Annontated Bibliography: Mental Illness and Clergymen

2104 words (8 pages) Essay in Psychology

23/09/19 Psychology Reference this

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Annotated Bibliography


Topic : Clergy Mental Stress/Mental Illness

Royle, M. H., Norton, J., & Larkin, T. (2015). Psychological type profile of clergywomen and clergymen serving in the New York metropolitan area of the Reformed Church in America. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 18(7), 586–592.


This research of the psychological categories of clerics in the Reformed Church in America (RCA) encompasses the body of exploration to an supplementary mainline American denomination. It utilizes a model of 89 RCA male clergy and 26 RCA female clergy from two synods in the New York municipal area who finalized the Francis Psychological Type Scales as a portion of a investigation of ministerial stress. The 16 psychological categories were designed distinctly for men and women. The category of dispersals were linked with US populace standards by gender and with those of Presbyterian (PC(USA)) male clergy and female clergy. Like the PC(USA) clerics, RCA clergy had emotional categories divergent suggestively from those of the populace at large. Analogous to other clerics, the majority favored perception, feeling, and judging. Nevertheless, male clerics in the RCA were similarly separated in selecting extraversion to introversion, and female clerics were more probable to favor introversion and about similarly probable to favor discerning and feeling in their arbitrating development. These results normally are comparable to those found among Presbyterian clerics.

Visker, J., Rider, T., & Humphers-Ginther, A. (2017). Ministry-Related Burnout and Stress Coping Mechanisms Among Assemblies of God-Ordained Clergy in Minnesota. Journal of Religion & Health, 56(3), 951–961.

Cleric associates suffering from exhaustion face both individual and proficient difficulties. This research evaluated job-related exhaustion and tension managing apparatuses amongst clerics associated with the Assemblies of God, a denomination that has established diminutive consideration in preceding burnout-related research. A cross-sectional strategy was employed via two tools with satisfactory psychometric assets. Roughly 65 % of those measured were either struggling from exhaustion or on the threshold of burnout. Numerical variances in survival apparatus used were initiated amongst those who were and were not undergoing some aspect of burnout. The outcomes of this research augment to the current understanding of work-related burnout amongst cleric members and ways in which exhaustion could be lessened.

Manister, N. N., & Gigliotti, E. (2016). Emotional Eating Mediates the Relationship Between Stress and Obesity in Clergy. Nursing Science Quarterly, 29(2), 136–145.


The goal of this research was to explore the associations amongst role of pressure, emotional eating, and overweightness in clerics. A arbitrary example of United States Lutheran Church Missouri Synod clerics who met the inquiry standards (N = 430), answer percentage 38%, accomplished the Role Stress and Emotional Eating Behavior Scales, and self-reported stature and weightiness for Body Mass Index (BMI) calculation. Overweightness remained high (81.4% overweight/obese, 36.7% obese), and emotive intake partly interceded the association between role tension and overweightness. This research verified a  relationship with the Neuman Systems Model.

Ruffing, E. G., Paine, D. R., Devor, N. G., & Sandage, S. J. (2018). Humility and Narcissism in Clergy: a Relational Spirituality Framework. Pastoral Psychology, 67(5), 525–545.


Meekness is an essential asset in Christian traditions, and it is characteristically anticipated of Christian ministers. Nevertheless, study specifies that there may be substantial stages of narcissism amongst those in religious management. This study integrates emotional and scriptural viewpoints to recognize the certain dynamics that surround narcissism and meekness in this detailed populace. Pragmatic investigation to date proposes that clerics modesty has helpful consequences for clerics psychological, spiritual, and congregational well-being, whereas narcissism has harmful outcomes. Characteristics of the clerics title role, including idealism, hiding the person, stress, over working, and impractical prospects can encourage the development of egotism. Assimilating emotional concepts and pragmatic study, the writers recommends that the developing dimensions of secure attachment and variation of self are two significant facets of mature interpersonal spirituality that can assist clerics (a) to practice healthy methods of meekness and (b) to resist self-absorption. Allegations for religious societies are conferred.

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Frick, E., Büssing, A., Baumann, K., Weig, W., & Jacobs, C. (2016). Do Self-efficacy Expectation and Spirituality Provide a Buffer Against Stress-Associated Impairment of Health? A Comprehensive Analysis of the German Pastoral Ministry Study. Journal of Religion & Health, 55(2), 448–468.


This article aims to examine stress insight, psychosomatic well-being and life fulfilment in pastoral professionals, investigating specific attention to their distinct and communal resources. Registering 8574 German cleric professionals (48 % priests, 22 % parish skilled staff, 18 % minster assistants, 12 % deacons), we found that minister professionals’ emphasizing insight is connected with psychosomatic well-being difficulties. Over-all self-efficacy was a valuable source to guard against tension insights, while insight of the transcendent had an additional hitherto weakly constructive impact for stress-related impairment of wellbeing. Exterior stressors (i.e. team size, period of labor per week and scope of pastoral element) were solitary of peripheral independent significance.

Proeschold-Bell, R. J., Turner, E. L., Bennett, G. G., Yao, J., Li, X.-F., Eagle, D. E., … Toole, D. C. (2017). A 2-Year Holistic Health and Stress Intervention: Results of an RCT in Clergy. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 53(3), 290–299.



This research desired to determine the result of a 2-year, multicomponent fitness intervention (Spirited Life) aiming metabolic disorder and anxiety instantaneously. An RCT by means of a three-cohort manifold starting point strategy was led in 2010–2014. Contributors were United Methodist clerics in North Carolina, U.S., in 2010, requested grounded on work-related status. Of requested 1,745 clerics, 1,114 agreed, provided starting point information, and were haphazardly allocated to instantaneous involvement (n=395), 1-year waitlist (n=283), or 2-year waitlist (n=436) associates for a 48-month experimental interval. The 2-year involvement involved of individual goal setting and inspiration to participate in regular health training, an operational weight loss interposition, a small endowment, and three workshops distributing pressure managing and doctrinal content encouraging  healthy habits. Contributors were not blinded to involvement. Trial results were metabolic syndrome (primary) and self-reported anxiety and depression signs (secondary). Intervention outcomes were assessed in 2016, in an intention-to-treat outline utilizing comprehensive guesstimating equations with modification for starting point level of the consequence and follow-up time themes. Log-link Poisson comprehensive guesstimating equations with healthy SEs was utilized to approximate occurrence proportions (PRs) for twofold conclusions; mean variances were utilized  for continuous/score results. Starting point frequency of metabolic disorder was 50.9% and hopelessness was 11.4%. The 12-month intervention result exhibited a advantage for metabolic condition (PR=0.86, 95% CI=0.79, 0.94, p<0.001). This boon was continual at 24 months of intervention (PR=0.88; 95% CI=0.78, 1.00, p=0.04). There was no momentous consequence on hopelessness or tension scores. The Spirited Life intrusion enhanced metabolic condition frequency in a populace of U.S. Christian clerics and continual developments throughout 24 months of interference. These results offer sustenance for long-duration comportment modification interventions and population-level interferences that permit participants to set their own health goals.

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Proeschold, B. R. J., Eisenberg, A., Adams, C., Smith, B., Legrand, S., & Wilk, A. (2015). The Glory of God is a Human Being Fully Alive: Predictors of Positive Versus Negative Mental Health Among Clergy. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 54(4), 702–721.



            Clerics achieve vital societal purposes as meaning to communal builders. Partially because of their significant parts, clerics commonly encounter tense circumstances. Additionally research recommend that clerics experience high rates of hopelessness. In spite of this, few studies have scrutinized defensive features for clerics that could augment their positive psychological health. They requested all United Methodist clerics in North Carolina to partook in a survey. Of church-serving clerics, 85 percent answered (n = 1,476). Hierarchical numerous regression was utilized to evaluated the analysts of three constructive and four undesirable mental health consequences. The three groups of prognosticators were: demographics, which described 2–10 percent of the alterations; variables characteristically associated to mental health (social support, social isolation, and financial stress), which explained 14–41 percent of the alterations; and clerics detailed factors, which described 14–20 percent of the alterations, demonstrating the standing of calculating occupation-specific factors. Some factors (e.g., churchgoers demands) suggestively associated to both optimistic and undesirable mental health, although others (e.g., optimistic churchgoers, parishioners care) meaningfully connected primarily to optimistic psychological health. In addition to their involvement suggestions, these conclusions support distinct deliberation for undesirable versus helpful mental health.

Anthony, J. S., Johnson, A., & Schafer, J. (2015). African American Clergy and Depression: What they know; What they want to know. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 22(4), 118–126. Retrieved from


Approximately 40% of African Americans utilize clerics as their main source of assistance with hopelessness. Nevertheless, less than half of African American clerics are proficient in psychotherapy. Objectives of the article: 1) to scrutinize how African American clerics distinguish depression and 2) recognize what they need to more efficiently recognize and address depression in their flock. Design: This was a vivid, measurable study utilizing a Personal Profile Questionnaire and a Mental Health Counseling Survey. Results: Sixty-five clerics accomplished the information gathering tools; nearly 50% had some training in therapy. The majority could detect signs of hopelessness. Eighty-one percent specified they wanted supplementary instruction about depression and contact to recommendation resources. Conclusions: If clerics take an lively part in addressing the subject of hopelessness and beginning connections with psychological health specialists the shame associated with depression could be meaningfully reduced, and persons might enter into treatment prior thus bettering their perspective  of life.

Leavey, G., Loewenthal, K., & King, M. (2016). Locating the Social Origins of Mental Illness: The Explanatory Models of Mental Illness Among Clergy from Different Ethnic and Faith Backgrounds. Journal of Religion & Health, 55(5), 1607–1622.

Clerics have historically given ‘healing’ via numerous spiritual and medicinal modalities and even in contemporary, established welfare economies they may still be an significant help-seeking source to people in need. Partnerships amongst faith and psychotherapy are frequently supported, but there is limited exploration on clerics clarifying models of sickness. This study intended to discover their connection with psychotherapy and to inspect how clerics in numerous faith assemblies hypothesized psychological health difficulties. In this qualitative research utilizing in-depth discussions, these matters were discovered with 32 involved clerics in the UK from a variety of diverse Christian, Muslim and Jewish faith organizations and cultural upbringings. This study presents results linked to clerics clarifying models of psychological illness and, in specific, how the social issues involved in connection are touched with spiritual effects and insinuations, and how the connotations of psychological suffering assume a communal and ethical meaning in characteristic limited matters.

Payne, J. S., & Hays, K. (2016). A spectrum of belief: a qualitative exploration of candid discussions of clergy on mental health and healing. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 19(6), 600–612.

Since clerics are often first responders to psychological well-being matters, it is significant to comprehend clerics opinions on handling such subjects. A conversation happened in 2012 between clerics involved in a general communal helpfulness network clerics group. One clergyperson requested peers: “If the church is where we are to come for healing, how do we handle people who are depressed, suicidal, suffering from PTSD or anxiety?” Completed 140 remarks were completed throughout 13 days, and 35 clerics from the United States, Africa, and India added to the conversation. Information from this discussion were inspected through standard grounded model. Investigation discovered a range of principles that clerics grasp concerning the reasons and top dealings for emotive subjects. Results shed light on the open opinions clerics have about psychological health care. The results provide better construing for psychological health consultants with patrons who depend on on their ecclesiastical for emotive sustenance.

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