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Responsible For National Disharmony Politics Essay


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In this study, an attempt has been made to identify the important problems, which have been responsible for national disharmony and have negative impacts on the society. While carrying out my research, I read lot of books and articles on 'National Integration', and found that this issue has not been looked into by academicians and researchers, wholesomely. One finds very few books by Pakistani writers on the subject in which they have tried to focus selectively on one or two issues and ignored other factors, which are shaking the very foundations of the state. While on other hand, in this study, the issue has been analysed in a wholesome manner and each and every thread that has impacted on the disharmonies in our society, has been discussed. Therefore, this study will be a stepping-stone, suggesting some concrete proposals, in order to achieve the objective of national integration. In the wake of the current situation prevailing in the country, where the nation is in despair and gradually loosing hope and optimism, the research is very significant to find out the way forward for coming out of the current crisis.

I am grateful to Dr Syed Mujawar Hussain Shah, Advisor Academics, National Defence University, Islamabad, for his guidance and encouragement throughout the research. Despite his busy schedule, he devoted a great deal of his time to keenly go through the drafts and give beneficial suggestions to improve the present work, which would have been insurmountable without his guidance. I am also grateful to the Library Staff of National Defence University, Islamabad, for their all out support for sorting the related books and journals for the purpose of present study.

This research effort is dedicated to all those people of Pakistan who are endeavouring to find answer to a basic question with reference to the national integration i.e. "Why we are what we are and why we aren't what we aren't?"



Pakistan is a pluralistic though somewhat homogeneous society, having a variety of ethnic, linguistic and socio-cultural groups living in various provinces but having common religious, socio-political and historical background with common aspirations for the future. All they need is freedom, socio-economic justice, peace and prosperity. These goals can be achieved through national integration, but question to achieve national integration, remains unresolved. An effort has been made to address this question in present study.

Pakistan's failure in national integration, to emerge as a nation-state, is due to political instability, vast economic disparities and exploitation of ethno-cultural diversities. In the 62 years history of Pakistan, we have experienced virtually a variety of internal strife, political chaos and disunity, ethnic and sectarian clashes, racial cleavages, secession and wars that ultimately resulted in disintegration of the country. Notwithstanding, the critical internal dynamics, the external forces sponsored by our archrival have also nurtured the disintegrating forces in the country. Though we have passed through the crisis, we still seem to be enshrined in the cobweb of problems resulting from a mixture of internal conflicts and external machinations. We have made substantial progress in many spheres, however, there is a dire need to examine the deteriorating integration fabric and take concrete measures to enhance the strength of the federation and foster national integration.

Pakistan's ideological base, geographical contiguity, pluralistic social structure and abundant resources call for sincere and visionary leadership for management of its development, which will expedite the process of national integration. The development of human capital, enhanced national spirit, sectarian tolerance and regard for ethnicity will gradually lead to fostering national and religious unity, making integration a viable option.



In the prevailing environments, inner fronts are more susceptible to intrusions and incursions than the outer, impinging upon the contours of National Security Strategy and, therefore, 'National Integration' forms its very foundation. Pakistan has variety of linguistic, ethnic, religious and socio-cultural groups, necessasitating the need for unity and belonging together in a pluralistic participative system. Ever since its creation, Pakistan has been beleaguered with the formidable problems of national integration within the context of a "Nation State", that we proudly claim being one of the few existing in the world. It is an irony that within a long span of over six decades, successive political and military regimes have miserably failed to device a consensus amongst various communities to achieve the objective of National Integration.

The present study aims to identify the important problems, which have been responsible for national disharmony and the negative impacts. The study is a stepping-stone, suggesting some concrete proposals, in order to achieve the objective of national integration.


National Integration remains a crucial issue in Pakistan. There are various forces, which accentuate divisive factors like geography and culture of our country. Religious fundamentalism is one such force while linguistic diversities constitute another. Despite a shared culture for a long period, regionalism has remained a major force, which generates tension because of inequitable development amongst different provinces/regions of the Country. The FATA/FANA and Baluchistan are the best examples in this case, where people have been deprived of economic, political and social justice. All the above forces and factors pose a serious challenge for Pakistan's integrity and unity. It is, therefore, necessary to make concerted efforts to strengthen the national integration.

The word "National Integration" in a federated state like Pakistan has complex meaning and scope. It is to build a "nation", integrating various groups into the national system [1] . It is broadly defined as the creation of a national political system, which supersedes or incorporates all the regional subsystems. More specifically national integration is incorporation of disparate ethnic or religious elements of the population into a unified society, providing equality of opportunity for all members of that society [2] . It is a process, whereby the people of a nation arrive at a consensus on basic economic, political and social issues, which confront a nation state. However, national integration has remained Pakistan's Achilles Heel since its very birth. In the formative years, serious efforts were not made by political elite to weld plural-cultural social order to lay the foundation of national integration. The more shocking was the emergence of Bangladesh in 1971, as the problems of a plural society like Pakistan could not be sorted out over a span of two and a half decades. Even, post 1971 Pakistan, with logical and more cohesive borders, has been unable to resolve the problems arising from a variety of ethnic, regional and other divisive challenges.

Quaid-e-Azam had envisioned that Pakistan would be a state, where all citizens would enjoy equal rights irrespective of caste, creed, sect, or place of birth [3] , but it could never become a reality. In a polarized and fragmented society like Pakistan, it is necessary to have the consent of all groups with regards to resolution of their genuine problems. This important aspect was never given a serious thought by political and military rulers. Despite all domestic odds, Pakistan has demonstrated genuine ability to survive as a viable 'Nation State'. Considering the prevailing circumstances, the process of national integration has gained more significance and importance than ever. There is a need of following a correct and pragmatic approach with dispassionate analysis of all the issues jeopardizing the process of national integration.

Statement of Problem. The task of national integration in a plural society like Pakistan is although arduous, yet it can be achieved by bringing in diverging forces together through a political system based on justice, equality and fair play. In order to find out a viable solution for achieving this objective, the following important questions need to be addressed:-

Question 1. What are the disintegrating forces in Pakistan and how they can be brought together?

Question 2. What are the pillars of national integration and how they can be strengthened?

Question 3. What mechanism is needed to be devised to bring all the segments at par economically and politically?

Question 4. Where lays our survival as a nation?

These questions, if answered properly, can definitely come up with a viable solution for national integration in the Country.

Review of Literature

It has been noted that this issue of national importance has not been looked into by academicians and researchers in sufficient detail and one finds only few books by Pakistani writers on the subject of national integration. Asif Haroon in his book title "Muhammad Bin Qasim to General Pervez Musharraf" published in 2004, provides genesis of nation making, which now forms part of the Pakistan [4] . It covers the kaleidoscope of Pakistan's history linking it from the origin of Islam and its effects in the sub-continent. However, it does not address the problems being confronted by Pakistan today.

Rounaq Jahan in her book "Pakistan: Failure in National Integration" covers the period upto late sixties [5] . Although, the book is not written in the contemporary environments, nevertheless, one can still draw useful lessons as how the process of national integration can be strengthened. Rounaq Jahan has carried out an analysis of political-make up of the Country introduced by Ayub Khan, which could not contribute positively for nation building and cohesion. The book draws the linkage of political and economic transformation on the national make-up of the Bengalis vis-à-vis West Wing populace and reveals many important issues, which led to the emergence of Bangladesh in 1971. The qualitative analysis through lot of tabulated facts, supports author's arguments.

"Pakistan's Security and National Integration" by Ikram Azam is an attempt to find out the answers for the polarization and confrontation in the society since its creation. The author's view point treating "Punjab" as one of the pillars of Pakistan, in line with 'Islamic Ideology', 'Democracy' and 'Armed Forces', does not seem pragmatic and is illogical [6] . Since the book has been written in the environments of 70s during post East Pakistan debacle, therefore, it does not include the current contemporary challenges to the national integration.

Qadeeruddin Ahmed's book "Pakistan: Facts and Fallacies", is the reflections of his thoughts over the historical make-up of Pakistan. In this book, the author has tried to express certain facts in the light of the interpretation as he sees them and discount certain publicised fallacies concerning the creation of Pakistan [7] . His ideas about the very basis for creation of Pakistan (Two Nation Theory) are thought provoking [8] . His concept of 'Integration' as given in Chapter X of the book, outlines philosophical contours of the subject but are short of the contemporary challenges that we face today as a nation [9] .

M. Nazrul Islam's book "Pakistan: A Study in National Integration", is case study in national integration for Pakistan and Malaysia. The author has analysed demographic, economic and political architecture of the two countries, which impinge upon enhancing national integration and aggravate disintegrative tendencies. The qualitative analysis through lot of tabulated facts, supports author's arguments. However, his analysis is mostly confined to finding reasons for dismemberment of Pakistan because of demographic, economic and political fallouts on national integration. One has to read in between the line to find semblance to our present day challenges to national integration, which were so during 60s and 70s. [10] 

"Nationalism, Regionalism and Philosophy of National Integration" by N. Malla was compiled on the eve of 50th year of India's independence. Since I found few interesting semblances of Indian integration challenges to those of Pakistan, therefore, I read this book. The book is the compilation of various articles by different Indian scholars on the subject of National Integration. It highlights the contours of the pluralistic society of India, which requires a very burdensome intellectual discourse to find common grounds for co-existence and continue being a Nation. However, despite semblance of challenges that it has with Pakistan, one has to draw own conclusions to relate these to our National Integration mosaic. [11] 

During middle of 1962, Jolly Mohan Kaul compiled the book "Problems of National Integration" in the Indian perspective. The book adequately investigates the problems like British legacy, communalism, caste system, regionalism and tribal disharmonies, which were those time tactical challenges of India of 1950s and 60s [12] . In this book again, I found few interesting semblances of Indian integration challenges to those of Pakistan, therefore, I read this book. However, despite these semblances, one has to draw own conclusions to relate these to our National Integration mosaic.

"Ethnic Insurgency and National Integration" by Mahfuzul Haque (Bangladesh) is based on the author's doctoral thesis on the subject. Author has carried out the analysis of various ethnic movements in South Asia, particularly in India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. For me, its Chapter 2 was of particular interest clearing lot of my doubts about academic explanation of theoretical concept related to "ethnicity". However, being only 'ethnic insurgency' centric, the book is short of all the answers for my inquiries to the present days challenges of the Pakistan for national integration. [13] 

"National Integration; Its Meaning and Relevance" by M. Rafiq Khan" is the compiled report of the Indian National Seminar on the "Meaning and Relevance of National Integration", held in Assam from 25-28 February 1970. Focus of articles is on concept of nationhood, problems associated with secularism, linguistic issues, untouchable, caste system, regional imbalances and nature and pattern of politics. At best, the book is good enough for preparing a sound base for academic understanding of various issue of national integration. [14] 

Saima Qayyum Qureshi, in her article "Ethnicity and National Integration in Pakistan", published in Monthly Current Affair Digest, September 2003 issue, has basically focused on the ethnicity with reference to Pakistan's Case Study [15] . Nevertheless, her recommendations to overcome the ethnicity are thought provoking.

Plamen Tonchev in his article "Pakistan at Fifty-Five: From Jinnah to Musharraf," published in European Institute for Asian Studies has analysed the ideological roots of the Country. He has given some interesting conclusions regarding place of Islam in ideological make up of Pakistan with reference to more moderate vision of Quaid-e-Azam [16] .

Prof. Kh Zahid Parwaiz, in his article, "Ethnicity and Problems of Integration in Pakistan", published in Monthly Current Affair Digest, July 2004 issue, has analysed the genesis of ethnicity in Pakistan, with special reference to sectarian ethnicity [17] . However, his analysis has stopped short of any suggested way forward for Pakistan.

Significance of Study. The literature review indicates that important forces, which are responsible for disunity and disharmony, have not been studied seriously. Authors have tried to focus on one or two issues and ignored totally those factors, which are shaking the very foundation of the State. The period of the present study as well as focus has not attracted the attention of any researcher. Therefore, the importance of present study lies in the fact that it is going to address those factors, which if cured with care and caution, can result in bringing national integration. The study will also fill in gap and prove a stepping stone for further research on the issue.

Methodology. The descriptive and an analytical method have been adopted to study the issue of national integration. Qualitative Method has also been followed where appropriate. Findings of the already published literature like books, research articles, official documents and newspapers, form the main stay of the Study.

Organization of Study

This study has been compiled in four chapters. Chapter 1 deals with the conceptual framework of national integration, in which academic aspects of the subject have been discussed. 'Nation' and 'Integration' have been defined while discussing various contours of national integration. Some of the determinants have also been listed, which have a direct bearing on the inculcation of national integration in a nation.

In Chapter - 2, national integration mosaic of Pakistan has been discussed. An historical analysis of Pakistan's formative years has been carried out, which should have been a period of nation building and consolidation, but turned out to be a traumatic experience in political failures and nation making. While carrying out analysis of national integration mosaic of Pakistan, all the 'pull' and 'push' forces, responsible for the current disharmonies of Pakistan, to include religious, social, ethnic, regional, lingual, political, constitutional and economic factors, have been discussed. The analysis identifies the unifying factors and the fault lines that have created opportunities and problems of national integration for Pakistan through its brief history. It highlights how Islam; the basis of Pakistan's Ideology, and various other social, cultural, political and economic aspects, have factored into national integration.

Chapter - 3 discusses the present irritants to national integration of Pakistan. Main discussion points of this chapter are current political structure, FATA/Swat situation, Baluchistan issue, current economic turmoil, present state of the institutions, law and order situation, judicial crisis, religious militancy, state of current education system and inter provincial issues.

Chapter - 4 is a proposed 'way forward'. For the purpose of clarity, this chapter has been divided in four sub parts in which ideological issues, political issues, governance issues and other miscellaneous issues have been discussed separately. The discussion sets out a way ahead to meet the challenges, convert them into opportunities and thus achieve national integration, to put Pakistan on the road to peace and prosperity and help it achieve the long-cherished goal of coherence, cohesion and unity.



Nation and National Integration

Nation. A nation is generally defined as a community knit together by common experience over reasonably long past, shaping a common religion, culture and tradition [18] . However, different societies have defined it differently according to their own environment. The word "Nation" comes form a Latin expression "Natio", meaning birth or race [19] . It implies, "A body of persons having a common origin and language: possessing a distinctive culture and social way of life." [20] As per Qadeeruddin Ahmed, common (i) territory (ii) history (iii) language (iv) colour and race (v) religion and culture (vi) danger and hazards (vii) benefits and expectations of benefit, create and sustain the sentiments of nations. [21] The Islamic concept of nation defines it as Ummah; [22] regardless of colour, caste, creed and race, the Believers (Muslims) are one community. Unlike the concept of nation state, Islamic Ummah has no loyalty towards territorial or geographical divisions. While Pakistani concept defines nation as "Millat" [23] ; a group of people who have a common attitude towards life and feel that they have a common destiny.

Integration. The word in its literal sense means fitting together parts to make one whole or incorporation of disparate ethnic or religious elements of the population into a unified society, providing equality of opportunity for all members of that society [24] . A former professor of Kalyani University, Prof. Chakraborty, during a Seminar on National Integration held at Ali Garh Muslim University, pointed out that, "In the language of functional politics, the term 'national integration' means cohesion but not fusion, unity but not uniformity, reconciliation but not merger, accommodation but not elimination, assimilation but not extinction, synthesis but not non-existence, solidarity but not regimentation of the many segments of the people in a territorial sovereignty" [25] . It is also usually employed in figurative sense in relation to social systems. In its figurative sense, The 'International encyclopaedia of Social Sciences' justifies it to be an assumption that societies are self-sufficient entities with compatible components of social, cultural political and economic structures, held together by the cementing force of loyalty [26] . Most of the third world countries, old and new, in their striving to become a modern nation, are faced with the task of nation building, because in many cases they have the form but not the substance of nationhood [27] .

Keeping in view the definition, "Integration" can be categorized in two ways [28] :-

Functional Integration. It is a much simpler phenomenon because it depends on needs, technology, efficiency and availability of resources. If the required quantities are inadequate, the functional quality suffers and the deficiency may cause dissatisfaction. An example of such discontent was East Pakistan and opposite example is prospering Western countries.

Psychological Integration. It is more complex and vital as compared to functional integration. It is controlled only by the deepest loyalties, emotional bonds and spiritual cause; because when we speak of integrated societies we mean that their functional and psychological parts conform to the identity or spirit of a society. Common belief and dominant perspective of life are the psychological aspects of such integration. German concept of racial superiority during Nazi regime is an example of psychological integration in modern time.

Contours of National Integration

Nationalism Vs National Integration. According to Peter Marris, nationalism is "the process whereby a group or community that shares or at least is convinced that it shares, a common history, culture, language and territory is persuaded to assert its own affairs, usually through the creation of an independent state." [29] Nationalism, in modern history, is movement in which the nation-state is regarded as paramount for the realization of social, economic, and cultural aspirations of a people [30] . The concept of nationalism is related to the specific environment (religious, social, cultural etc) in which national self-assertion of group of people merges. Although nationalism is the most successful political ideology in human history, its achievement in getting the world's entire land surface divided between nation-states has led to considerable problems in integrating the ethnic and cultural minorities within these states. Nationalist theories are still controversial, while the process and frequent failures of national integration are issues of central importance in the contemporary world [31] . The process of national integration, on other hand, holds a system together. National Integration is not only a perpetually on going process, it is multi-dimensional and many directional. Its variables input cover all important sectoral avenues i.e. socio-cultural, politico-economic and religio-ideological [32] .

Strategies for National Integrations. Ethnic groups do not necessarily threat the national integration in a state. These ethnic groups can live without any conflict until and unless they are triggered to do so. Only when they entered in to struggle of power, they come to conflict with each other [33] . The integration process requires certain strategies for achievement. Weiner suggested two public policy strategies for achieving national integration: the 'Assimilation Process', which eliminates the distinctive cultural traits of minorities and submerges them into a national culture, and the ''Unity-in-diversity'' process, which attempts to establish national loyalties without eliminating the subordinate cultures [34] .

Ethnicity. [35] A school of thought delineates ethnic identities that are natural growth in a society. They do create difficulties but with stable and balanced functioning of a political system, they are assimilated in the mainstream of the society. Keeping in view the assimilation process, some social scientists believe that when ethnic identities are assimilated, they play a constructive role in the society. The most powerful states could not bridle the functioning of ethnic identities.

Determinants of National Integration

National Objective. National goals are determined from time to time depending upon the national needs. Whereas national interests define the basic nonnegotiable needs of a nation, national objectives spell out what a country is trying to do to maintain those national interests. National objectives are the specific Ends that a nation seeks in order to advance, support or defend its national interests. [36] 

Ideology. Ideology means the science or study of ideas. In general sense it refers to the specific manner in which a group of persons thinks [37] . The group may have a set of beliefs, whether abstract or in the form of traditions, religion or philosophy. Nationalism can develop into a uniting and sufficiently aggressive force, only if the requisite emotional and ideological base exists; but ordinarily, this sentiment takes centuries to mature. [38] 

Religion. Religion is one of the strongest bonds in an ideological state and an essential element of national integration being a sanction of unity. It provides an additional source of pride to the nation and affects national character and habits. In Islam, the loyalty o the Muslims to one another has been institutionalized by the concept of Ummah. [39] The classic Islamic scholar Ibn Khaldun defined three pillars on which the Islamic state should be erected: (i) group feeling (asabiyah), (ii) a ruling structure with leaders, and (iii) a large community that is based on the common religion (ummah). There is no mention of 'ethnic groups', territory, or boundaries. [40] 

Language. Language as a hall-mark of any group of people, underscores the most valuable possession for dealing with changes in man's environment. Language is also a manifestation of culture and tradition. It is the means of communication and takes ages to develop. Hence, it serves as one of the strongest bonds. Language is also one of the most enduring artefacts of a people's culture, and unless people are forced by any system of dominance or conquest, their language can always determine the people's social physics and history. [41] 

Culture. Culture can be defined as the manifest aggregate of people's language, religion, customs, manners, dress, art, economy and outlook. Culture is developed through an age old living traditions. Each region has its own culture, which once put together, makes the culture of a country. National integration in multi-cultural states is untenable without an entrenched public culture because this comprises the values shared by all groups and constitutes the common grounds on which the diverse groups conceptualize and appreciate the state. [42] 

Leadership. Leadership plays pivotal role in the process of integration. A nation that sets a goal or objective for itself requires leadership, which can guide them to their common destiny. An effective leader is naturally integrative, who brings together people of different culture, races, genders, personalities and stages of development and integrates them into a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts. [43] 

The question of societal integration has always been at the heart of sociological research. In this chapter, an effort has been made to highlight the conceptual parameters of the national integration. It is hoped that this base of knowledge will serve a foundation for rightly understanding the challenges that Pakistan is faced now, so that ultimately correct way forward can be developed. The next chapter discusses the various factors responsible for national disharmony in order to have a good understanding of the problems, so that a way forward could be traced out for the purpose of national integration.



Historical Perspective

Pakistan was established in 1947 as the state for the Muslims of India. Before independence, the Muslims of the sub-continent had maintained their separate identity. All efforts of the Hindu Society to absorb the Muslim Society proved fruitless. "Religion was the only thing these people shared; otherwise, there were vast differences of language, culture, and social and economic backgrounds between, say, the Muslims of the Punjab and those of Bengal" [44] The driving force behind the setting up of this new state was the better educated Muslims (often from administrative, trading, intellectual professions) of the Muslim minority provinces of central India, like Uttar Pradesh and Bombay. The inhabitants of the Muslim-majority areas, which later became Pakistan (Punjab, NWFP, Sind, Baluchistan, and Bengal), had been less enthusiastic or even sceptical. They joined the cause of the "Pakistan Movement" only during the last few years before the foundation of Pakistan. It is said that the Pakistan Movement succeeded on the basis of Islamic ideology and only then Muslims of the sub-continent could carve out a separate state for themselves [45] . However, paradoxically, the Country was not established with a religious purpose, but with a "national" one in mind [46] .

When Pakistan came into existence, it consisted of a wide variety of "ethnic" and linguistic groups and subgroups, which had very little in common besides being Muslim. Two official languages (Urdu and English), six or seven important regional ones (Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Balochi, Saraiki, Bengali), and perhaps two dozen small or local ones, are an indication of linguistic wealth, if not of homogeneity. The founding fathers, being profoundly secular (sometimes bordering to be non-religious), had to deal with the task to bring about what they had insisted upon prematurely: to make Pakistan into a "Nation", to integrate the several ethnic groups into an national community - without over-using the only bond they had in common: religion. The task was made more complicated because most of the founding fathers were migrants or even refugees to what was to become Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam did not speak any of the local languages; he would not even completely speak in Urdu before independence. [47] He delivered his speech declaring the Independence of Pakistan in English, to be translated into Urdu. The creation of the Pakistani "Nation" did not develop from "below", from the societal roots or nationalist movements, but from top-down: first the State was created, hoping to develop its own social base. Nation-Building was to generate the Nation that the Nation-State desired [48] .

In sixty two years history of Pakistan, several different approaches to integrating society into a "Nation" have been tried. They could be summarized as:-


Integration Approach



Charisma, mixed with Modernization

Jinnah/Liaqat Ali



Bureaucracy an FM Ayub Khan


Mobilization and Socialist Rhetoric

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto


Islamist Modernization

Gen Zia ul-Haq


Muddling through with some Modernization

Benazir Bhutto's and Nawaz Sharif's first terms, Benazir's second term


Enlightened Moderation

Gen Musharraf

National Integration Mosaic of Pakistan

Religious Facade of Pakistan

It was clear as early as pre-independence times that, given the immense ethnic diversity of Pakistan and the strong centrifugal forces, the new state would urgently need a 'common denominator' and that was Islam. Apparently, the religious ideology as the basis of the state was viewed as a tool for nation-building and thwarting possible Indian designs to reject the creation of Pakistan. [49] 

There is always a debate as to what Quid wanted Pakistan to be; a theocratic state or a moderate one. To this end there are two quotes of Quaid worth mentioning:-

"..You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to mosques or to any other place of worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion, or caste and creed that has nothing to do with the business of the State we are starting with this fundamental principle that we are all citizens and equal citizens of One State. Now I think we should keep that in front of us as our ideal and you will find that in the course of time Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Hindus and Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual but in the political sense as citizens of the State..." [50] 

(11 August 1947; Presidential address to the Constituent Assembly)


"..In any case, Pakistan is not going to be a theocratic State to be ruled by priests with a divine mission. We have many non-Muslims-Hindus, Christians and Parsees -- but they are all Pakistanis. They will enjoy the same rights and privileges as any other citizens and will play their rightful part in the affairs of Pakistan …" [51] 

(February 1948; Broadcast to the people of the United States)

Despite Jinnah's reluctance, the post-independence leadership of Pakistan deliberately projected the ideological dimension due to the lack of an alternative theme or philosophy. The pressure on the newly born state was enormous and, at the initiative of the Ulama, a Board of Islamic Teachings was established by the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, after Jinnah had passed away, to advise the body on the Islamic pattern of the so-called Objectives Resolution, Pakistan's first constitution (Annex A). [52] 

Muslim clerics and leading Islamic Political Parties of the time opposed the creation of Pakistan. However, since independence, there has been a growing popular demand for incorporating the Islamic principles in the constitution. Maududi entered the post-independence period not willing to compromise with nationalism. He considered Jinnah and other leaders of the Muslim League to be ignorant of Islam and, therefore, its enemy [53] .

After independence, the religious differences were aggravated by the "Ulemas" on the basis of sectarianism. The saboteurs launched by anti-state elements fully exploited these differences and religious strength started turning into national weakness [54] . Sectarianism came to its zenith in Gen Zia's tenure due to vested interests of the ruling elite, external involvement and flaws policies.

In retrospect, what we have now is a divided society on the lines of sectarianism, propagating extreme forms of de-faced shape of the Islam. Religion, instead of serving a unifying force, is now acting as a component of disunity and disharmony.

Misconceived Perceptions. The rationale for Pakistan's independence notwithstanding, we failed to identify and consolidate other factors that could have contributed towards national integration and societal cohesion in the newly independent state. We remained confused, and still are, as to be a 'Nation State' or 'Religion State'? While there can be no doubt that the Country is called the Islamic Republic, it is equally evident that religion as a glue failed to hold the Country together in 1971. Mere reliance on Islam to bind the federation together led us to the disaster of 1971 [55] . Bengalis remained a deprived segment and ultimately opted out of Pakistan. Sadly, our rulers failed to draw the right lessons from the break-up of Pakistan. Barring short intervals of democratic rule, and that too crippled by design, this nation has had to endure decade long nights of political strangulation and religious obscurantism. The results are there in front of us i.e. FATA, FANA, Swat and Baluchistan. Large sections of the population, especially those in the minority provinces, have become increasingly disillusioned [56] .

Weak Democratic Roots. Democracy could not establish its roots at the time of our independence due to short sightedness of our politicians. The leadership vacuum created in the early years of our history denied us the opportunity of developing a stable political system of governance during various periods ranging from parliamentary and presidential forms, authoritarian system and so on [57] . It was the incompetence of Pakistan's post-Jinnah political leadership that drew the armed forces heavily into politics and policy-making [58] . Liaqat Ali Khan had the political clout and capability to finalise the constitution and to hold general elections. He cannot be absolved of criminal negligence, since during his 4 ½ years stint he could not even prepare basic framework for the future constitution and could hold provincial elections in Punjab only. His failure to find solutions to the thorny issues of canal waters, evacuee property and refugees, left the Country in a lurch [59] . Pursuit of power at all cost, including overnight changing of party affiliations, resulted into ousting of the erratic and arrogant politicians by the civil/military bureaucracy. Ultimately country saw long periods of martial law under autocratic rulers. Creation of one unit was another step to accumulate power at the centre and result was disenchantment at provincial level [60] . Political instability, the rampant corruption of the political and bureaucratic élite, and poor governance have given birth to public scepticism of the prevalent system [61] . The unreliability of the political system has rendered the presence of the army all the more necessary and, thus, a vicious circle has taken roots in Pakistan, with the military causing and 'solving' crises at the same time [62] . Every military ruler tried his version of democracy; Ayub's Basic Democrat System and Musharraf's Local Body systems were formed with least political acceptance of the political elite while Zia virtually embarked upon a policy of controlled democracy under the name of Islamic democracy. [63] In nutshell, ignorant masses, influential landlords and bigoted clerics, strong regional groups but weak national parties and, above all, a small and disinterested middle class are collectively blamed for Pakistan's failing democracy [64] .

Political/Constitutional Issues. Our political institutions have yet not grown strong enough on power sharing and to fight against the divisive force, which have been working to disintegrate Pakistan. The politicians of Pakistan have been engrossed with internal feuds group, religious sects, economic classes, and leading personalities [65] . Mushroom growth of political parties in contrast to two party system in western countries virtually brings a weak coalition government thus a major cause of political instability [66] . While India had a Constitution by early 1950, Pakistan found much longer to adopt a constitution. With Objective Resolution passed in 1949 (Annex A), the Muslim League dragged their feet in framing a constitution, and the document finally arrived at after nearly a decade of wrangling incorporated an odd "one-unit" concept that offset Bengali superiority in numbers by amalgamating the four western provinces [67] .

Provincial Autonomy. The issue of the centre-province relationship has always been one of the most intractable questions of Pakistan politics. The powers of the provinces may look impressive when one confines oneself to the distribution of legislative powers, but when one examines the administrative and financial aspects of the federal versus provincial authorities; dominance of the former is clearly manifested [68] . As per 1973 constitution, there is supposed to be the federal form of government in Pakistan where the provinces should have full autonomy. Unfortunately, this constitutional right has been denied to the provinces. Pakistan's smaller provinces resent political exclusion and are unhappy with the inadequate sharing of power and resources within the Country". [69] This is a fundamental issue in the case of Pakistan, not so much because of aspirations to power, but because of the fragility of a state marked by such a high degree of diversity and centrifugal forces. Today, Pakistan is a federal state, but successive Pakistani regimes have pursued to sustain a state structure based on a strong centre and weak provinces. Pakistan is a government, strong at the expense of provinces, as the necessary guarantee for national unity, integrity and security. There has always been an argument that more autonomy to provinces would be injurious to Pakistan's integrity and unity, but in fact, the question of centre-province relations has been masking the imperative for the ruling élite to keep a restive Pakistan together [70] .

Lack of Nationalism. Pakistan's political landscape has been marred by intense political wrangling, polarization and lack of political accommodation. Persistent intolerance and impatience about the opposite viewpoint have been the bane of political life. This has caused fissures and divides in out polity, on account of flimsy and subjectively perceived factors. The political process has been repeatedly hamstrung by these impediments. Provincialism and parochialism often form refuge of the petty, short-sighted and self-styled leaders. Striving to carve out a national identity, Pakistan's leadership had, from the very beginning, to grapple with the confrontation of competing ethnic groups, with only Islam serving as a tenuous link. Pakistani nationalism, unlike Indian, Malayan or Nigerian nationalism, was not based on a historically established and geographically well-defined political entity. That led to an exclusive focus on Islamic identity, almost by default [71] .

Regional Diversity. For Pakistan, regionalism had emerged with different complexion. Even the common religion, flag and national ideology could not fully blend Pakistanis together as one entity until today. In the words of novelist Salman Rushdie [72] : "It is well known that `Pakistan', an acronym, was originally thought up in England by a group of Muslim intellectuals. P for Punjabis, A for the Afghans, K for Kashmiris, S for Sind and the 'tan' for Baluchistan. (No mention of the East, you notice: Bangladesh never got its name in the title, and so eventually, it took the hint and seceded from the secessionists)" [73] .

Ethnic Diversity. Pakistani nation is fairly diverse. Ethnically, Punjabis are dominating followed by Pathans and Sindhis (Refer to the Table below) [74] . The ethnic diversity of the Country and inter-ethnic confrontation has led to a number of separatist claims and even revolts. One of the underlying causes in post-independence Pakistan is the way increasingly Punjab-based establishment is looked upon by the rest of the population as well as the dominance of the so-called 'migratory élite', originating from regions in today's India. This class would include Jinnah (from Bombay) and Liaqat (from Uttar Pradesh), along with two-thirds of the higher bureaucracy and seven out of the twelve top industrial houses set up in post-independence Pakistan from non-Pakistan areas [75] . For the successful growth of a federal state, effective participation of people from all ethnic groups is necessary in political, economic and administrative affairs of the nation [76] . This aspect also got neglected like many others. There are many macro level ethnic identities, which have been in existence in the Country, as under:- [77] 





Religious Sects




























Lingual Diversity. The lingual diversity became apparent after independence. In case of East Pakistan, we failed to understand that nations are composed of human being, whose deep feelings about such questions as their mother tongue, should not be ignored easily [78] . Although Urdu was considered as the major language, no single language had general acceptance in Pakistan itself. Urdu is spoken as a first language by no more than 9% of the population; 65% speak Punjabi, 11% Sindhi, and 24% speak other languages (Pushto, Saraiki, Baluchi, Brohvi, etc.); Baluchistan alone is marked by the use of five different languages [79] . The linguistic differences intensified the problem of national integration and result was riots in most parts of the Country, [80] that ultimately cost us separation of our Eastern wing.

Economic Irritants. Defining the economic aims and selecting realistic objectives based on economic potential and framework is a pre-requisite for giving out attainable policies. Frequent policy changes due to vested interests of groups, have created instability and impaired credibility of macro economic measures. The various regions of Pakistan were at a different stage of economic development at the time of independence. Successive Governments further aggravated the situation by allocating resources on population basis, not giving due share to the less developed areas of the Country [81] . Masses of the affected provinces view this as usurpation of their fundamental right and demand for their share of the resources. The most recent economic trends show continuing stagnation, balance of payments and reserves difficulties, paralysis of industrial and commercial activity in and flight of capital due to political confrontation and violence, spiralling inflation, and deepening poverty [82] . Regional and inter-ethnic economic disparities created by Pakistan's pattern of economic development, is another factor that impinge upon national integration. Since the class structure in different regions and among different ethnic groups varies quite substantially, the aforementioned changes are of great salience in the analysis of ethnic questions. [83] 

Social Justice. Inefficient state agencies, selective application of law, and ever-increasing corruption are breeding a culture of negativism in Pakistan. Disparity between the rich and the poor is leading to frustration, misuse of power, and lawlessness. Pakistan's integration dilemma is not confined to macro level politico-economic disequilibria only; at grass root level social dimensions deserve equal attention. The inherent disadvantages of quota system as a compromise between unevenly developed communities have taken a heavy toll of merit system. While the overall incidence of poverty is diminishing, the absolute number of poor continues to grow.

Military Involvement in Civilian Affairs. What a society gets from its armed forces is precisely what it asks for; no more and no less [84] . After October 1999, there was an unprecedented surge of large-scale militarization of the civil bureaucracy. Over 700 senior level posts in the federal and provincial governments were held by retired and serving military officers. From a civilian perspective, army has been losing its pride and prestige rapidly.

Role of Bureaucracy. Bureaucratic traditions that came to influence the administration and got strengthened after 1951 under Ghulam Muhammad and later by Iskandar Mirza, were essentially a legacy from the British. The bureaucracy expanded its sphere of influence and authority at the expense of developing political institutions. Greater reliance on Service vis. Political parties by both Ghulam Muhammad and Iskandar Mirza to conduct state business made the legislature weak and ineffective thereby allowing these rulers to bypass the elected assemblies. Ghulam Mohammad and Iskandar Mirza in particular caused irreparable damage to democracy and the state during the crucial first decade of Pakistan merely to perpetuate their stay in power [85] . Civil services have become highly politicized, even in routine decisions such as appointment, transfers and promotions of even the lowest rungs of bureaucracy. Decision for setting up even small projects like school, dispensaries and paving of streets have become politicized. It has become a two Way Street where bureaucracy openly seeks political patronage for personal gains and in turn provides personalized service to the politicians. Civil Servants flout rules and regulations with confidence that their political patrons will save them from any accountability. This all has made the commoner very vulnerable to disintegrative feelings.

With the discussion of national integration mosaic of Pakistan one can understand that in the formative years, which should have been a period of nation building and consolidation, why it turned out to be a traumatic experience in political failures and nation making. The analysis of 'pull' and 'push' forces, responsible for the current disharmonies of Pakistan, to include religious, social, ethnic, regional, lingual, political, constitutional and economic factors, identify the unifying factors and the fault lines that have created opportunities and problems of national integration for Pakistan through its brief history. This analysis now sets the stage to deliberate on present irritants to national integration of Pakistan, which will be discussed out in next chapter.



Having discussed the National integration mosaic of the Country in previous chapter, now the current national integration irritants will be highlighted. In the prevailing environments, inner fronts have become more susceptible to intrusions and incursions than the outer, impinging upon the contours of National Security Strategy and, therefore, 'National Integration' forms its very foundation. We can not blame anyone else but ourselves, for bringing the nation to the brink that we are at now.

Political Situation. For more than six decades we have oscillated between democracy and martial law due to erratic and corrupt politicians, within democracy between Parliamentary and Presidential System and within Parliamentary Democracy between rubber stamp Presidents and monarch like Presidents holding the sword of 58(2b). The Pakistani federation in its present territorial form has been struggling to keep itself intact against heavy internal fissures and external threats [86] . Adverse political climate prevails due to lack of political accountability, uncontrolled and rampant corruption, absence of grass root level participation of the masses, and undemocratic attitude of politicians. The situation today is that we have a democratically elected government that is dealing with a number of problems. There is chaos to some degree, which the militants are taking advantage of. They sign agreements one day, and burn schools the next. Pakistan is vulnerable at this stage, and it is time for all political and societal forces to show a resolute front to those trying to blackmail the Country [87] . Resultantly, despite a democratic government, the Country is once again in a state of uncertainty and ambiguity. (List of main political events in Pakistan's history is at Annex B)

FATA/FANA and Swat Situation. Situation in FATA and Swat has shaken the very foundation of the Country. The Taliban movement in Fata and the NWFP wants to replace the FCR with a medieval legal framework, that is reminiscent of the Arab tribal era. Moreover, those who are killed in bomb blasts and suicide attacks, and those who are decapitated by this 'Islamic' brigade, are none other than the already exploited and marginalised [88] . Inability of successive governments to integrate the region into national mainstream brings to fore certain key issues, which have directly or indirectly contributed to its prolonged isolation. Negligence on the part of state institutions, parochial political interests and the naiveté of the rural folk have given birth to a militant cultur

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