampaio, D. (2014). Risk trajectories of self-destructiveness in adolescence: family core influences. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23(8), 1172-1181. doi:10.1007/s10826-013-9777-3

 Self-destructive thoughts are considered to be thoughts of suicide, and self-injury (Cruz, Narciso, Pereira & Sampaio 2014). This study aims to investigate the relation of self-destructive behaviors to family environment and attachment. Specifically, the point of the investigation was to “ (1) identify which attachment and parenting style dimensions predicted reports of STDB; (2) to test the hypothesis that perceived cohesion mediates the relationship between predictors and reports of STDB; and (3) to verify whether adolescents’ sex and age moderated correlations between parenting styles and reports of STDB and correlations between attachment and reports of STDB.” (p. 1178; Cruz 2014) The hypotheses were not all confirmed, but the study did find that parental bond did have a significant influence on the well-being of adolescents’ (Cruz et al.). Specifically, mothers played a more impactful role in the development of self-destructive behaviors. (Cruz et al.). Adolescents’ who received care and nurturance were less likely to develop this behavior (Cruz et al.). Cruz et al. also determined that if there was not a secure amount of care, adolescents first might develop self-esteem issues and loneliness before it progresses into self-destructive behavior.

Chen, F., Lin, H., & Li, C., (2012). The role of emotion in parent-child relationships: children’s emotionality, maternal meta-emotion, and children’s attachment security. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21(3), 403-410. doi: 10.1007/s10826-011-9491-y

 The objective of this study was to look into the correlation between the emotions of children, the perceptions parents have on emotion (maternal meta-emotion), and parental bond (Chen, Lin & Li 2012). Maternal meta-emotion is parents’ feelings toward emotion, and this revolves around not only their own, but their children as well (Chen et al. 2012). Chen et al. categorized 4 different kinds of maternal meta-emotion including: emotion-coaching, emotion-dismissing, emotion dysfunction and non-involvement. The study came to a conclusion that mother figures with an emotion coaching tendency were much more likely to attain a secure bond with their child (Chen et al.). In comparison, mothers with an emotion-dismissing, emotion dysfunction or non-involvement parenting style were more likely to have an unsecure attachment with their child (Chen et al.). Children that received these parenting styles felt that their feelings were not heard and that they were not supported. (Chen et al.). The study also examined whether the behavior of children first played a role in attachment security, but there was not a correlation. (Chen et al.).

Blomgren, S.A., Svahn, K., Astrom, E., & Ronnlund, M. (2016). Coping strategies in late

 adolescence: relationships to parental attachment and time perspective. The Journal of

 Genetic Psychology, 3(1), 85-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2016.1178101

The point of this study was to determine the use of coping styles in adolescents’ in comparison to parental bond (Blomgren, Svahn, Astrom & Ronnlund (2016). Coping is described as the way an individual handles and controls a given situation (Blomgren et al. 2016). Coping can be broken down into 2 different categories that include: disengagement and engagement coping (Blomgren et al.). Disengagement coping relates to avoiding stressful situations through distraction, and engagement coping is working through problems or stressful situations (Blomgren et al.). According to Blomgren et al., attachment theory is based off of the idea that children form a relationship with their parents, and whether it is positive or negative, it effects a number of different aspects in present and future behaviors, personalities etc. The study confirmed that parental attachment has a significant importance in the development of coping skills (Blomgren et al.)

Redshaw, M., & Martin Colin. (2013). Babies, “bonding” and ideas about parental “attachment”. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 3 , 219-221. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02646838.2013.830383

 This article talks about the importance of parental bond and attachment in infancy. (Redshaw & Colin 2013). “According to a psychological point of view, the antenatal period and the early days and months with a new baby are all about adjustment, changing identity, and then parents getting to know their baby as an individual and building relationships together” (p. 219; Redshaw 2013). According to Redshaw et al., new parents worry abound establishing a bond or attachment if they were separated from their baby right after birth, or in early infancy. This worry is due to the importance of early physical closeness and skin-to-skin contact right after birth (Redshaw et al.). There are 4 different categories that correspond to parental attachment in infacy that include: secure, insecure-resistent, and insecure-disorganized behaviors.

Hall S. A. Ruby., Hoffenkamp N. H., Tooten, A., Braeken, J., Vingerhoets, H., & Bakel, H.

 (2015). Child-rearing history and emotional bonding in parents of preterm and full-term

 infants. Journal of Family Child Studies, 24(6), 1715-1726. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-9975-7

 In the beginning of infancy it is important to develop an emotional bond and connection to infants. (Hall, Hoffenkamp, Tooten… & Bakel 2015). The emotional bond begins at child-birth, and it is significantly important that infants are given proper care and support to then result in positive developmental behaviors down the line (Hall et al. 2015). This study revolves around the parental attachment surrounding premature and full-term babies (Hall et al.). Evidence shows that mothers that gave birth to premature babies resulted in having a stronger emotional connection to their baby because they required a significant amount of care and support (Hall et al.). In contrast, mothers who gave birth to full-term infants did not feel as strong of a connection (Hall et al.). When compared to fathers, a premature or full-term baby did not affect the emotional connection (Hall et al.).

Kumar, A. S., & Mattanah F. J., (2016). Parental attachment, romantic competence, relationship satisfaction, and psychosocial adjustment in emerging adulthood. Personal Relationships, 23(4), 801-817. doi:10.1111/pere.12161

 It is important that parents develop healthy parental attachment styles in order to make children feel like there is a stable connection (Kumar & Mattanah 2016). This article tests the idea of parental attachment and its relation to the development of healthy relationships in adulthood (Kumar et al. 2016). When a child does not feel that there is a secure bond, they are much more likely to develop feelings of low self-esteem, anger, loneliness, anxiety and shame (Kumar et al.). According to Kumar et al. there is not a clear answer in whether fathers play a role in a healthy development of relationships, and this is because fathers generally tend to focus on problem-solving ways of parenting. In contrast, mothers tend to be more nurturing and comforting (Kumar et al.). When parents develop a positive attachment to their child, Kumar et al. determined that they are generally better at problem-solving, and develop ethics like humility, gratitude, and forgiveness.

Yan, J., Han R. Z., Tang, Y., & Zhang, X. (2017). Parental support for autonomy and child

 depressive symptoms in middle childhood: the mediating role of parent-child attachment.

 Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(7), 1970-1978. 10.1007/s10826-017-0712-x

 This article tests the relationship between autonomy and child depressive symptoms in adolescence with the role of parental bond (Yan, Han, Tang & Zang 2017). According to Yan et al. 2017, autonomy stands for parenting styles that give support, provide encouragement, and honor the individuality of adolescents’. Children who receive this care are at a smaller risk for depression, because they feel supported and accepted (Yan et al.). Yan et al. determined that during middle-childhood adolescents’ start to develop a sense of independence, but they still look to parents for guidance in personal challenges and experiences. If they are not able to develop individuality they are likely to feel restricted, resulting in depressive symptoms (Yan et al.). In relation to parental attachment, a positive relationship aids in the ability to cope with internal problems (Yan et al.). In contrast, when they do not receive proper support they are likelier to develop depressive symptoms

References

  • Meites M. T., Ingram E. R., & Siegle J. G. (2012). Unique and shared aspects of affective symptomatology: the role of parental bonding in depression and anxiety profiles. Cognitive Therapy Research, 36(3) , 173-181. doi:10.1007/s10608-011-9426-3
  • Abell, L., Lyons, M., & Brewer, G. (2014). The relationship between parental bonding, machiavellianism and adult friendship quality. Individual Differences Research, 12(4-B) , 191-197. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267024171/download
  • Willinger, U., Radner, D-G., Willnauer, R., Jorgal, G., & Hager, V. (2005). Parenting stress and parental bonding. Behavioral Medicine, 31(2) , 63-69.  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7631225_Parenting_Stress_and_Parental_Bonding
  • Bourne, K., Berry, K., Jones, L. (2014). The relationship between psychological mindedness, parental bonding and adult attachment. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 87(2), 161-177. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12007
  • Hiroko, H., Akinori, I., Hitoshi, T., Isao, O., and Toyoki, O. Low level of parental bonding might be a risk factor among women with prolonged depression: a preliminary investigation. Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 63( ) , 721-729. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2009.0208.x
  • Cruz, D., Narciso, I., Pereira, R., & Sampaio, D. (2014). Risk trajectories of self-destructiveness in adolescence: family core influences. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23(8),1172-1181. doi:10.1007/s10826-013-9777-3
  • Chen, F., Lin, H., & Li, C., (2012). The role of emotion in parent-child relationships: children’s emotionality, maternal meta-emotion, and children’s attachment security. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21(3), 403-410. doi: 10.1007/s10826-011-9491-y
  • Blomgren, S.A., Svahn, K., Astrom, E., & Ronnlund, M. (2016). Coping strategies in late adolescence: relationships to parental attachment and time perspective. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 3(1), 85-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2016.1178101
  • Redshaw, M., & Martin Colin. (2013). Babies, “bonding” and ideas about parental “attachment”. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 3 , 219-221. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02646838.2013.830383
  • Hall S. A. Ruby., Hoffenkamp N. H., Tooten, A., Braeken, J., Vingerhoets, H., & Bakel, H. (2015). Child-rearing history and emotional bonding in parents of preterm and full-term infants. Journal of Family Child Studies, 24(6), 1715-1726. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-9975-7
  • Yan, J., Han R. Z., Tang, Y., & Zhang, X. (2017). Parental support for autonomy and child depressive symptoms in middle childhood: the mediating role of parent-child attachment. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(7), 1970-1978. 10.1007/s10826-017-0712-x
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