Media Coverage of US-Pakistan Relations | Literature Review

2549 words (10 pages) Essay in Politics

18/10/17 Politics Reference this

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW:

The literature review is the lift off for any research. A literature review can be called as a logical search and investigation of published data regarding some specific study area. It is prepared bestowing to the research objective, thesis, the issue and problems that a researcher wishes to deal with and try to resolve it.

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Literature review contributes the knowledge in the different area of concentration and diminishes the chances of the replication of ideas. Most importantly, it helps the direction of research scope to display to maximize the reward in research. Literature Review is a substantial step in any research procedure and has an extended list of benefits that often approved by the research scientists around the world.

Wimmer and Dominick (1994) say “It’s not only allows to learn from (and eventually add to) previous research but also saves time, effort and money”. (p.24)’

The US makes their policy according to their interest and close relation with the countries. US Inclusion always depends on the Feelings of the US. The favor and disfavor depends on the US Interest. According to the research and study on the policies of US the conclusion Dr. Syed Abdul Syed Abdul got US media news framing of other country‘s image depends upon the degree of US interest in that country as well as the US foreign policy.

Media representation of the host country is usually the dominant ideology of foreign countries, Yu and Riffe (1988) reflects that Reporting was often motivated by ideology than newsworthy. The ideology of a society, Shoemaker and Reese (1991 p.186) serves as the binding force of a tool. News is basically built for people in a given society. The world of reality is different from the media, then social reality. Shoemaker and Reese (1991), “the news created a social product but a reflection of an objective reality, (p.186), respectively. Ramaprasad and Majid (1995) as the product of socially constructed, news is affected by a number of factors that claim, that is, these factors are a particular society.

Several studies have been conducted by a number of researchers and scholars on the Pak-India relations. Hull (1989) advocates the ideology of media influences, political, economic, and ideological and cognitive simplification is a fascinating process (p.1) describes the state they are open the symbolic impact of ideology, the media audience, the media, our definition focuses attention on the judges and the symbolic power legitimation and exercise (p. 309)

According to the research of critical analysis, international news, the U.S. media, largely based on foreign policy. (Merrill 1995 Lent, 1977), and a large media business and international relations of the government, is supposed to be a tool to support the national point of view. Chang, 1988, 1989; Dorogi, 2001, Yu and Riffe, 1988 by all U.S. mainstream media coverage of international news confirm that the U.S. government’s foreign policy has been unfailing. Likewise, the news gathering resources is often international reporting restrictions, Z. Peng (2004) rely on government sources for the media drive. Americans’ view of the outside world is often based on the mainstream media Similar Chang (1988) claim. In this regard, Merrill, (1995), the positive and negative images in the media world, inspiring the minds of people arguing. Similarly, Perlmutter (1998). The perception of the American people scattered in other parts of the world can be easily established by the American news media.

Makreeta lahtithe (2002) conducted a research on “Policies of the United States towards the Indian and the Pakistani Nuclear Weapons Programs”. The aim of this study was to explore the policies of the US towards the nuclear weapons programs of Pakistan and India. Researcher consider the nuclear programs of both India and Pakistan as well as US policies towards both of them because the two nuclear programs have been dependent on each other and can best be understood in connection to each other. Researcher employed the content analysis as he used books, articles, and statements about geopolitical and Realist theories, US non-proliferation policies, and the South Asian nuclear weapons programs. The researcher found that the US policies could only have been successful had they addressed the reasons behind the Indian and the Pakistan nuclear weapons. The US view on the reasons for Indian and Pakistani nuclear weapons has also framed the US attitudes and policy choices in that that certain reasons to acquire nuclear weapons can seem to the US more justified than others. The acquisition of nuclear weapons as an attempt to improve the otherwise unsatisfactory national security can seem to be a more acceptable reason than for example the hope to become a great power.

Zahid Yousaf (2013) conducted a research on the “coverage of the Pak-India relations in the national press of Pakistan” the main objective of this study was to investigate the coverage of the relations between Pakistan and India in the national press of Pakistan for this study four newspapers two English (Daily Times and The Nation) and two Urdu (Daily Jang and Nawa i Waqt) are selected to analyze the relations between the two countries. Researcher used the agenda setting theory in this study and the media agenda is tried to conclude. The content method is used to study the contents of the editorials of the selected newspapers from June 2013 to August 2013. The study demonstrate that Pakistani media has covered all the issues keeping the Indian response in front regarding the selected issues. On the basis of the findings of the study we can analyze that Pakistani media has shown maturity while addressing the issues and also showed patriotism while covering the Pak-India relations. The study was a summing up of the role of the newspapers regarding Pak-India relations. Newspapers do not seem to have performed their expected role in reflecting the two countries, strategies and operations. The English newspapers have been blamed for giving less than the Urdu newspapers coverage to the main issues between the two countries.

According to the newspapers the major reason behind the tense relations between Pakistan and India is the Kashmir dispute, the Kashmir issue has given birth to many other issues like water, cross-border insurgency and the incidents of terrorism. The newspapers have also failed to give the negative coverage the trade, sports, and showbiz. It seems to strange that on the one side Indian forces are massacring or better to say committing genocide in Kashmir and Indian secret agencies are always busy for working out bomb blasts in Pakistan and on the other side Pakistan is strengthening its relations with India regarding Showbiz, trade and sports: the press should also give a considerable coverage to the maltreatment of the Indian Muslim by the Indian Government. The press can play a vital role to inspire the spirit of “Jahad” among the Pakistanis as there is no other way to get Kashmir independence.

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Umbreen Javaid & Qamar Fatima conducted a research on the “US Foreign Policy Parameters towards Pakistan and India (2001-2008)”.The objective of this study was to illustrate the parameters of us policy towards Pakistan and India .The US foreign policy has passed through many phases, as such from one of complete requisitioning to that of active involvement in world affairs both militarily and non-militarily. The two key South Asian States i.e. Pakistan and India despite being situated halfway across the sphere from America have had the crucial consequences of these changes. During the Cold War, US in acquirement of its containment policy of Soviet Union supported Pakistan to fight communism and it required close collaboration with India to gain access to its large market for American goods and investment potential. But the impressive changes came in the get up of momentous events of September 11, 2001 which brought both the countries on the top of American foreign policy agenda.

According to the researcher’s view point both India and Pakistan equally attracted attention, because the both important South Asian states promised to help America in the Global War on Terrorism. The Bush team’s policies towards Pakistan were shaped by the need to fighting terrorism through whatever means necessary while the policies towards India continued on the basis to shape an anticipated natural alliance between world’s two largest democracies.

Researcher describe that the US identified a new global enemy, terrorists and their networks, and pitched a War against all those that intimidate world peace. Bush Jr sustained the same policy parameters with minor changes during both the term of office.

Manzoor, U. (2002). Was conducted a research on the “Editorial Coverage of Pakistan stand during Pak-India war tension (2001-2002) in Dawn and Nawa i Waqt” .The chiefly aim of the study was to investigate the Pakistan’s stand against India in the crucial war situations are in favor or not. Researcher used the content analysis the qualitative and quantitative method to explore the conflict between both countries.

According to the researcher press of Pakistan is too much concerned with the global issues mainly Urdu press that is more concerned than the English press. He added contends that Pakistani press is fully free even to criticize the government but patriotism is also there in the Pakistani press. In the study it was resolute to find out the attitude of the Pakistani press towards the government’s stance that whether it has favored the government in conflict situation with India or not favored. And also the trade relation between both the countries is also concerned.

Murad Ali (2009) conducted a study on “US Foreign Aid to Pakistan and Democracy”. This study examined the United States (US) bilateral aid flows to Pakistan from 1947 to 2006 to determine the extent to which the assistance has been linked with the strengthening of democracy in Pakistan vis-à-vis US perceived geo-strategic and security interests. Comparing the allocation of US economic and military aid to democratic and dictatorial regimes in Pakistan (in terms of total, average annual, and per capita per year), the researcher found that US aid shows a consistent pattern of high flows for military dictatorships and low or negligible flows for democratic governments, indicating that US aid has not been used to promote democracy in Pakistan; in fact, it has undermined it. The research explored that the US has maintained warm cooperative relationships with military dictators to use Pakistan to pursue its own political, security and geo-strategic goals. Researcher concluded that the US has hardly shown any concern for democracy in Pakistan where its own geo-strategic goals have been at stake. This analysis reinforces the view that every time the US has required Pakistan’s support to achieve its own geo-political goals, it has shown no hesitation in embracing military dictators.

Shabir G, Hussain T, Iqbal YW (2014) conducted a research on the “Portrayal of Pakistan in the New York Times and the Washington Post: A Study of Editorials during 2008 to 2010.” the main objective of the study to investigate the slant of coverage about Pakistan. Gathered data shows that the portrayal of Pakistan during Feb 2008 to Jan 2010 in The New York Times and The Washington Post remained positive which proved that the American media support the American government foreign policies. Researcher uses the quantitative and qualitative method to dig out the results. The Findings of the research shows that the New York Times and The Washington Post newspapers published 89 editorials comprised on 767 paragraphs about Pakistan in planned era of research. The Washington Post published 54 (60.67%) editorials; comprised on 449 paragraphs while The New York Times published 35 (39.33%) editorials; comprised on 318 paragraphs which shows that The Washington post give more editorial coverage to Pakistan than The New York Times. The data shows that The Washington post published 25 (28.08%) favorable editorials; comprised on 174 paragraphs, 22 (24.27%) unfavorable editorials; comprised on 157 paragraphs and 7 (7.87%) neutral editorials; comprised on 118 paragraphs while The New York Times published 12 (13.49%) favorable editorials; comprised on 98 paragraphs, 10 (11.24%) unfavorable editorials; comprised on 93 paragraphs and 13 (14.60%) neutral editorials; comprised on 127 paragraphs. The overall editorial coverage of The Washington post about Pakistan during planned period of research remained positive while in New York Times it remained neutral. Both newspapers published 41.57% positive, 35.91% negative and 22.47% neutral editorials. So these results shows that the overall ratio of coverage about Pakistan remained positive and it disproved the hypothesis. “The overall ratio of unfavorable coverage about Pakistan would be greater than the favorable coverage in The New York Times and The Washington Post”. The findings of the research support media conformity theory as; American media follows the American government foreign policies and portrayed positive frame of Pakistan.

Muhammad Sikandar Sultan(2013) Conducted a study on the “ Portrayal of Pak-US Relations in elite press of Pakistan and United States during Raja Pervaiz Ashraf Regime (June 2012-December 2012)”the main focus of the study was relations between Pakistan and United States of America in the government of Pakistan’s Prime Minister Raja Pervaiz Ashraf who took charge as Prime Minister in June 2012. In this study the content analysis of the two newspapers is made where the editorials of elite press i.e. Daily Dawn from Pakistan and Washington Post from United States was analyzed by the researcher. In this study researcher used the framing theory in the theoretical framework. There are total 82 editorials regarding Pak-US relations that were analyzed, 29 editorials of Washington Post whereas 53 editorials of Daily Dawn. The study explore that the newspapers of both the countries has mostly highlighted the ungratified behavior towards the issues and criticized the foreign policy of their particular countries.

Zahid Yousaf, Ehtisham Ali (2012) “Coverage of Pak-Us Relations in Elite Press of Pakistan and Us during the Democratic Government of Pakistan People’s Party; March 2008 To February 2012 (Media & Foreign Policy Perspective).” The main objective of the Study to investigate the foreign policies of Pakistan and the United States of America in the editorials of American press during the people’s party’s government came into the power after the 2008’s general elections.

In this purpose researcher select mainly two English newspapers, one elite newspaper from United States and one from Pakistan, “New York Times” from US and “The Daily Dawn” from Pakistan from March 2008 to February 2012.The main focus of the study to find out the relationship between Pakistan and US during the democratic government in Pakistan. The main perseverance behind this study is to reveal the involvement of the foreign policy creating by the governments of the states under study and the role played by the mass media at present.Researcher construct theoretical framework for the study in hand discusses to the Agenda Setting Theory as the study is focused to determine the „Media Agenda‟ of the press of selected countries and to regulate the different incidents relating to the present study. In this study researcher considered the contents of the editorials of the selected newspapers related to Pak-US relations. The findings of this study accomplish that the Pakistani media in general and the US media in specific have not followed the view points of the particular governments regarding the foreign policy of the particular countries.

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