Egypt is one of the biggest countries in the world, but the corruption in the country is very high due to its huge population of over ninety million people. One of the main reasons for corruption is the poor quality and the lack of availability of data, also the major problem that increases corruption is paying bribes, Bribery and Corruption are usually dealt under the Egyptian Penal Code in which it addresses the bribery in private and public sectors of the country. Bribe in general has negative effects such as favoring one individual over others because of his power and position in the government. The main problem in Egypt is that the law does not apply fairly and equally among all the people because according to many answered surveys people claimed that they had to pay extra money or give gifts to obtain a license for driving or avoid paying a fine by the traffic police or reduce the amount of taxes they should pay or even enroll their children in a certain university or school.
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Corruption keeps on growing in Egypt due to imposing tariffs because most of the people working in the government do not pay customs which increases corruption. According to statistics it appeared that Egypt has grand and petty corruption, Grand corruption is concerned with buying land and land sales because people in the Parliament and Shura Council purchase lands with very low prices and then resold them for very high prices depending on their impunity and position. The public government in Egypt rarely operates for the benefit of the general public but rather for their own benefit.
Corruption has a huge impact on the economic development of the country because every income that comes to the country from its resources such as tourism, gas, oil, petrol and others are not invested in the right way to serve the people which is why Egypt became one of the most poorest countries in the world because the resources are not allocated efficiently among the population, but instead the public government takes the profit to themselves and leaves few percentage to be invested. In 2007, The Egyptian government has established various institutions to fight against corruption which recommended for enhancing the transparency and accountability at the central and local government levels. Corruption is affected by the culture itself of the country, according to our culture which more than forty percent of the population is not well educated and poor, At that level the corruption increases because most parties such as the Muslim Brotherhood who pay money to the people to vote for them in the elections, so education also is one of the reasons why corruption in our country is high.
The Corruption level in Egypt is analyzed as individual, political and corporate. Political corruption involves corruption that occurs during the elections such as fraud in the results of each candidate in order to make a certain public figure win which happened during Hosni Mubarak period which was an obvious fraud for achieving more than ninety eight percent of the population's votes. Corporate Corruption happens because many companies manage to select or hire an employee because of his intermediary or knowing someone who has a big position in the country not because of his skills and abilities to work. And finally the individual corruption which includes more than half of the individuals in the country, every single person makes corruption because throwing the basket in the streets, disrespecting the laws of traffic, insulting a person because he does not have power or because he is poor, drug trafficking and others all of these items are considered to be an individual corruption from the individuals themselves.
Corruption continues in the country as judicial system such as in the police stations and courts. Police stations where the police officers do not perform their job efficiently and fairly with all the people such as if a police officer arrested an individual and throw him in the jail, In that case if that person has an intermediary he will get out and go home, if not then he will stay in prison, Another aspect that includes corruption in that part is that in our country the prisoner does not have any human rights and most probably will be treated as an insect unlike other countries where prisoners regarding what their crime are treated with full respect and dignity. On the other hand, Courts corruption include affecting the judge of the court by paying to him extra money to guiltlessness the accused person from his crime, another thing is providing fraud evidences from the lawyer to the judges to convince them that the accused person is innocent.
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Another important point to be mentioned is the corruption that takes place in the public utilities such as hospitals. Public hospitals in Egypt involves corruption because doctors and nurses the country provides them with very low wage salaries, so they do not perform their job as efficient as needed such as not having a room for the emergency cases, not having enough blood to rescue the patient and not entering the patient to the hospital until paying specific amount of money. Land administration is the way in which the rules of land tenure are applied and made operational. However, In Madinaty many people argued that the contract of the project is not correct, According to the courts judges argued that the project should be cancelled because the owner Hisham Talaat Mostafa has taken the land of the project with a very low price depending on the previous president protection.
Tax Administration is referred to the ability for the government to administer the taxes that the individuals pay to them. Taxes rate in Egypt is very high compared to other countries, Government should create and implement a new system for taxes to avoid making the individuals complain about that load of money they pay each year. This system should not depend on that successful businessmen who achieves high profits will afford paying high taxes, the system should be done fairly and equally among all individuals. Custom administration is the official organization responsible for collecting taxes on goods coming into a country and preventing illegal goods from being brought in. The government in Egypt puts high taxes on that part in order to gain persona l benefit for them from the imported goods.
Corruption includes many forms such as nepotism, fraud, trafficking, bribery, extortion, gifts, cronyism and embezzlement which were all explained above except gifts, extortion, cronyism and embezzlement. Gifts is very similar to bribery because in most of the cases it is very difficult to differentiate between a gift and a bribe because giving a gift to a person is the same as bribing them with money and at the end the giver and the receiver both are happy with the exchange they have done. Bribery on the other hand according to law is considered to be a civil or a criminal offence. But for sure these terms differ from one country to another depending on the culture itself, In Egypt most of the people give gifts or pay bribes to get things done quickly and make their life easier. The main reason for most Egyptians is that corruption may be the easiest way for them to get what they want. Fraud is also used by changing the contents of some documents or giving incorrect information about these documents to the public.
Cronyism can be defined as the political officials or businessmen who show preference to friends when appointed people to positions of power and performing tasks related to their own office. People who benefit from this form of corruption are awarded a position of privilege regarding of their skills level. In Egypt, this can be the most used form because many people find it really hard after graduating from college to find a job if they do not have someone they know who can hire them in their company. Embezzlement occurs in most of the businessmen in Egypt whereas embezzling tons of money regarding the law depending on their relationship with government figures. Extortion is taking a certain amount of money from a person or entity through coercion, This often happens during the elections when someone want to enter the Parliament the president or the people under him takes money from that person to make him win the elections with fraud. Trafficking in human beings is a serious crime where the victims are forced into the control of others who seek to benefit from their suffering; in our country this issue has increased during the revolution and after the revolution period where people were kidnapped from all cities to achieve a specific profit from their parents in return.
Although Corruption is spread among all countries in the world, many individuals ask why even corruption does happens or what are the reasons that can make it exist from the beginning. There are so many reasons for corruption such as tradition, economic conditions and government or social disorder. One of the main reasons is the low salaries or wages by public servants or even the ambiguity of the majority of laws which enables the public servants to break them as they wish. And also because of the culture of Egypt which education is not promoted to the level needed, People consider corruption as something that cannot be fixed in the country and because the majority of the population feels like they do not have no option but to demand bribes and gifts to make a better life for them. Poverty which covers nearly more than sixty percent of the people in Egypt drives them to corrupt because of their low standard of living and because of unemployment people feel that the country does not give them their right to live like human beings.
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The reasons for corruption takes us to the next step which is the impact, In other words how does corruption affect the people and the economy of Egypt. Corruption as it goes on growing it decreases the income of the country because not all the profit that is earned is invested on projects or providing jobs which the people can benefit from. It can also create problems of transparency and accountability to the public, Corruption can increase the cost of goods and services sold in the country. It can discourage the people to work together for common good; it can result in social inequality and expanding more the gap between the rich and the poor individuals. It can differ in hiring employees in small and large companies because it can hire an employee with a low skills and ability rather than taking the one with high capabilities and creative thinking. It can politically result in negative consequences such as government figures that take lands for very low prices and do not pay customs for anything they import from countries abroad. As long as the corruption level continues to increase, the level of poverty and poor people will also increase because it reduces the ability of the country to provide certain services such as health care and education.
In order to overcome Corruption in Egypt, The government should fight against it which can be achieved by increasing the salaries and working conditions of the people, supporting persons who have heavy workloads on them, better training and education and finally better technologies. But the most important step is to be able to create awareness campaigns to make the people understand that corruption has negative effects on the economy, growth and the progress of the country. The campaign should deliver to people that corruption will lead to damage to the overall resources that the country has.
Another way is to punish those who use corruption to attain personal benefit regarding its impact on other individuals and apply the law with strap on them with no mercy as an example since Corruption increased because of Hosni Mubarak and his regime then they must be punished for all the crimes they have done in the past thirty years in front of all the people to make them a lesson to anyone coming after them who thinks that it's not wrong to corrupt since they have got power. But regard all of the previous solutions the change must come from the individuals themselves, they should ask themselves several questions such as are all of my actions are legal according to the law, am I being fair and honest with these actions I take, how will my actions affect the society I am living in, does making corruption will affect the country's economy and plan of growth, how will I feel about myself after doing something that is wrong and illegal and finally ask how will God punish me in the doomsday after all the corruption that I have done. These types of questions will help the people avoid making corruption and build a new well developed Egypt.
Finally, I recommend many things for our country to be more of a developed country. I suggest that Egypt needs to start from the beginning and invest in many projects that can raise the country's image in front of the world; Government should respect the people and do not take from them bribes or any kinds of gifts and perform their official job fairly to all the individuals. The Media has an important role to tell the full truth about any kind of corruption that occurred in the country so that those people can be punished according to the laws and regulations of the Egyptian Constitution because most of the media channels does not provide the public with the news with honesty and just mention to them parts of the story and ignoring the rest because they are afraid that they might be excluded from their job.
Egypt should create a new law which states that if any individual pay a bribe to someone, he or she will be executed and killed. The law should not differentiate between a poor or a rich person, it should be applied in such a way that if a rich one made a mistake he will be punished and the same rules apply to the poor ones. The Government should remove any officer that treats people with disrespect or pettiness. All the individuals should be treated with dignity and justice because at the end they are humans not animals. Another important issue is making lots of researches about the developed countries and how they became successful and try to copy their success to our country.
The new president of the country Mohammed Morsi should bring to his government people who have a vision for Egypt to grow, people who have creative thinking or certain objectives they want the country to achieve, yet the government should be stressful and strong in facing situations involving people who cause damage to the country or people who cut the roads every day because that kind of damage brings nothing to us except loss in everything including economy, tourism and even destroying the country's image. I may clarify that Egypt needs a long period of time to change from the worst to the best because of the size of the corruption that occurred from nearly sixty years ago. The president should know how to make people motivated to change the country's weaknesses by providing them with security, raising their salaries, providing jobs for the unemployed graduate students from all universities.
In general, Egypt should find a solution concerning the problem of the traffic jam that occurs every day by expanding and building new cities and getting people to move from the capital to those cities to decrease the level of traffic problems. The most important is giving the people real promises that the country will be better in the future not only by words but also by performing actions to achieve the trust of them. The individuals themselves on the other hand should remove the feeling of despair they have that the country will never be good at something and start to have hope that by hardworking and trusting each other Egypt can reach the level they dream it will be. The government should use the resources that the country such as gas, oil, petrol and tourism as efficient as possible, the problem is that the resources are always allocated inefficiently in Egypt. Also the people should reduce the high percentage rate of birth because the president is not a magician that will afford everything to every single person at the same time, People should consider that the population of Egypt is nearly more than ninety million people which is a huge number compared to other countries.