The president I decided to do this paper on is Grover Cleveland. President Cleveland based on the research presented was your classic stereotypical conservative democratic president. When it came down to a lot of his views on society he tended to lean with a old southern Caucasian way of thinking being he thought immigrants and people in general should assimilate to typical modern day society in the late 1800’s. Cleveland was the first democratic president elected after the civil war. Cleveland according to my research was very opposed to international relations. A lot of his agenda was to resist territories expansions and in tangled alliances. Cleveland solely pushed that agenda because he was an isolationist, meaning he refused to do free trade deal with Mexicans, and several other south American countries. He also had problems with the Chinese. he worked to reduce Chinese immigration and to deny people who had left the United States to visit relatives in China from returning. A lot of the problem was Cleveland believed people who come to the united states should conform to the customs and traditions in the united states and not the other way around.
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Cleveland would soon go on to back out the Frelinghuysen-Zavala Treaty. The treaty gave the united states the rights to build a canal in Nicaragua that would be owned by two nations and use it for goods and economical purposes. The United States had treaty rights to establish a naval base on the island of Samoa. when Germany tried to install a puppet monarch on the island Cleveland took a heavy distain towards it. “The President dispatched three warships to Samoan waters, a bellicose action that eventually produced a tripartite protectorate over the islands signed by Germany, Britain, and the United States”. Although Cleveland was opposed to a lot of the international affairs, he still made presidential moves that tried to align power amongst the united states as well as other countries. In 1885 Cleveland sent a small group of marines to panama to help settle a rebellion. According to millercenter.org “In Cuba, Cleveland wanted to remain neutral, refusing to support the insurrection against Spanish rule and urging instead that Spain adopt reforms that would lead to gradual independence. On this issue, he stood in opposition to the Senate, which had adopted resolutions urging Cleveland to recognize the belligerency of the Cuban rebels. Congress then moved to defy the President by threatening to recognize Cuban independence. Cleveland responded flatly, saying he would characterize any such resolution as a usurpation of presidential authority”.
The struggle between presidential power and congressional power has always been prevalent. The drafter of the American constitution didn’t want an unbalance of power that would lead to a monarchy, so they developed and distributed political powers that would impose checks and balances. According to visitthecapitol.com “Congress is a legislative branch that make laws that influence are daily lives and conduct investigation that oversees the executive branch”. So, for more clarification purposes congress is designed to look over the American people by having the power to stalemate or shut down executive orders as well as enforcing new laws and regulations. In article one of the constitutions it lays out some of congresses foreign affair power. Stating congress can regulate commerce with foreign nations, declare war, raise and support armies, provided and maintained a navy, and made rules for the government and regulations of the land and naval forces. The US constitution gives congress the right to declare war, but the president meanwhile has the right to direct the military. This is what seemed to stir a conflict because what if the president doesn’t agree with congress or vise versa about certain decisions regarding the united states.
Some of the early ways a president can project force is simply by vetoing legislation passed by congress. According to article 1, section 7 of the constitution it gives the president the right to veto any legislation given by congress. There are two types of veto a president can use. The two vetoes are a regular veto and a pocket veto. The first regular veto was introduced on April 5, 1792. According to history.house.gov “The pocket veto is an absolute veto that cannot be overridden. The veto becomes effective when the President fails to sign a bill after Congress has adjourned and is unable to override the veto”. The authority of the pocket veto is derived from the Constitution’s Article I, section 7, “the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case, it shall not be law.” Over time, Congress and the President have clashed over the use of the pocket veto, debating the term “adjournment.” The President has attempted to use the pocket veto during intra- and inter- session adjournments and Congress has denied this use of the veto. The Legislative Branch, backed by modern court rulings, asserts that the Executive Branch may only pocket veto legislation when Congress has adjourned sine die from a session”.
To get a better understanding of how our government is ran let’s start from the beginning, the United States government begin when the constitution was created. The constitution gave American people their basic rights. During the first stages of civilization states acted as if they were their own countries. Our government was known to not be strong at the time. After this the three branches were formed that we know today as legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislative oversees making law. The executive is known for carrying out those laws. The judicial evaluates the laws. The bill of rights was created as well. This is all significant because without this we wouldn’t be where we are now.
The government has always shared power amongst the different branches in our government. For any president in our country to project power they would have to go through congress because we have a democracy country so they wouldn’t give single power to no man. The president could project force through executive orders. The president can not just create new laws and do whatever he wants. The United States government does not function properly like this. An example would be after crop failure during Clevend’s presidential he vetoed a bill in 1887 that would give farmers $10,000 in seed to help them with their crop. Clevend believe the government was there to oversee no to help be relief but to guide. Every president has a different way of projecting their force into America. Clevend was very discipline is his actions and for that the president had 140 executive orders and vetoed numerous of bills that would offer relief to the American people in time of need.
With congress also has the power control aspects of our nation. Congress has the power to remove a president if needed. As stated above nothing is ran by one single person. Congress consist the senate and the house of representatives. This is where all the magic really happens. As stated above congress is the voice of the American people. Congress write the laws and send them up to the president for final approval. Congress power is projected in everything, during the Spanish American war it was congress how declared war is that is projection power. What is? President McKinley asked congress. Ultimately is was congress who did it. After Battleship Maine in Havana Harbor. The war begins.
Since our government does share power this can happen. Congress abolished slavery in 1865. African American men could vote. Those are some of the few major things that has happen in our country. The point of mentioning this is congress hold great amount of power and with comes restriction. The congress can put restriction on what the president can and can not do. During the Spanish war the secretary of state discussed peace options. Soon after the war stop after 4 months. Congress demanded to withdraw from the war.
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. The last declared war for the United States was World War II. In fact, Congress has only declared war in five of our military engagements in our nation’s history – the War of 1812, the Mexican American War, the Spanish-American War, World War I, and World War II. There is no necessity for a declaration of war to accompany every military action. The details and procedures of such a requirement would be burdensome and obstructive to the President’s need to be decisive and swift in military matters, when quick action is called for.!!!!!!!
Declaration of War is a formal, legislative act that informs the world of a state of war exist ing between the bodies named in that declaration, and reveals that a long, drawn-out conflict is the subject of such a declaration. A Declaration of War also triggers a series of U.S. statutes that allow, inter alia, the President to direct that civilian industry complies with federal directives to produce needed war materiel and to intern nationals of the state(s) against which the United States is fighting.
During the research that was found, as the reader you realize that yes, the president has power that can be projected and you see that during the different times during the 1800 from Lincoln who is known for bringing the south and north together. Congress who is abolish slavery. With International affairs one realizes that the Spanish American war was declared by congress and how president glover Cleveland was not interested in international affairs. Pre Spanish-American war era was definitely a learning experience for America with many vetoes and also laws and treaties that were made our government wouldn’t be where it is today without all of the many things that were discussed in the paper and the thousand of thing that were not.
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