Reactive attachment disorder can be defined as a disorder caused by absence of attachment to any care giver at an early age and results in inability of a child to establish an affectionate relationship with others. It was first discussed in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and due to its newness there are a variety of stereotypes and misjudgments of the idea of RAD. Questions are raised as to whether this disorder is solely on the part of the infant or if the care giver fuels it in some ways, the following is a brief explanation from various sources.
Smyte, A.T & Zeanah.H,C.(2008).Attachment disorders in family and social context. Infant mental health journal 29(3), 219-233. doi: 10.1002/imhj.20176.
Little is known about this reactive attachment disorder but Smyte’s and Zeanah’s research article sheds a little light on this phenomenon. They argue that the attachment disorder is mostly found in children raised in institutions such as homes and rescue centers and children who have been abandoned and neglected by their parents. The article explains that these children are often withdrawn and it is not uncommon for them not to want to form relationships with others. These children often keep to themselves and have some form of psychiatric disorder.
Weir,N.K.(2007).Using integrated play therapy to treat Reactive Attachment Disorder.journal of familypsychotherapy.18(4). 1-16. doi: 10.1300/J085v18n04_01.
This article broadly discusses the ways in which parents and care givers can use integrated play therapy to enable their young ones with Reactive attachment disorder become less withdrawn and unhappy and in turn begin to create a relationship between themselves and other people. This article is not just theoretical but gives diverse examples of how the play therapy was used in a variety of families and the positive result that it gave. This article is therefore also destined to give hope to families with children with this disorder.
Ferguson.L, Follan.M, Maccines.M, Furnivall.J, and Minnis.H.(2010). Residential childcare workers knowledge of Reactive Attachment Disorder. Child and adolescent mental health.10 (11/11), 1475-3588.doi: 10.1111/j.1475-3588.2010.00575.
This article is mainly one of research value; it mainly gives the findings of research done on residential child care workers and how much knowledge they possess regarding this Reactive attachment disorder. The findings were mostly positive with these residential givers saying that they appreciate a consultative relationship between themselves and Child and adolescent mental health workers. All in all, this article is best for one doing research on this disorder.
Tobin,D, Zonna,W.K, and Shareef,M.Y.(2007). Early Recollections of Children and Adolescents Diagnosed with Reactive Attachment Disorder.Journal of individual Psychology. 63(1), 86-95.
This article is basically a resource that shows data collected from nine families of children with Reactive attachment disorder. The compiled results reveal a trend in these children in that they all experienced feelings of detachment from their families, abandonment and emotional instability. This article provides unparalleled information on this disorder and what one can do to help their child.
H.Minnis, J.Green,T.G,O’Connor, L.Ashley, D. Glaser,E. Taylor, M. Follan, D. Young, J. Barnes, C. Gillberg, A. Pelosi, J. Arthur, A. Burston, B. Connolly, and F.A. Sadiq (2009). An exploratory study of the association between reactive attachment disorder and attachment narratives in early school-age children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 50:8.931-942. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02075.x.
This article is basically an in depth analysis on children and young adults diagnosed with the Reactive attachment disorder. It broadly explores and dissects narratives given by a group of thirty three children who were previously diagnosed and gave recollections of their emotional state. The findings in this article are similar to that of Zonna and Tobin’s articles in that most of their results were basically the same.
Minnis.H, Marwick.H, Arthur.J and MacLaughlin.A.(2006).Reactive attachment disorder-a theoretical model beyond attachment.EUR child adolescent psychiatry.15:3.36-342. doi: 10.1007/s00787-006-0539-2.
This article prides itself on being a more descriptive and controversial work of writing concerning RAD. This article also comes complete with a table showing their findings and results on how RAD should not be centrally based on the attachment system.
Jegtvig.K,S and Lehman,J,J.(2004). Reactive attachment disorder:Apreventable
mental health disease.Journal of Chiropratnic medicine.3:2.69-75.
This article generally touches on all attachment disorders but mostly RAD as it is the one which is mostly discussed and also diagnosed within infants and adolescents. It mainly explores the discovery, symptoms, causes and ways in which RAD can be prevented. This article is best for families with children suffering from RAD.
Swartz,E and Davis,A.S.(2006). Reactive Attachment Disorder: Implication For School Readiness And School Functioing.Pschology in the schools.43(4).471-479. doi: 10.1002/pits.20161.
Children diagnosed with RAD are often sensitive and vulnerable children therefore it is important to prepare them well before the beginning of their school life. This article gives caregivers and parents ways in which the child can be adequately prepared for the commencement of their school education and interaction.
Kemph,J.P and Voeller,K.S.K.(2010). Reactive attachment
disorder in adolescence.Adolescent psychiatry.13:159-178.
Debates and discussions have always implied that RAD is found in infants only but this article explores the fact that RAD can exist in adolescents, whether they carried it from their childhood or generally acquired it due to other mental effects. This article gives much needed insight into an issue that man tend to ignore.
Corbin,J.R.(2007). Reactive Attachment Disorder: A Biopsychosocial
Disturbance of Attachment. 24:539-552 doi: 10.1007/s10560-007-0105-x.
This article delves into the neurological aspect of RAD and its major causes. It does not focus on the emotional aspects or the traumas that the child endured but basically the neurological etiology and development of RAD. This article is helpful for scholars and physicians in knowing the medicinal aspect of RAD.
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