There is a popular saying that if a company can establish itself in a successful position among the modern fierce competition, two basic abilities must own that first ability is managing interior business successfully, and another one is having a good public relationship. In fact, so it does, and more and more companies are putting the activity of making a good public relationship on an important place. So business lobbying has larger and larger market, at the same time, there are more and more companies and interest groups who engage in the activities, and the industry of business lobbying is forming and becoming mature gradually. Business lobbying plays its role through impacting the making of some laws and regulations (Mortern & Secen, 2002). Because of the important role of business lobbying playing, the government and some related departments are putting this issue on agenda (Raymond & Terrence, 1986). But different system of government will provide different opportunities for business lobbying. This paper will analyze and compare the different influence of two main system of government—parliamentary or presidential system on business lobbying and provide the conclusion that the presidential system of government will provide better opportunities. In the following parts of this paper will give some key reasons for this conclusion by the method of comparative analysis, and the last part will provide some suggestions for companies, lobbyists and government about business lobbying and some reflections from the analysis also will be stated in this part.
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Why presidential system of government can provide better opportunities for business lobbying than the parliamentary one?
Making a comparison between parliamentary system and presidential system
First, the origination ways of government is different. In the parliamentary system, government is usually organized by the political party or party alliance who takes a major part in the parliament; but in presidential system, the members are appointed and leaded by the elected president (Presidential system, 2010).
Second, the powers of office of the parliament are different. The parliament in the parliamentary system not only has the rights of lawmaking, supervising government, and deciding financial budget, but also have the right of organizing the authorities of government; but the in presidential system, the parliament only have the rights of lawmaking, supervising government and deciding financial budget, and do not have the right of organizing government.
Third, the relationship between government and parliament is different. In the parliamentary system, the government is responsible of the parliament. If the parliament passes the case of not trusting government owing to being unpleased with the government’s policy, the government must resign or apply the head of nation to dismiss the parliament and vote again. But in the presidential system, the government leaded by president is only responsible of electors, and not the parliament. Both the members of parliament and government can not hold a concurrent post. The president need not have the policy responsibility of parliament, so the parliament can not compel president to resign by proposing untrusting case, but when the president disobeys the constitutions, they can propose impeach.
Fourth, the position and function the head of state plays are different. In the parliamentary system, the head of state only has suppositional rights not real rights, but in the presidential system, the president is the same to the head of state, at the same time, he is also the head of the government, so he has the real rights.
Fifth, the means of political party’s producing is different. In the parliamentary system, the political party is usually the party or the party union who win in the general election of the parliament; but in the presidential system, the political party is usually the party or party union who win in the general election of the president.
Sixthly, in the parliamentary system, executive are drawn from the legislature, but in the presidential system, executive and legislature strictly separate.
Finally, the producing ways of the head of state is different. In the parliamentary, the president is mainly elected by the parliament excluding some little nations, but in the presidential system, the president is voted by the whole people directly or indirectly (What government, n.d.).
The reasons for why the presidential system can provide better opportunities for business lobbying than the parliamentary system
For interest groups, they can participate in the political process by making some campaigns, drafting and making some political proposes and communicating with the lawmakers and their staff about the issues they concern in order to obtain some favor in their position. So through above comparison analysis, the presidential system of the government can provide better opportunities the process of business lobbying. Some special reasons will be discussed in the following.
First, in the presidential system of government, the communication between the lobbyists and the government will be easier and more convenient than in the parliamentary system. In the presidential system, the president is voted by the whole people directly or indirectly, and is responsible for his electors, at the same time the lobbyist and the other members of the interest groups which the lobbyists stand for are the part of the voters, and because the influence of the interest groups are so wide among the voters that they are playing an important role in the election of the president. So the president will be pleased and can not refuse usually to communicate with his voters although at the same time they are the lobbyists and maybe their opinions are so different from him. Just for these reasons, the communication with the government will be easier and more convenient, and the lobbyists will accept the basic respect. The situation between the lobbyists and the local government will be the same.
Second, in the presidential system of government, the rate of successful business lobbying is higher than in the parliamentary system. According to the ways of the election of president and other characteristics of the presidential system, the president will take some consideration of his voters including the lobbyist voters for the success of the next president election. And in this system, to some degree the parliament and the president is consistent and the president has the real rights, so if the lobbyist can make a good relationship with the head, the business lobbying is already successful for half. So the successful rate will increase.
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Third, in the presidential system, the market of business lobbying will be larger than in the parliamentary system. Because the communication will be easy between lobbyists and government and the successful rate of business lobbying is high, at the same time, what is the most important is that if the business lobbying is successful, the benefit will surpass the cost bigly, so the enterprises will employ more lobbyists for more issues which they concern. Just for this reasons, the market of business lobbying will be larger.
Though above discussion, and according to the contrast of characteristics between these two different systems, the presidential system of the government will provide better opportunities for the business lobbying (Nirmalendu, 2004).
Some suggestions and reflections
People always say that a healthy political system is an essential element to a healthy economic system; on the contrary, the economic system will have influence on the political system (Tomaso, D. 2005). As the market of business lobbying is increasing seriously and the influence of the lobbyists is on the rise, some problems must be taken into consideration about the business lobbying for it’s continue and healthy development. The activities of business lobbying are mainly related to three beneficial parts, which are enterprises, lobbies and government. Just these three parts make the business lobbying go on. There are some suggestions and reflections about the three beneficial parts (Hamilton & David, 1997).
First, for enterprises, they must have a right incentive for business lobbying, and should not use business lobbying for no reasons. As soon as decide to go on the activities of business lobbying, they should union some other related companies and find a suitable and qualified lobbyists to make it successful to increase the powers and successful rate of business lobbying.
Second, for lobbyists, when they receive some enterprises’ invitation and apply, they should think it over and over, because they should have their own positions. But as soon as they decide to receive the business lobbying, they should have a complete and detailed plan before actions and choose and use proper and suitable ways to influence the process of politics. Maybe they can combine direct and indirect ways of business lobbying (Dustin, 2010).
Third, for government, although there are more and more interests groups and professional lobbyists who are engaging the activities of business lobbying and their advisers are usually persuasive, the government should have its own position about some specific issues and should think over things from the perspective of the whole people’s benefit.
Only by the common and simultaneous hard workings of enterprises, lobbyists and the government, the business lobbying can play its deserved role in the development process of politic and economy.
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