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What happened in the UK was that the state power was being divided into different levels. Three stages like decentralizing the system, privatizing, and the last one Europeanization (in this case being part of EU). The state therefore would not be able to control the centralization some part of its policy, thus leading to the weak point for both policy and decision making. It would be understandable to the statement of UK as hollowed out state since after its joining to EU, even fishing industry or banana were to be controlled to the same standard as other EU members. Where as in marine territorial border of UK would basically disappear when the UK membership to European Union happened. Foreigner commercial ship would roam freely over UK Sea, fishing and doing whatever they want as long as they abide to EU law and regulation. For example, what really happens is UK fishery commercial has collapse and number of commercial fish in UK sea drop dramatically because other EU ship such as Spanish and Italian fishing boat would have access to UK ocean. In another word, Britain lost its sea border in order to join EU.
It could be argued that the American president does not come directly from the people. Moreover, a system called the Electoral College is being used to elect President. Each state has the state representative and somehow they are all represented for either the two main parties, Democrats and Republican. These people are all chosen from the party list. In this case, the people that party thinks would vote for their president candidate in each state. These people, also known as electoral voters, are determined by the size of the state’s population. However, electoral voters do not always vote for their party’s representative. They can do swing vote to party’s opposition or to any candidate. For example, California has the most population among the other states therefore it gets 55 electoral votes. Therefore, in reality Americans does not vote the candidate but on the other hand they vote for the electors. In order to become the president a candidate needs at least 270 electoral votes. The winner does not always come from the popular vote e.g. the situation during the year 2000 Bush-Gore election.
The French presidential election uses the two run offs system. First of all, in order to become the candidate for president he/she must get 500 elected officials to signatures. The president is elected for a 7 year term. The first round comprises of different candidates from different parties. If no candidate receives any absolute majority then a second round is held two weeks later. A 15 percent rule also apply to the first round of the election, a candidate who does not get more than 15 percent is automatically dropped from the election. Then when the second round election comes, usually there are only two leading candidates compete for the position. The system of voting for the French presidential election are the combination of single transferable vote (for the first round) and first past the post / winner takes all (for second round). The power of French president is very strong compare to other countries head of state. French president can ask parliament to reconsider any legislation it passed or dissolve National Assembly and call for new election. Yet, the power of president sometime is not absolute. This occurs when president and National Assembly are not from the same political visions. In result, presidential authority in domestic area was robbed away and gives to National Assembly instead. Moreover, political promise during election time is crucial to president popularity. If ignore or fail to do so would mean political suicide as absolute majority is needed for presidential election in first round.
Due to the German system, it is very hard for the party to form non coalition government. Thus, the culture of coalition parties in Germany is seems to be common issue. The voters usually vote for the party and their alliance (in this case, party partner), so they know that which one is going to govern the country with. Usually the party would issue the coalition statement in order to identify their supporters before starting the election campaign. Thus, the German electoral system has already determined the balance of power of the future government by the way its citizens elected the parties. Germany is said to be one of the nation that has the highest number of voters’ turnout in Europe, because Germans consider the rights to vote as a public duty with the strong sense of citizen’s responsibility. High education and highly developed standard of living also contributed to the German voting culture. Somehow it might be able to say that the reasons behind the German voting culture also came from the several mistake histories e.g. Nazi era, East-West Germany division. They just don’t want to let the history repeats itself again.
The German unification was successful in political term of uniting the two separated nations into one. However, in economic perspective, the gap between the present day East and West Germany is still significantly different. Yet, when looking at the economy as a whole, Germany presents as one of the biggest economy in Europe. Once the unification took place in the early 1990, with the lagging behind of new technology, the East Germany economy outmatches in high skill commodities and had no market share since it was no longer link to former Soviet Union states and had to be started from zero again. The East Germany had only experienced the Soviet style commune system; on the other hand the West had already integrated into the global capitalist system. There were number of significant migration from the East to West in order to seek for opportunity in the better economy. This had resulted in the increasing of the labor market competition in the West. Thus the economy was getting worse since everyone left for the better life, and leaving the East as a forsaken land. The problem of the economic differences between the two still present today, nevertheless, less than the unification time e.g. the wage differences between the East and the West, the unemployment rate is far higher in the East.
The history of Japan’s bureaucratic institution was dated back to the time of the Meiji Restoration when the Western style civil service was established with the growing of the new elite group. From the Meiji Restoration until the end of World War II, the US did dissolved the old military and the zaibatsu regime but somehow it did so little to abolish one of the nation’s oldest bureaucracy, the Home Ministry. So there was the process of continuity in the Japan’s bureaucracy institutions. The US method of dealing with Japan’s internal politics was different unlike any other occupied countries. The US government believed that the bureaucracy was a political neutral and by sticking to this idea they kept using and depending largely on the working of civil servants. Another factor that contributed to the used of Japan’s bureaucrats was the inexperienced of the politicians since Japan had been ruled under the military style nationalistic regime for decades. We can see this as the way of indirect rule towards Japan. There are four reasons that contribute to the strong bureaucrats system were; 1) the small fraction of the elite group. Only small group of people with the best expertise would be fill in such important Ministry, in this case, the Ministry of Economy Trade and Finance. 2) The civil government’s department exam does not require any college degree but most of the members belong to Japan’s most prestigious universities or even the alumni faction of the best universities in Japan. 3) There are very few political appointments in the civil service section. Therefore Japan’s bureaucrats would separate themselves from the direct political pressure the example would be the sub cabinet appointment determines by the principle of seniority. 4) The sense of loyalty among the bureaucrats, since they would be recruited for life into one of the ministry, thus developing the work ethnic and high sense of contribution to the organization.
Russia has become one of the most powerful nations and reasserted itself due to its richness in natural resources and the increasing in the global petroleum price. By the booming of the oil prices after the end of Soviet time, Russia had become one of the oil richest nations in the world. Russia was no longer the country that stayed with its commune and collective type of economy; it had changed to the fully capitalistic type economy. For number of years since the fall of Soviet Union, Russia had received great amount of money for what it was called ‘oil economy’. With the demand of oil from the European nations, Russia was able to regain its position quickly start and raise to one of the world most powerful states. One of the most important factor related to Russia reemergence was it strategy location surrounding by its former satellite states. Recently there has been issue about Russia’s invasion on Georgia which directly a Russia’s policy to strengthen its power over the region which had been the oil route. The Russia-Ukraine gas dispute in 2005 was one of another example that Russia had shown its power in the region. The affects of Russia’s policy and its interests is considered to be one of the most important factor in the Eastern Europe. Most of the former Soviet states still observed and followed the Russia closely since anything that happened in Russia would also affect their countries as well. The Russian political system leaves no space for opposition groups against Putin administration. As current Russian constitution, basically, oppress any political parties oppose current regime via using constitution as a tool, especially on communist party.
There are several conflicts in Nigeria. History of the European rule in a different part of the country using different govern system; by differentiate the nation into ethnicity (Hausa Fulani in the North, Yoruba in the East and Igbo in the South). The European also ruled with very little efforts to develop the colony with the process of maintaining the tribe power in the North and using Islamic law. On the other hand the South was put on the other system of direct rule with the legislative assembly. The problems dealing with oil; the oil conflicts among the land owners and companies and the government had brought country into the brink of chaos. Where everybody seems to want at least a part of the oil money, distribution of oil money therefore would fall into either one of the top hands. The inequality treated between the regions since its independent, differences in wealth distribution and level of education in result directly because inequality governs system since colonial era (the mass but less educated in the north VS. minority groups form the south and West with higher education). The culture of corruption, where all the scams were created and the unstable internal politics, cause by elite groups such as politicians and dictators during military regime. Nigeria is considered to be a “rentier state” as the country does not have any capacity to extract or finalize crude oil into other petroleum commodities like other countries can. There is unlikely that Nigerian government would develop their own capability. As mentions above, what government can only do is to tax the license which they gave international petroleum companies like Shell, Exxon-Mobile to extract Nigeria natural resources and create wealth to benefit only small groups of people, the elites. Even, Nigerian soldiers are used to protect foreigner company’s properties such as oil station, pipe lines or buildings.
Both Russia and Nigeria have the high amount of hydrocarbon e.g. natural gas and oil resources. However even though Russia was in the brink of political chaos due to the fall of Soviet Union, but still it was able to use their natural resources and transfer it to the country’s benefit with the high ambition of becoming one of the most powerful state in the region and the world. On the other hand, Nigeria was able to use its natural resources correctly since it had to deal with so many of the life long problems e.g. poverty, ethnic conflicts. By discovering the oil, the country with very little GDP and high debt, Nigeria was hunger to get all the benefits of the oil, thus deleting the idea of developing the country instead getting the oil benefit as taking for granted. There also the differences in the way of thinking, Russia had successfully transformed and monopolized the oil companies, thus once the global oil prices rose-most of the money would pour into the country. For Nigeria, the government had to deal with the conflict over the land on the Niger Delta, by trying to move all the people out of the area and getting all the wealth-thus created another conflict in the country e.g. sabotage on pipe lines, attacking on oil companies.
Democracy plays little role in Chinese context. Yet, at local level, Chinese people could enjoy democracy without restrictions. Literally, local villagers could elect their own officer to administrate on a local level with financial support and instruction from central government. At national level, there is no space for democracy especially in central sector. In another word, there is a gap between local and national level where Chinese people can practice democracy at local while small number of people can make decision at national level, the elites. The advantage of this is central government could use local government as scapegoat if policy goes wrong. As people elect their own district administration, it would mean their own responsibility not national government. In economical term, government fully supports any business that would benefit Chinese people and encourage investment both by Chinese and foreigners into China. However, when it comes to security matter central administration would hold any opinion to those with power not the mass. Only, the Communist Commission had voice and no one else. With Deng reforms, China enjoys economic benefit to the limit of what government can offer. Yet, people opinion still left out of the context. Political rule of China since Mao time is to obey whatever Mao say, believe and vision. The people must unite as commune for greater good of the society and nation. Government functions as tool to serve people. As mention above, Deng’s reform is the opposite of what communism should be. The liberalization of market, the enhancing people’s prosperity, ability to rise in economic term according to each personal skill and democracy as ground level may be the cause for the demand for democracy at national level.
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