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Middle Eastern Conflict And Terrorism

Info: 1878 words (8 pages) Essay
Published: 18th Apr 2017 in Politics

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The September 11, 2001 attacks started an interest in the Middle East the region has become a primary site for the international community, with the national security becoming the most important aspect of the American foreign policy and the rest of the world [2] . The Muslim world before the terrorist attack on September 11 has been the scene for huge operations in Middle Eastern countries such as Afghanistan or Iraq [3] . This has caused Muslims to believe that the Western Nation is a huge threat. America as the only super power left has to take action in parts of the world to take the fight against terrorism. There are two contrasting theories that compete to debate the causes of terrorism in the Middle East [4] , the first one focuses on the root causes, which are poverty, ignorance, and lack of political expression which causes for terrorist groups to be formed, this theory is called the “demand side” of terrorism [5] . The second theory is called the supply side which denies any economic reasons for terrorist attacks, it rather shows that a threat as a security problem [6] , and dealing this way would create intelligence and protection action.

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Mohamed R. Hassanien believes that the two sides of terrorism should be dealt with by international law, to uncover both the political and economic situations in the Middle East. Middle Eastern nations are economic strain due to the ability to work up a labor force, and creating jobs, out dated technology, industrial misconduct, high levels of government involvement, and high costs of corporations [7] . Governments in the region had only been exhibiting reformers and when being helped by political opposition, they use policies that prevent them from economic and political recovery [8] . The elite that are pursuing economic and political reforms are threatening the jeopardizing political order. Terrorists engage in anti-American violence for a variety of reasons. The first is the support for regimes in the Middle East, and the second is the unconditional United States support for the country of Israel. The war against terrorism, including the invasion of Iraq, has given the all to more reason to fight against the American cause [9] .

On October 24, 2012 a military factory in the country of Sudan exploded killing two people; the Sudanese government blames Israel for airstrikes against them. Belal quoted “We are now certain that this flagrant attack was authorized by the same state of Israel. The main purpose is to frustrate our military capabilities and stop any development there and ultimately weaken our national sovereignty”. The blast at the complex sent exploding ammunition flying through the air, causing panic among residents that live near that factory. Israel did not confirm or deny that they were responsible for the attack against the industrial plant. The United States forced economic, trade and financial support against Sudan in 1997, mentioning the Sudanese government’s help for terrorism, including sheltering group like Al Qaeda in the mid-1990s.

The Middle East assumes the West as colonizers who want to gain dominion over other weaker countries [10] . Violence, degradation and hypocrisy are three ideas which summarize how Muslims lost at the West. Acts of violence are common in Middle Eastern Nation such as Iraq, Afghanistan, Palestine, Chechnya, and threats against Iran. Demonstrations of violence by Muslims continue to rise in different parts of the world and as they increase so do anti-Islam beliefs, especially in the Western world. This threatens peace and security between Muslims and countries around the world. Americans understand Islam is a type of religion which overlooks the murder of innocent people in the name of God (Allah). Islam appears to be an aggressive religion to the Western citizens. Muslims are believed responsible for fanaticism, intolerance, violence and acts of aggression. [11] If Americans are the bullies, and heartless killers in the culture of the Muslim world, Muslims are no better in the mainstream media of America [12] . Westerners mistake the principles of the Islamic faith due to the twisted facts propagandized through terrorism, religious movement, and the media [13] .

The 9-11 commission report praised that “a comprehensive U.S. strategy to counter terrorism should include economic policies that encourage development, more open societies, and opportunities for people to improve the lives of their families and to enhance prospects for their children’s future” [14] . United States free trade agreements in the Middle

East pursues economic benefits in a political situation [15] . The events of September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, reveal that weak states, like Afghanistan, can pose as great a danger to United States interests, as strong states. Poverty does not make poor people into terrorists and murderers [16] . Free trade and markets have shown their capability to lift whole societies out of economic distress so the United States will work with individual nations, regions, and the whole global trading community to construct a world that trades together and grows in success [17] . The idea of democratizing the Middle East is good, but has a slim chance to succeed without the economic, and demographic conditions needed for stability. Members of the international community, that are supportive of the United States efforts in the war on terror, believe that the war is actually increasing terrorism and bringing more harm than good. [18] 

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Osama Bin Laden’s death will not end the terrorist threats; his ideas and image are still there which have an enormous influence on people who are poor and live in harsh conditions in the Middle East. [19] The war on terrorism has exposed some flaws in international law [20] ; series of conditions in international law were presented by the attacks of September 11th.

First is the absence of elements in international legal framework to combat terrorism; second is the absence of sufficient international law organization to address crimes against humanity and acts of war; third is the absence of sufficient international legal systems for regulating, overlooking, judging, and punishing non-state actors; and forth is the absence of international policing capacities and cooperative arrangements to perform intelligence gathering and crime prevention at the international level [21] . Countries have reacted to the terrorism by taking matters into their own hands and fought back with their militaries. The United Nations has not been an effective solution to terrorism [22] . The war on terrorism combines the elements of an international armed conflict and international criminal investigation. The creation of the legal structure for each of the hostilities is needed. Terrorism can be treated as criminal matter or an armed attack authorizing a response under the law of armed conflict [23] . Commentators stated that terrorism should be included in the law of nations [24] . The law of nations has recently been expanded to include war crimes. This inclusion is in response to international condemnation of the war criminal. International law has limited this category of offenses to the most abominable of crimes to prevent nations from subjecting their rules on foreign nationals. Terrorists today have become more global because of freedom of movement, free flow of information, and communications, and the ability to escape in the spectrum of laws between countries [25] . Terrorism is an international occurrence which presents the lower portion of globalization; it requires a concreted, consistent and coordinated international cooperative framework to have a chance of destroying this threat [26] . International law is the only means to provide intelligent strategies and integrate it across countries rather than a military and a binary division of states between good and evil. International law norms have to be developed in rebelling terrorism, strengthening the multiple treaties and international instruments, engaging the Muslim world. This continuing development and free trade projects in the Middle East would come together to possibly winning the war against terrorism.


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