Qatar also recognized as state of Qatar is a monarch Arab state, located in western Asia. Its only land boundary is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory bordered by the Persian Gulf. A passage of the Persian Gulf divides Qatar from nearby desert island state of Bahrain.
It has been ruled completely by Al-Thani family since the mid 19th century. Formerly a British territory noted for pearl hunting, it became autonomous in 1971. Since, then it has become one of the region’s wealthiest states because of its massive oil & natural gas income.
The essentially important arrangements in the country are held by the members of the al Thani family, or close confidant of the al – Thani family in 1992 The country built a sturdy military ties with united states of America & Qatar is now position of UNITED STATES central command’s forward headquarters & the combined air operations center.
It has the world’s highest GDP per capita & proven reserves of oil & natural gas. It is at the top in the list of world’s richest countries by Forbes in 2010.It did not become known as a separate political body until the mid 19th century when the British know sheikh Mohamed bin Thani. This acknowledgment came in the consequences of marine Qatari Bahrain battle of 1867 – 1868, prior to which the British saw Qatar as a Bahraini dependency of al – Khalifa. In march 1893, at the conflict of Wajbah (10 miles west of Doha), Sheikh Jassim beated the ottomans & forced a agreement that would later form the foundation of Qatar emerging as a distinct country.
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A constitution providing for some degree of self-governing modifications came into force in 2005. The new fundamental act provided for a legislature – the Advisory Council – with 30 chosen members & 15 members selected by the emir. The emir says it will hold its first countryal governmental elections in 2013. The population in the country is small. Outsiders – including laborers who were attracted by a production boom – outnumber citizens of Qatar. Oil money finances an all-embracing welfare state, with many services being free or heavily funded.
It has more than 15% of the world’s proven gas reserves, it has aim to become a universal energy giant of the world.It has been energetic on the local & world stage, having mediated in clash in the Middle East & Africa. It is also pursuing an Afghan calm deal.
The reach of British Empire decreased after the Second World War, especially after Indian independence in 1947. Pressure increased on British administration in 1950s & British welcomed Kuwait’s announcement of freedom in 1961. In 1968 Qatar Bahrain & seven other states in a group, but local clash forced the country to walk out from union. It became autonomous state on 3 September 1971. In 1991 the country played a vital role in Persian Gulf War in opposition to Iraqi army. They supported Saudi Arab Countryal Guard units.
In 1995 emir Hamad bin Khalifa al Thani seized authority of the country from his father Khalifa bin Hamad al Thani when his father was enjoying holiday in Switzerland. Under emir Hamad Qatar has shown extraordinary change like women’s right to vote, drafting a new constitution, & commencement of Al Jazeera. Press autonomy extended & the Qatari TV station Al-Jazeera has become one of the essentially significant broadcasters in the Arab world.
It served as headquarter & one of the main launching sites of UNITED STATES attack of Iraq in 2003. In December 2010, the country was selected to host the 2022 FIFA world cup & thus Qatar will be the first country of Middle East to host the tournament.
Qataris celebrate countryal day on 18th December. On this day the people of Qatar remembers Sheikh Jassim Bin Mohammad al Thani as a chief and the force which supported Sheikh Jassim.
The constitutional growth in Qatar moved from one stage to another, keeping tempo with the growth of the country & its economic growth. The first short-term constitution was issued in 1970 before liberty & it was amended in 1972 after independence, in order to adjust with the requirements of the new period.
Since that time the aims & attributes of the state policy & its Gulf, Arab and Islamic affiliations were decided. The State’s authorities & tools gained their experience from actually practicing these authorities in the domestic & exterior domains.
The modifications were made on some provisions in regard to the executive authority & hereditary act to conclude the constitutional arrangements in Qatar. The judiciary act & other fundamental acts, which were enacted to check civil & commercial interactions, were other steps on the way to build up the government machinery & lay down the base for the rule of institutions & the act. To reach that aim, an Emiri Decree was issued in July 1999 to form a high level committee to draft a new, permanent constitution for the country, one of the main provisions of which would be to cope with the achievements of the State of Qatar & to meet the ambition of the 21st century.
INTRODUCTION OF POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT
The constitutional growth in Qatar formed from one stage to another, for the growth of it & making competitive itself globally with economic growth. The first constitutional has been issued in 1970 before independent & it was necessary in 1972. It was for adjusting with the requirements of the new stage. Since that time the objectives & characteristics of the state policy & its Gulf, Arab & Islamic and willing was decided.
The state’s authorities needed their experience from actual practicing these authorities in the internal & external domains. The judiciary act & other basic acts which were framed to control civil & commercial interactions were other steps on the way to form the government machinery.
After government constitutional, an emir decree was issued in July 1999 to form a high level committee to draft a new that was permanent constitution for the country one of the chief provisions of which would be to adjust with the success of Qatar. It becomes to meet the aspirations of the 21st century.
Thereafter, the prime minister, Sheikh Abdullah Bin Khalifa Al-Thani formed a ministerial committee made it obligatory to learn the planning of future economic that was industrial growth in Qatar in the light of existing global fashions at end of June 1999.
Capital of Qatar
Geographic Coordinates: 25 17 N, 51 32 E
Time Difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
3 September 1971 (from the UK)
In Qatar, the ruling Al Thani family carried on to hold authority after the announcement of freedom in 1971. The head of state is the Emir, & the right to rule Qatar is conceded within the Al Thani family. Politically, Qatar is developing from a traditional culture into a contemporary welfare state. Government sections have been established to meet the necessities of societal & economic progress.
The Basic Law of the country 1970 institutionalized local customs rooted in Qatar’s conventional Islamic tradition, granting the Emir superlative authority. There is no electoral structure. Political parties are banned. The influx of emigrant Arabs has introduced ideas that call into question the doctrine of the country’s traditional society, but there has been no sober challenge to Al Thani rule.
In February 1972, the Deputy Ruler & Prime Minister, Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad, threw out his cousin, Emir Ahmed, & assumed authority. This shift was supported by the key members of Al Thani & took place without brutality or signs of political turbulence. On June 27, 1995, the Deputy Ruler, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa killed his father, Emir Khalifa, in a bloodless coup. Emir Hamad & his father reconciled in 1996.
His highness the Emir is the head of the legitimate authorities, holding both legislative & supervisory influences. The Council of ministers assists in implementing the general policies of the state & the Advisory Council gives recommendations & suggestion on public matters referred to it by the Council of ministers. The emir is the leader of the state & ruler in the country is hereditary within the family of Al-Thani that is command is transferred from father to son.
If no son is available in their family then authority is transferred to the person whom the Emir chooses within the family of Al-Thani in harmony with the Emir decision no(3) for 1995 amending some provisions of the amended provisional constitution on hereditary transfer of control. The emir holds both legislative & executive authorities with the help of council of ministers & the advisory council.
The flag of the country is Maroon in color with a broad white jagged band (nine white points) on the hoist side; maroon is used to represent the bloodshed in Qatari wars, while white colour in the flag stands for peace; the nine-pointed serrated edge signifies the country as the ninth member of the “reconciled emirates” in the wake of the Qatari-British treaty of 1916.
The other eight emirates are those that make up the UAE & Bahra, The main colour was previously red, but this was changed to maroon due to exposure to the sun, the new shade was adopted
Name: “Al-Salam Al-Amiri” (The Peace for the Anthem)
Lyrics/music: Sheikh MUBARAK bin Saif al-Thani/Abdul Aziz Nasser OBAIDAN
It was in adopted 1996; & it was first performed that year at a meeting of the Gulf Cooperative Council which was hosted by The country
Major Institutions in the country
General Secretariat for Development Planning
State Audit Bureau
Central Municipal Council
It’s Supreme Council for Comm. & InfoTech
The Supreme Council for the Environment
The Supreme Council for Family Affairs
Authority of Census
Doha Intercountryal Center for Interfaith Dialogue
The Ruling Family
The Al Thani was among a tribal group, which had settled for a long time at Gebrin oasis in southern Najd before they came to Qatar during the early 18th century. Originally they resided in the north of the peninsula before moving to Doha in the mid 19th century under the guidance of Mohammed Bin Thani. The family of Al Thani is a branch of the Arab tribe Tamim, whose descent can be traced back to Mudar Bin Nizar. This tribe resided in the eastern parts of the Arabian Peninsula. The name of Al Thani has been derived from that of the family’s forebear, Thani Bin Mohammed, father of Mohammed bin Thani, who was the first sheikh to rule over the Qatar peninsula during the mid 20th century.
The Succession of Qatar Rulers:
Sheikh Mohammad Bin Thani (1850 – 1878)
Sheikh Jassim Bin Mohammad Al Thani (1878 – 1913)
Sheikh Abdullah Bin Jassim Al Thani (1913 -1949)
Sheikh Ali Bin Abdullah Al Thani (1949 – 1960)
Sheikh Ahmed Bin Ali Al Thani (1960- 1972)
Sheikh Khalifa Bin Hamad Al Thani (1972 – 1995)
The Succession of Qatar Rulers
Sheikh Abdullah Bin Jassim Al Thani
Sheikh Abdullah Bin Jassim Al Thani
Sheikh Ali Bin Abdullah Al Thani
Sheikh Ali Bin Abdullah Al Thani
Sheikh Ahmed Bin Ali Al Thani
Sheikh Ahmed Bin Ali Al Thani
Sheikh Khalifa Bin Hamad Al Thani
Sheikh Khalifa Bin Hamad Al Thani
Sheikh Hamad Bin Khalifa Al Thani
Sheikh Hamad Bin Khalifa Al Thani
The Present Emir (1995)
The Emir is the leader of the state. leader in Qatar is hereditarily within the family of Al-Thani, whereby, authority is transferred from father to son. In case no son is available, control is transferred to the person whom the Emir chooses within the family of Al-Thani in accordance with the Emiri Decision No (3) for 1995 amending some provisions of the Amended Provisional Constitution on hereditary transfer of authority. The Heir Apparent is appointed according to the way stipulated in the Article No (21) of the Constitution & carries the title of His Highness the Heir Apparent.
Article (17) of the Amended Provisional Constitution sanctions the Emir to issue decrees dependent on the advice of the Council of Ministers & in the discussion with the Advisory Council.
Article (18) gives controls to the Emir assisted by the Council of ministers. The Emir thus holds both lawmaking & supervisory controls with the assistance of Council of Ministers & the Advisory Council.
The Emir’s role is influenced by continuing customs of consultation, rule by consent, & the citizen’s right to appear to the Emir. The Emir, while directly accountable to one, cannot break the Sharia (i.e. Islamic act) & must regard as the opinions of leading notables & the religious institution.
The Emir shall discharge the following functions
Drawing up general policy of the State with the help of the Council of Ministers.
Endorsement of acts; & no act may be issued unless it is ratified by the Emir.
Summoning the Council of Ministers to convene any time deemed necessary for public interest; and the Emir shall preside over the meetings of the Council of Ministers that he attends.
Appointment of civil servants & military personnel & terminating their service in accordance to the act.
Accrediting the heads of diplomatic & consular missions.
Granting forgiveness or commuting penalties in accordance with the act.
Conferring orders & badges of honor in accordance with the act.
Setting up, organizing, supervising & specifying the functions of the consultative bodies that help him in directing the high policies of the state.
The significant provisional vital statute of rule in the country for 1972 allows that Qatar is an independent Arab state, Islam is the official belief of the country & the Islamic act is the major source of legislation. Democracy is the base for the scheme of government. The official language in Qatar is Arabic & the Qatari people are part of the Arab country.
The state exercises control over all the territories & territorial waters, which fall within its intercountryal borders. It has no right to give up autonomy from any part of those territories or waters. The state is accountable for maintaining the reliability, security & firmness as well as using all its resources to defend against any act of aggression.
Committee of Ministers
His Highness the Emir employs the prime minister & ministers, & fires them from their placements by Emiri Decrees. He may hand over the tasks of one department or more to a minister or the Prime Minister in accordance with the Emiri Decree assigning the appointment. The cabinet is formed by an Emiri Decree founded on the suggestion of the Prime Minister. The responsibilities & authorities of the ministers & government sectors are specified according to the rule.
The Prime Minister chairs the meetings & conversation of the Council of Ministers & supervises work management between diverse ministries with a view to achieving the unity & combination among all government organs .The Prime Minister signs, on behalf of the Council of Ministers, the decisions issued by the Council.
According to the requirements of this constitution, the Prime Minister surrenders to the Emir, for approval & issuance, the decision taken by the Council of Ministers & pertaining to matters to be determined by Emiri Decrees.
The Council of Ministers, being the superlative executive authority in the nation, is mandated to supervise all the internal & external affairs within its power in accordance with the requirements of the constitution & the rule.
The congress is particularly entrusted with the following responsibilities
To recommend draft acts & decrees which have been referred to the Advisory Council (Majilis Al Shura) to be examined before they are submitted to H.H. the Emir for sanction according to the provisions of the constitution.
To sanction resolutions & regulations that is prepared by ministries in their individual vicinity of jurisdiction.
To check the execution of acts, decrees, resolutions, regulations & court verdicts.
To form & organize government bodies & public association in accordance with the acts.
To supervise state financial & administrative systems.
To appoint & remove government workers where such action does not infringe the jurisdiction of H.H. the Emir & individual ministers.
To monitor the act of civil service & civil servants.
To craft the systems required to support internal security & public arrange.
To endorse economic projects & the ways of execution.
To monitor the protection of state interests abroad, this includes intercountryal relations & overseas policy, in accordance with the act.
To plan a report on the exceptional achievements accomplished at the interior & exterior levels, jointly with a plan defining the most advantageous means of achieving the inclusive goals of development, bringing about the conditions leading to expansion & prosperity & enhancing safety & order in accordance with the basic principles governing the strategy of the State as stipulated by its constitution. The report shall be submitted to H.H. the Emir for sanction.
His Excellency Sheikh Hamad Bin Jassim Bin Jabr Al-Thani Prime Minister & Minister of Foreign Affairs
1982-1989, Director of Office of the Minister of Municipal Affairs & Agriculture.
1887-1989, was appointed Minister of Municipal Affairs & Agriculture.
14-5-1990, was appointed Deputy Minister of Electricity & Water for two years along with his post as Minister of Municipal Affairs & Agriculture.
monitored several successful projects & developed the agricultural sector
Held following posts in addition to his arrangement as Minister of Municipal Affairs & Agriculture & Deputy Minister of Electricity & Water:
served as Chairman of Qatar Electricity & Water Company
also served as the President of the Central Municipal Council
worked as Director of the Special Emiri Projects Office
was a Member of Qatar Petroleum Board of Directors
was also a Member of the Supreme Council for Planning
on 1-9-1992, was appointed as Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Retained his arrangement as Minister of Foreign Affairs in the subsequent ministerial reshuffles in July 1995, October 1996 & January 1999.
On Sept 16, 2003, was appointed as First Deputy Prime Minister while kept his arrangement as Minister of Foreign Affairs.
On April 3, 2007, was appointed as Prime Minister while keeping his arrangement as Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Other Key Arrangements
Was a Member of the Supreme Defense Council, which was established in 1996
Served as a Head of Qatar’s Permanent Committee for the Support of Al Quds, which was formed in 1998.
Served as a Member of the Permanent Constitution Committee formed in 1999.
Political parties & elections
It held a legitimate meeting in 2003, which was enthusiastically supported. The first civic elections with men & women voters & applicants were held in 2007 & 2011. The first legislative council’s 45 seats have been planned for 2013. Suffrage is presently restricted to municipal elections & two thirds of the seats in the legislative council, with the voting age number of residents who are prevented from applying for citizenship. The selected municipal Council has no managerial controls but may offer advice to the ministers.
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Its constitution has passed through transitional stages starting in 1970 when the first provisional system of governance was enacted. This system was revised in 1972 after the countryal autonomy & amended to address the requirements & responsibilities of the new stage. Thereafter, the features & objectives of the State’s policies & affiliations were defined at the local, Arabic & Islamic levels.
Political pressure groups & leaders
The government & its organs drew much advantage from the actual presentation of authority at the domestic & intercountryal levels. The legislative amendments tackled some articles of the basic modified provisional system pertaining to the managerial authority & the articles pertaining to the inheritance of the Emir’s post as an integral part of the constitutional situation in the country.
In the same manner, the issuance of the judicial authority act & other basic acts that regulate public & profit-making transactions were complementary steps towards the founding of the State’s organs & laying down the foundations of the State of act & institutional governance.
Qatar has been divided into seven municipalities. A new municipality, Al Daayen, was formed under Resolution No. 13, formed from parts of Umm Salal & Al Khawr; at the same time, Al Ghuwariyah was merged with Al Khawr; Al Jumaliyah was merged with Ar Rayyan; Jarayan al Batnah was tear between Ar Rayyan & Al Wakrah; & Mesaieed was combined with Al Wakrah.
[Map of the municipalities of Qatar]
It is divided into ten municipalities, also occasionally or hardly ever translated as governorates or regions:
Doha (Ad Dawhah)
Jariyan al Batnah
Madinat ash Shamal
For statistical purposes, the municipalities are further subdivided into sectors (87 in number as of 2004), which are in turn subdivided into blocks. The constitutional expansion in It graduated from one stage to another, keeping pace with the growth of the country & its financial escalation.
The first provisional foundation was issued in 1970 before liberty & it was amended in 1972 after freedom, in order to cope with the prerequisites & liabilities of the new stage. Since that time the objectives & traits of the state strategy & its Gulf, Arab & Islamic connections were decided. The State’s authorities & device acquired familiarity from actually practicing these authorities in the domestic & peripheral domains.
Modifications were made on provisions of the provisional fundamental statute in regard to the supervisory authority & hereditary act so as to finalize the constitutional arrangements in the country.
The judiciary act & other fundamental acts, which were framed to regulate civil & commercial interactions, were other steps on the way to build up the government device & lay down the foundation for the rule of institutions & the act. To reach that goal, an Emiri Decree was issued in July 1999 to form a high level committee to draft a new, lasting constitution for the country, one of the major provisions of which would be to cope with the success of the State of Qatar & to meet the aspirations & hopes of the 21st century.
At the end of June 1999, the Prime Minister Sheikh Abdullah Bin Khalifa Al-Thani issued a verdict to form a ministerial committee mandated to revise the planning of future economic & industrial growth in the country in the light of existing global style. In December 1999 H.H. the Emir issued an Emiri Decree to form the “High Committee for Coordination & Follow Up”, chaired by H.H. the Heir Apparent Sheikh Jassim Bin Hamad Al-Thani. The Committee is mandated to revise the projects proposed by the ministries of municipal utilities and services division & work to find the means to develop harmonization among ministries with a view to enhance assistance & optimize the execution of projects.
In 1999, free elections were carried out to form the Central Municipal Council for the first time in the history of the nation. The remarkable event marked the country’s first step towards democratic state in its civic intellect. In a pioneering move, women were allowed both to take part in an election & run as applicant in this initial step towards famous contribution in decision making in the country.
According to BBC, in April 2006 It had announced that it will give US$50 million (£ 28 million) to the new Hamas-led Palestinian government. Hamas, an ally of Iran & Hezbollah, is considered by the US & the EU to be a terrorist organization.
In May 2006, It pledged more than $100 million for Hurricane Katrina relief to colleges & universities in Louisiana which were affected by the hurricane. Some of this amount was also distributed to families who were looking to repair damaged homes by Neighborhood Housing Services of New Orleans, Inc.
Qatar is member of ABEDA, NAM, AFESD, AL, WTO, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G77, GCC, IAEA, WIPO, IBRD, ICAO, WHO, ICRM, IDB, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, International Maritime Organization, WMO, Inmarsat, Interpol, IOC, OIC, UN, OPEC, WCO, Intelsat, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OAPEC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO & UPU.
On October 10, 2005, It was elected to a two-year term in the UN Security Council for 2006-2007, for the first time.
The Qatari government is the primary benefactor of the Al Jazeera television network. Accused of biased reporting against some governments, the network has been banned in Kuwait. This has led to strained relations between Qatar & some governments in the region who see the Qatari government as responsible for Al Jazeera’s knowingly incendiary reporting.
Most of the developed countries (plus Brunei & Indonesia) are exempt from visa requirements. Citizens of exempted countries are permitted to request a joint visa that allows them to travel to Oman also. However, Israeli passport holders are forbidden to enter Qatar.
To western eyes, the Qatari authorities seem to keep a relatively tight rein freedom of expansion & moves for equality. The Freedom in the World 2010 report by Freedom House lists Qatar as “Not Free” & on a 1-7 scale rates the country a 6 for political rights & 5 for civil liberties. As of 2011, the Democracy Index describes It an “authoritarian regime” with the source of 3.18 out of 10, & ranks 138th out of 167 countries covered.
The citizens of Qatar enjoy equal civil rights & responsibilities without discrimination on grounds of race, origin or religion. Laws cannot be applied retroactively & no sentence may be passed except under the terms of existing act.
A suspect is innocent until is proven guilty & is entitled to a fair trial. The civil liberties guaranteed by the state include the right of residence, freedom of press & publication & private ownership. These rights cannot be circumscribed except where the practice of such rights contravenes the act or the public interest. The fundamental statute requires all those residing in the state to observe public order & respect public customs & morals. On its part, the state is responsible for providing public jobs for all residents.
The advisory Council can draft & approve acts, but final say is in the hands of Emir. The council has 45 members, 30 of whom are elected by direct, general secret ballot, & 15 of whom are appointed by the Emir.
An Advisory Council or Majlis Al-Shura has limited legislative authority to draft & approve acts, but the Emir has final say on all matters. No legislative elections have been held since 1970 when there were partial elections to the body
In 2003, It adopted a new constitution that provided for the direct election of 30 of the 45 members of Advisory Council. As of 2012, the Council is composed entirely of members appointed by the Emir.
Elections to the Majlis Al-Shura have been announced, & then postponed, several times. In 2011 the emir announced that elections to the council would be held in the second half of 2013.
An elected 29-member Central Municipal Council (CMC) has limited consultative authority aimed at improving municipal services. The CMC makes recommendations to the Ministry for Municipal Affairs & Agriculture. Disagreement between the CMC & the Ministry can be brought to the Council of Ministers for resolution. Municipal elections are scheduled for every four years. The most recent elections for the council were in May 2011. Before 1999, members of the CMC were appointed by the government.
In 2007, an Administrative Court, a constitutional Court, & Courts of First instances, Appeal & Cassation were established. All judges are appointed by Amiri degree, on the recommendation of the Supreme Judiciary Council. Terms are for three years. The legal system is based on Islamic & civil act codes, & a discretionary system of act controlled by the Emir. Islamic act dominates family & personal issues. In May 2011, It held nationwide elections for a 29-member Central Municipal Corporation (CMC), which has limited consultative powers aimed at improving the provision of municipal services.
Male & female Qataris aged 18 & older are able to vote, & run as candidates for election. There are no political parties in It.
Courts of justice
Judges are independent & their decisions are taken & implemented in accordance with the act. The proceedings of the courts of act are open to the public unless the court decides of its own accord or at the request of an opposing party to hold them in closed session if that could best serve the interests of public decency or general order. In all cases, sentences are pronounced in public sessions.
Arabic is the official language in the courts of act in It. The court hears the evidence of non-Arabic speaking opposing parties & witnesses through a translator who works under oath & observes all honesty, integrity & sincerity.
Courts of justice are divided into the following three categories:
The criminal court which comprises the following two courts
The Lower Criminal Court
The Higher Criminal Court
The civil courts which comprise the following courts
The Lower Civil Court
The Higher Civil Court
The Court of Appeal
The Labor Court was abolished in accordance with the act No (13) for 1990 & was replaced by the civil & commercial proceedings act.
President of Courts of Justice
In addition to the authorities invested in him by this act or any other act applied in the state of It, the president of courts of justice holds the following authorities:
Organizing judiciary work at courts of act & distributing it between the judges.
Deputizing any of the judges of the courts of justice to undertake the duties of any other judge of these courts on a temporary basis.
Taking the decision to take disciplinary actions against the employees of the courts of justice in accordance with the general civil service act.
The president of courts of justice is the only official to report to the Minister of Justice on the organizational aspects of the courts of act in terms of administrative, financial, supervision & inspection affairs in addition to supervising the behavior of judges & managing &
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