Adolescent Mental and Behavioral Health

2007 words (8 pages) Essay

11th Sep 2017 Psychology Reference this

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For the Psychology Research Paper requirement, I chose articles from three different research Journals; Child Development, Personality and Social Psychology, and Developmental Psychology. I chose these articles because I assimilate either with the topic or sample of the people in study.

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Child Development edited by: Cynthia Garcia Coll, includes the article Locating Economic Risks for Adolescent Mental and Behavioral Health: Poverty and Affluence in Families, Neighborhoods, and School based on the study conducted by Rebekah Levine Coley, Jacqueline Sims, Eric Dearing, and Bryn Spielvogel, from Boston College. The study’s goal is to clarify the common associations between income and youth mental and behavioral health by describing precisely the economic risks derived from family, neighborhood, and school contexts. There are many studies conducted in the past which show associations between low income or affluence and youth mental/behavioral heath, but these psychologist believed “it is essential to disentangle how the economic contexts provided by families, neighbors, and schoolmates are uniquely associated with youth mental and behavioral health outcomes” (pg 2). Believing that the field of study would benefit more from estimates that are widely generalizable to the population and income distribution showing the functional form of relations.

In this study, they examined a large, nationally representative sample of high school youth. Considered unique associations between family, neighborhood, and school income and youth mental and behavioral health. While also considering both linear and nonlinear income effects as well as several other specifications of income, and examined the distribution within each economic context. Their methods for results where sampling and data collection, which was taken from youth, parent, and administrator interviews conducted in 1994-1995. Targeting a students in grades seven through twelfth across the nation forming a sample of 13,179 youth from 76 schools. Measured their responses on their mental and behavior health, including depression, anxiety, intoxication, illicit drug use, proper crime, and violence. While also measuring family, neighborhood, and school income. Controlled for key demographic covariates including youth age, race, ethnicity, household members, parents age, education etc.. Analyzed the data through multilevel models with error adjustments at the neighborhood level and youth nested within schools, to assess associations between income and youth outcome. All analysis included covariates and used data from the national survey.

Research has always pointed heightened behavior and mental health problems as a high risk for families and communities of low income, due to their sample of study being from a small population of similar backgrounds. Through a larger and more generalized research, links between health and mental problems and affluence from this study came to light. One of the primary goals of this study was to isolate the role of the three proximal contexts that associate with health issues, and validate their influence. The results of this nationally representative study, found risks among both poverty and affluence, with varying patterns. Overall the findings of this study challenge the disproportionate focus on the risk of health and mental issues among individuals from low economic backgrounds and resources. Showcasing the links between affluence/wealthier school income to health and mental issues. Due to the large national sample the study used, these psychologists were able to consider a diverse group and test the associations with a variety of income level amount individuals, community, and school. Coming to the conclusion that health risks amount adolescents derive from both ends of economic status, and may be largely driven by school contexts.

In the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, the article Don’t Aim Too High for Your Kids: Parental Overaspiration Undermines Students’ Learning in Mathematics, a study ran by Kou Murayama, Reinhard Pekrun, Masayuki Suzuki, Stephanie Lichtenfeld, and Herbert W. Marsh, depict deeper knowledge on the effects, both positive and negative, of parents aspiration on the child’s academic performance. There has been many research studies in the past, searching for the effect of parents aspiration on their kids performance. Both psychologist and sociologist have ran studies that show the strong positive link between parents beliefs and aspirations in relation to their children achievement. However, only the positive effect has been made clear, excluding two important issues that have led people, specifically parents to not question the pressure put on children through their aspirations and expectations. This study’s goal is to examine the effect of parents’ aspirations on their children, as well as the possible reciprocal effect of the children performance on the parents aspirations. Also the highlight the possible negative aspects and effects of parents aspirations on their children’s achievement. They did so by “analyzing a large-sample, multi wave, intergenerational longitudinal data set with an advanced quantitive methodology: the dual-change score model” (pg 768).

The sample consisted of German students who were a part of the Project for the Analysis of Learning and Achievement (PALMA), which included a longitudinal study to investigate youths’ development in mathematics. Samples were drawn from the three major different school types within German pubic schools that included high rank, intermediate rank, and lower rank schools. Students’ mathematical achievement was measured through PALMA mathematical achievement test, which included multiple choice, open-response, measuring their modeling competencies and algorithmic competencies in arithmetics, algebra, and geometry. Parents aspirations and expectations were assessed by their reported degree of either their aspiration on how well they want their kids to do and their beliefs on how well they will perform.

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The results of this research study advanced the insufficient amount of knowledge among the known positive link between parental aspiration and children’s attainment from previous studies. Through their large samples of people from Germany and the United States, and various forms of study designs and modeling, they obtained support for their proposed reciprocal temporal ordering between parental aspiration and children’s performance in mathematics. These finding showed the detrimental effects of parents aspirations exceeding expectation on the children’s performance. Found that raising aspirations is not an effective solution to improve the performance in education. Not only did this research find the effects of aspirations on students, it also observed some interesting results. For example, the study uncovered a negative reciprocal that leads to prolonged inimical consequences on students. Also found that the effects of parental aspiration and over aspiration effected students from high-track schools compared to though of less prestige. This research study showcased both positive and negative effects of parental aspiration on students performance in mathematics. Agreeing the importance of parental aspiration as a source of motivation on the student, which could improve their performance, but also highlighting the negative consequences of excessive aspirations leading to a large amount of pressure on the student.

In the journal Developmental Psychology lies the article Does Anger Regulation Mediate the Discrimination-Mental Health Link Among Mexican-Origin Adolescents? A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis Using Multilevel Modeling. A Research study had by Irene J.K. Parl, Lijuan Wang, David R. Williams, and Margarita Algeria. The Latino or Hispanic population are the largest ethnic minority group in the nation, a population that is increasing rapidly. Yet recent polls depict they’re targets of frequent discrimination based on race/ethnicity. There have been many research studies in the past linking the impact of discrimination on minorities, although little have focused on Latinos, specifically Latino children and adolescents. This studies addressed the lack of research on latino children/youth through investigation anger regulation as an underlying link between discrimination and mental health. Testing on three variables within anger regulation: outward anger expression (anger-out), anger suppression (anger-in), and anger control. Outward anger expression is the expression of angry feelings towards other (people or object) in an environment. Anger suppression refers to the suppression of angry emotions, and anger control refers to the proactive action of attempting to remain calm (cool down) preventing anger expression.

This study originate from a three wave length study of discrimination and mental health among latino families and adolescents. In which participants were recruited from public schools, churches, and community-based organizations who are of Mexican origins. Participants had to meet with the criteria of age (12-17), live with their biological father and mother from Mexican descent, and lack of any learning disability that would prevent them from answering questions. The study measured the demographic background, perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, anger regulation, anxiety, and depression through various scales. Analyzing the data by using perceived racial/ethnic discrimination as an input variable while modeling outward anger expression, anger suppression, and anger control as three mediators simultaneously.

The results of this study indicated that outward anger regulations was the sole significant mediator amount the three different anger regulation. Outward anger regulation specifically mediated the link between perceived racial discrimination and both anxiety and depression. Meaning a student with a high intake of discrimination at a given time is associated with higher rates of outward anger. Anger suppression and anger control did not link an association between depression and anxiety. Outward expression as a mediator is associated with unique cognitive, behavioral, and psychological processes that play in a role in the link to depression. Also, unlike anger control and suppression, outward expression is a form of direct confrontation against the discriminator. The results of this study contribute to prior research and builds upon it, adding positive results/findings for the association between discrimination of race/ethnicity and ,mental health problems among latino adolescents. Results identify anger expression as a mechanistic pathway through which we can understand the process in how discrimination experience influence mental health outcomes. Allowing researchers to pinpoint the moment in which a persons anger regulation process is triggered by witnessing/being a victim of discrimination. Although these results are significant for future research studies and discovering associations, there are limitations to the results. The sample used in this research study may not be a true representation of Mexican origin, the generalizability of these findings are restricted to the sample. Also having data from only three time interval and time points may have affected the results of the study. For the families sampled in this research, the presence of discrimination towards race/ethnicity triggers outward expression, a mediator, which could lead to increase levels of anxiety, depression, and mental health issues. This study is significant for explaining the discrimination-distress link among Latino adolescent’s mental health, through their identification of outward anger expression.

For the Psychology Research Paper requirement, I chose articles from three different research Journals; Child Development, Personality and Social Psychology, and Developmental Psychology. I chose these articles because I assimilate either with the topic or sample of the people in study.

Child Development edited by: Cynthia Garcia Coll, includes the article Locating Economic Risks for Adolescent Mental and Behavioral Health: Poverty and Affluence in Families, Neighborhoods, and School based on the study conducted by Rebekah Levine Coley, Jacqueline Sims, Eric Dearing, and Bryn Spielvogel, from Boston College. The study’s goal is to clarify the common associations between income and youth mental and behavioral health by describing precisely the economic risks derived from family, neighborhood, and school contexts. There are many studies conducted in the past which show associations between low income or affluence and youth mental/behavioral heath, but these psychologist believed “it is essential to disentangle how the economic contexts provided by families, neighbors, and schoolmates are uniquely associated with youth mental and behavioral health outcomes” (pg 2). Believing that the field of study would benefit more from estimates that are widely generalizable to the population and income distribution showing the functional form of relations.

In this study, they examined a large, nationally representative sample of high school youth. Considered unique associations between family, neighborhood, and school income and youth mental and behavioral health. While also considering both linear and nonlinear income effects as well as several other specifications of income, and examined the distribution within each economic context. Their methods for results where sampling and data collection, which was taken from youth, parent, and administrator interviews conducted in 1994-1995. Targeting a students in grades seven through twelfth across the nation forming a sample of 13,179 youth from 76 schools. Measured their responses on their mental and behavior health, including depression, anxiety, intoxication, illicit drug use, proper crime, and violence. While also measuring family, neighborhood, and school income. Controlled for key demographic covariates including youth age, race, ethnicity, household members, parents age, education etc.. Analyzed the data through multilevel models with error adjustments at the neighborhood level and youth nested within schools, to assess associations between income and youth outcome. All analysis included covariates and used data from the national survey.

Research has always pointed heightened behavior and mental health problems as a high risk for families and communities of low income, due to their sample of study being from a small population of similar backgrounds. Through a larger and more generalized research, links between health and mental problems and affluence from this study came to light. One of the primary goals of this study was to isolate the role of the three proximal contexts that associate with health issues, and validate their influence. The results of this nationally representative study, found risks among both poverty and affluence, with varying patterns. Overall the findings of this study challenge the disproportionate focus on the risk of health and mental issues among individuals from low economic backgrounds and resources. Showcasing the links between affluence/wealthier school income to health and mental issues. Due to the large national sample the study used, these psychologists were able to consider a diverse group and test the associations with a variety of income level amount individuals, community, and school. Coming to the conclusion that health risks amount adolescents derive from both ends of economic status, and may be largely driven by school contexts.

In the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, the article Don’t Aim Too High for Your Kids: Parental Overaspiration Undermines Students’ Learning in Mathematics, a study ran by Kou Murayama, Reinhard Pekrun, Masayuki Suzuki, Stephanie Lichtenfeld, and Herbert W. Marsh, depict deeper knowledge on the effects, both positive and negative, of parents aspiration on the child’s academic performance. There has been many research studies in the past, searching for the effect of parents aspiration on their kids performance. Both psychologist and sociologist have ran studies that show the strong positive link between parents beliefs and aspirations in relation to their children achievement. However, only the positive effect has been made clear, excluding two important issues that have led people, specifically parents to not question the pressure put on children through their aspirations and expectations. This study’s goal is to examine the effect of parents’ aspirations on their children, as well as the possible reciprocal effect of the children performance on the parents aspirations. Also the highlight the possible negative aspects and effects of parents aspirations on their children’s achievement. They did so by “analyzing a large-sample, multi wave, intergenerational longitudinal data set with an advanced quantitive methodology: the dual-change score model” (pg 768).

The sample consisted of German students who were a part of the Project for the Analysis of Learning and Achievement (PALMA), which included a longitudinal study to investigate youths’ development in mathematics. Samples were drawn from the three major different school types within German pubic schools that included high rank, intermediate rank, and lower rank schools. Students’ mathematical achievement was measured through PALMA mathematical achievement test, which included multiple choice, open-response, measuring their modeling competencies and algorithmic competencies in arithmetics, algebra, and geometry. Parents aspirations and expectations were assessed by their reported degree of either their aspiration on how well they want their kids to do and their beliefs on how well they will perform.

The results of this research study advanced the insufficient amount of knowledge among the known positive link between parental aspiration and children’s attainment from previous studies. Through their large samples of people from Germany and the United States, and various forms of study designs and modeling, they obtained support for their proposed reciprocal temporal ordering between parental aspiration and children’s performance in mathematics. These finding showed the detrimental effects of parents aspirations exceeding expectation on the children’s performance. Found that raising aspirations is not an effective solution to improve the performance in education. Not only did this research find the effects of aspirations on students, it also observed some interesting results. For example, the study uncovered a negative reciprocal that leads to prolonged inimical consequences on students. Also found that the effects of parental aspiration and over aspiration effected students from high-track schools compared to though of less prestige. This research study showcased both positive and negative effects of parental aspiration on students performance in mathematics. Agreeing the importance of parental aspiration as a source of motivation on the student, which could improve their performance, but also highlighting the negative consequences of excessive aspirations leading to a large amount of pressure on the student.

In the journal Developmental Psychology lies the article Does Anger Regulation Mediate the Discrimination-Mental Health Link Among Mexican-Origin Adolescents? A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis Using Multilevel Modeling. A Research study had by Irene J.K. Parl, Lijuan Wang, David R. Williams, and Margarita Algeria. The Latino or Hispanic population are the largest ethnic minority group in the nation, a population that is increasing rapidly. Yet recent polls depict they’re targets of frequent discrimination based on race/ethnicity. There have been many research studies in the past linking the impact of discrimination on minorities, although little have focused on Latinos, specifically Latino children and adolescents. This studies addressed the lack of research on latino children/youth through investigation anger regulation as an underlying link between discrimination and mental health. Testing on three variables within anger regulation: outward anger expression (anger-out), anger suppression (anger-in), and anger control. Outward anger expression is the expression of angry feelings towards other (people or object) in an environment. Anger suppression refers to the suppression of angry emotions, and anger control refers to the proactive action of attempting to remain calm (cool down) preventing anger expression.

This study originate from a three wave length study of discrimination and mental health among latino families and adolescents. In which participants were recruited from public schools, churches, and community-based organizations who are of Mexican origins. Participants had to meet with the criteria of age (12-17), live with their biological father and mother from Mexican descent, and lack of any learning disability that would prevent them from answering questions. The study measured the demographic background, perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, anger regulation, anxiety, and depression through various scales. Analyzing the data by using perceived racial/ethnic discrimination as an input variable while modeling outward anger expression, anger suppression, and anger control as three mediators simultaneously.

The results of this study indicated that outward anger regulations was the sole significant mediator amount the three different anger regulation. Outward anger regulation specifically mediated the link between perceived racial discrimination and both anxiety and depression. Meaning a student with a high intake of discrimination at a given time is associated with higher rates of outward anger. Anger suppression and anger control did not link an association between depression and anxiety. Outward expression as a mediator is associated with unique cognitive, behavioral, and psychological processes that play in a role in the link to depression. Also, unlike anger control and suppression, outward expression is a form of direct confrontation against the discriminator. The results of this study contribute to prior research and builds upon it, adding positive results/findings for the association between discrimination of race/ethnicity and ,mental health problems among latino adolescents. Results identify anger expression as a mechanistic pathway through which we can understand the process in how discrimination experience influence mental health outcomes. Allowing researchers to pinpoint the moment in which a persons anger regulation process is triggered by witnessing/being a victim of discrimination. Although these results are significant for future research studies and discovering associations, there are limitations to the results. The sample used in this research study may not be a true representation of Mexican origin, the generalizability of these findings are restricted to the sample. Also having data from only three time interval and time points may have affected the results of the study. For the families sampled in this research, the presence of discrimination towards race/ethnicity triggers outward expression, a mediator, which could lead to increase levels of anxiety, depression, and mental health issues. This study is significant for explaining the discrimination-distress link among Latino adolescent’s mental health, through their identification of outward anger expression.

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