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Security Of Pakistan And International Terrorism Politics Essay

Info: 3353 words (13 pages) Essay
Published: 1st Jan 2015 in Politics

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Security concerns are always a priority within a developing society; in simultaneity with the developing of individuals into groups, tribes, societies and ultimately the nations and states. In contemporary world it is generally assumed that states are the basic unit of international socio political arrangements. Idea of national security can be traced back to concept of states/ state sovereignty since during ages of kingdoms, state sovereignty was vested in the kings person; safeguarding him especially in battle and times of crisis. Over the centuries, kings lost their power and nation states established themselves in international arena. With emergence of the nation states in Europe, sovereignty was no longer vested in person of one individual but rested in sovereignty of the nation state itself.

2. National Security since then became essentially competitive; something to be achieved at other states’ expenses and increase in one state’s security arrangements got directly linked to the decrease of its adversary’s security capabilities.

3. During Cold War era most common approach to the study of security was one, which examined the best means to mitigate external threats to the political/ territorial integrity of nation states. Predominant threats were seen as external military threats from other states or perhaps from strategic interaction between states since end of Cold War period. Alternative approaches to the security gained prominence in general and these approaches de-emphasized military issues/ responses/ focus instead on non-military threats (either intra state or trans national in nature and character).

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4. Alternate security approaches in vogue include concepts like common security, cooperative security and comprehensive security. Concept of comprehensive security primarily concentrates on well being/ prosperity of human beings, economic prosperity, resource development or national security/ sovereignty. Centre of gravity remains Human Resource Development while connotations may vary between different Security Models. Basic thrust remains on enabling secured environment for progress, attainment of higher standards of human/ economic and dominance related issues.

5. National Power is one of the most important characteristics of a nation’s security capabilities and plays an important role on international scene. It implies possession of control, authority or influence over other nations/ states while National Power Potentials can be referred to as nation’s ability to influence behavior of others in accordance with its own national objectives/ goals and aims with focused on own national interests. States endeavor to maximize their share of power, utilizing own elements of national power to its advantage. Pakistan is the 7th largest country in the world and a nuclear power; blessed with most of the essential elements to ensure security and well being of its people. Being the front line state against the war on terror Pakistan is playing key role; while it has to maintain a credible conventional/ unconventional military forces for its own security since creation. Pakistan did not develop in socio-economic fields as it should have, however, with a well identified/ permanently known enemy, ever changing interests of major global players (notwithstanding other internal factors/ shortcomings); did get affected adversely in the past few decades.

Problem Statement

1. Pakistan’s security dynamics essentially relate to changing global environment and internal problems being faced by the country especially after the break up of USSR and Pakistan becoming a nuclear country in 1998. Pakistan’s current predicament is much more complex compare to situation as it was in 1971. The security environment has the impact of sectarianism, intolerance, weaponisation, economic problems, good governance, ethnic strive and terrorism. These factors impact Pakistan’s internal as well as external security parameters.

2. In order to investigate and research security dynamics of Pakistan, the study will focus on:

a. Analysis of Global Environment and the way it is impacting Pakistan’s

Security paradigm.

Analysis of internal security environment.

Conclusion

Recommendations

3. The challenges necessitate bold and imaginative policies. A correct perception of threat analysis leads to formulation of correct policies while correct understanding of threat scenario will lead us to devise appropriate measures to ensure security of Pakistan.

Objective of my Research

1. Pakistan’s national security has external and internal dimensions. It essentially focuses on parameters like territorial integrity, national sovereignty and absence of a threat to these core national values. At international level the existence of trans-national actors and networks, which are resorting to terrorism and their penetration in Pakistan’s security environment, threatens the internal and external security dynamics of Pakistan. Terrorism has global implications. In order to analyze it in proper perspective its origins need to be examined so as to find lasting solutions to this international menace.

2. This paper would focus on defining terrorism, causes that have given birth to it and how it grew in Pakistan and its internal and external consequences for Pakistan’s security so as to recommend viable options for future security requirements.

Significance Of Research

Controlling extremism and fighting terrorism in Pakistan are part of a broader spectrum; that requires synergized global efforts as well as Resolve/ Sincere Efforts not only from Political Leadership of the country but every citizen of Pakistan. At the same time it calls for a change in thinking of Western Leadership; who perceives Islamic World as volatile/ hostile and bent upon challenging the world peace. To live in comparative safety, World Leadership will have to reassess its strategic interests, particularly in the Muslim World.

Scope of my Research

Analyzing genesis of terrorism in our society, its effects, internal security environment, and measures taken by the Government to tackle this menace I have proffered few recommendations to enhance counter terrorism capabilities at national level as well as for Army and Law Enforcement Authorities (LEAs).

Limitations of Research

Under prevalent security environment it is difficult to access records/ reports and evaluation studies conducted by the LEAs and Government Departments; to have a true insight to the factual position/ desired information. Scope of this topic is so vast that even whole world has not been able to agree on single definition of the word Terrorism; and so will be to identify its root causes, linkages and overall designs. Efforts will be made to evaluate this very important threat and global issue that has adversely affected Pakistan. Facts and figures quoted in this research paper have been taken from Open Sources i.e. ISPR Statements/ Reports, Electronic and Print Media and through personal interaction with responsible Government Official who deal with this issue but they opted not to be quoted in the best interests of the State.

Hypothesis

Global security and social environment impact Pakistan and Muslim world adversely which has widened the gap between the Muslims and rest of world. One of the views to solve this predicament is to create a change in approach towards Muslim society and remap the fight of terrorism which was initiated to control the few extremists instead of whole Muslim world.

Literature review

1. The new millennium has bought with it new and daunting challenges for the world in general and Muslims in particular. The most obvious of these and even most acute, are political in nature. Most of the current world conflicts involve Muslims, which has inevitably led non-Muslims to believe, though wrongfully, that Islam is a religion of intolerance, militancy and terrorism. This perception is rapidly involving around the globe connecting Islam to fundamentalism, fundamentalism to extremism and extremism to terrorism. Naturally, these beliefs have created a deep mistrust of the west in the Muslim world. So the reality of suspicion and mistrust is on both sides of the divide. Pakistan itself has been a victim of terrorism even before 9/11. It posses an internal threat of colossal magnitude to our society. There have been many attributory factors which are generally well known to fight against this ‘invisible’ source, it is imperative that the spirit of religion is not only clearly understood but also projected both home and abroad. We must take this threat seriously and also devise counter measures for its spread and prevention to make Pakistan safe for us and our future generations.

2. Terrorism was once considered an instrument of the insurgents in a certain phase of their struggle for gaining the coveted goal of ultimate freedom from a particular regime or an occupational force. It is now used as sweeping term against all those elements that seek to bring about socio-political change or even vent off their frustration without any end in view. The terrorist attacks of 9/11 have pushed the Muslims into a very difficult situation. The can come out of it only if they fully understand the global, regional and internal dynamics. There is no room for ignorance and obstinacy. Pakistan lies at the centre-stage of all the geo-strategic changes taking place in this part of the world. While she works with the global and regional actors to manage the influence of external environment, her greatest challenge lies within Pakistan. Since the influences of global, regional and domestic environments have conflicts and contradictions; the formulation of strategy to fight war on terror becomes extremely complex and challenging. The irony is that the sole super-power is loosing her goodwill capital very rapidly in the world and religious extremists of Pakistan do not loose any opportunity to spin any global event to their selfish political advantage. Likewise, regional actors like India do not hesitate to take advantage of global war on terror to label freedom movement in Kashmir into cross border terrorism. Pakistan’s strategic responses are therefore complex but not impossible.

Theoretical Framework

1. 21st Century has witnessed terrorism as an emerging threat to world peace and security. This overgrowing menace has various forms and manifestations; its spectrum is broad and deep-rooted, ranging from religious and ideological extremism, sectarian intolerance, sub-national militant assertions, geo-strategic and political dynamics to transitional inclinations. Terrorism is not random, undirected or purposeless violence. It has clear objectives and uses violence and aggression as means to attain these objectives. Viewing this phenomenon from a restricted prism and merely focusing on the terrorist activities would mean administering a simplistic therapy to an exceedingly convoluted malaise, whose roots are well-woven into the geopolitical dynamics and socio-economic injustice.

2. The emergence of transitional terrorism has signaled a fundamental change in the nature of conflict, a paradigm shift from the cold war period. While the history of terrorism is very old, there is a little doubt that the events of September 11 dramatically changed the global security environment and the traditional concept of National Security. Pakistan has been a victim of terrorism for a long time. Our geostrategic location and proximity to the endemic sources of conflict place us unenviable situation.

3. To combat terrorism effectively, social and economic uplift and political resolution coupled with the requisite use of force should found the basis of counter terrorism strategy, but this too may appear easier said than done, because terrorism today, is an extremely complex and intricate phenomenon.

Research Methodology

Method Basing on my research and I will be using following methods:-

Documentary Research

Questionnaire

Type For the subject paper the most appropriate type of my research is carry out the survey.

Nature Exploratory

Research Design

It is obvious and perhaps without any doubt that terrorism has affected the global peace more than any epidemic or natural hazard the man kind has ever known. This fact has compelled me to carry out an effort to express my ideas to a level where needed and for this purpose the best option available were to carry out my survey through questionnaires including relevant information and public response. The second most reliable and authentic source of information was through the documentary evidences.

Data Analysis Tools

During the research I will be mainly focusing on the tools like;-

Self administered questionnaires

Research papers

This research is undertaken for the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree; the information in use from this survey will be kept confidential.

“Security of Pakistan and State of International Terrorism”

QUESTIONNAIRE

Name________________________________________ Age __________

Profession____________________________________ Date__________

Note: Please encircle your appropriate choice

Do you agree that terrorism has affected our society?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Do you think that Pakistan’s role as a frontline state has due importance in war against terrorism?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Does 9/11 incident has any significance in war against terrorism?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Are you satisfied with America’s role in war against terrorism?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Do you think that Pakistan’s Government hasn’t handled the war on terrorism in a right way?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Do you think that the war is the only way to eliminate terrorism from our society?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Do you propose that government should hold dialogues with the terrorists?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Do you think that media has any role in eradicating the terrorism?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Do you think that media is playing a right role in eliminating and creating awareness in the people regarding terrorism?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Do you think that United Nation has completely failed in controlling terrorism?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Do you agree that terrorism is more deep rooted than ever since the war against terrorism stared?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Do you think that war against terrorism has directly affected our country and our socio-economic structure?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Do you think that International Aid could help Pakistan to fight against terrorism?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Are you satisfied with the result war against terrorism?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Do you think that the war against terrorism has adversely affected our new generations?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

You think that we can easily role back from this war against terrorism?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Are you satisfied with the role of Muslim World and OIC in war against terrorism?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Do you think that the existing methodology of war against terrorism is working perfectly?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Do you believe that the result of this war has produced significant positive effect on our society?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Do you believe that the result of this war has produced significant negative effect on our society?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Do you suggest that Pakistan should stop supporting the war against terrorism?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Do you think that now our society has more awareness and has clear vision about their role in war against terrorism?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Do you think that America’s decision is more aggressive and they should find some other way to end up this war against terrorism?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Do you think that drones attacks are effective? Are they posing any threats to our National Integrity?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Do you think that we must dialogue at every level and forgive terrorists, and should give them a chance to start their lives once again?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Any other Comments:-

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

End Notes

V.P. Dutt, India’s Foreign Policy in a Changing World, (New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House , 1999) p. 4

B. Raman, Internal Security, Changing Environment, South Asia Analysis group, 26 June 2002. p. 483.

International Terrorism and Anti-Terror War: Chinese Perspective by Xia Liping, Conference on “Global Terrorism at Institute of Regional Studies, Islamabad on August 29-31, 2005. p. 1

Syed Raffat Hussain “War against Terrorism: Pakistani Perspective” IPRI issue of Winter 2004.

IPS Publication ” Terrorism and Challenges to Pakistan” Available at www.ips.org.pak

Economic survey of Pakistan 2004-05

Ibid.

Education system of Pakistan-a presentation made by Secretary Education in ND Hall.

 

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