1. Colish, Marcia L., "The Idea of Liberty in Machiavelli," Journal of the History of Ideas 32 (1971):323-50
According to Colish it is incorrect to interpret Machiavelli as immoralist and the defender of the state arbitrariness. Formulating rules of political success, he at the same time establishes moral frameworks of political activity. He clearly shows that the policy considering certain moral restrictions can be really successful. It is a special sort of restriction: their unique appointment to subordinate will of a The Prince to well-being and power of the state and to make so that he aspired not to own, and to general welfare and cared not of the successors.
2. Fiore, Silvia Ruffo, Niccoló Machiavelli: An Annotated Bibliography of Modern Criticism and Scholarship, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1990
Those studying Niccolo Machiavelli has developed the directory where many works have entered, books, Renaissance articles which has deeply affected development of modern thought. A necessary source for researches of scientists and critics.
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3. Gilbert, Felix, "The Humanist Conception of the Prince and The Prince of Machiavelli," Journal of Modern History 11 (1939): 449-83
"The Prince", at least, explicit, is the tyranny encyclopedia where to the future tyrant almost divine mission of long-awaited clearing of Italy is attributed, and Â«Reasonings â€¦Â» - the manifesto republicy and a panegyric of democracy which is repeatedly proclaimed the absolute kind of a state system. And if contest of such treatment Â«Reasonings â€¦Â» demands known sophistical refinement the register research (and it is equal also amateurish) the opinions ever expressing the original maintenance of "The Prince", will combine theses so dissimilar that it becomes difficult to believe as if their authors indeed expressed the same product. The first condemnation Machiavelli as advocate of the tyranny, aspiring to catch Medici's arrangement, suppressors of Florentine freedom, have sounded at once after an exit of "The Prince" to the public.
4. John M. Najemy, The Cambridge Companion to Machiavelli, Cambridge University Press, 2010
Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) is the most known and disputable person in the politician of an epoch of the Renaissance. Cambridge Partner Machiavelli opens sixteen original essays which have been developed by known critics, tell about his life, career on a post of the politician in the government, his reaction to drama changes which mentioned Florence and Italy in his whole life, his thought, sights at development, and corruption of republics and princedoms, class disagreements, religious discrepancies, and dialogue Concerning Renaissance with olden time. Machiavelli after long disputes and various opinions recognised as the great figure of the epoch who has supported usual human wisdom.
5 Jusim M. A. Ethics of Machiavelli. Ðœ, 1990.
Differently, the morals are interpreted by it as one of state mechanisms. According to M.A.Jusim the state and morals in concept Machiavelli is mono-ordered, and "historically and logically the state and morals have the general origin". With it, taking into consideration as description Machiavelli of an origin of morals and the state, and its instructions that thanking the state to the established laws in the people kind customs are supported, it would be possible to agree, - if not definition Machiavelli of good and harm through the relation to political authority. However, in this respect it is impossible to recognize sights Machiavelli absolutely clear. Both in "The Prince" and in "Reasoning" he repeatedly specifies in national morals as the state system factor on certain type, as a source of a fortress and well-being of the state.
Ethics, replacing sociology, social psychology, dominated in economy and the politician, and Machiavelli, brought, the truth, the mite in change of such position, was nevertheless the son of the epoch. The central problems of this theory can be formulated so: an origin and morals being, its role in a society and in destiny of the separate person, system of values Machiavelli and logic of its mutual relations with the validity.
6. Leo Strauss, Thoughts on Machiavelli, University of Chicago Press, 1978
Leo Strauss opened, that there is very strong and deliberate in sequence and definiteness a spirit of the malicious teacher. He even asserted, that it extends on all Machiavelli works, including his comedies and letters, that his ideas should be sharply changed eventually.Ð›ÐµÐ¾ Strauss has come so far, that name Machiavelli has brought as the deliberate founder of the present. He asserted, that Machiavelli was especially interesting example of tendencies which occurred round it. In any case Machiavelli has presented itself at various times as someone reminding Italians of old virtues Romans and Greeks, and other times, as someone assistance absolutely new approach to a policy, apparently, the teacher of harm. Strauss aspired to include this idea in its understanding, not resolving it to break or settle its interpretation of the prince and Conversations on First Ten Books Livy. This critical analysis of the founder of modern political philosophy these visible scientist of the twentieth century is a good indicator for present students and the people who are engaged in studying, the analysis and comparison great this world of different epoch and outlooks.
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7. Machiavelli's liberal republican legacy, Cambridge University Press, 2006
In this work it is marvelled once again to ability of Machiavelli to enclose in some lines almost all basic ideas. We will plan now, at least schematically, the relation of sights Machiavelli to preceding ethical tradition, in particular traditions of the Italian humanism. Steadfast attention Machiavelli to ideals antique civilization is indisputable, but its sceptic in relation to the state - Â«to hailstones terrestrialÂ», sometimes even in details coinciding with a position of a pillar of Christian doctrine by Augustine is indisputable also. As a result, as it was with many humanists, there is an independence of that and another. The general for all three (antiquity, Christianity, humanism) ideological systems and remaining at Machiavelli line is prevalence of the ethical approach, certainly, fruitful and necessary, but insufficient for correct understanding of events. Machiavelli tries to overcome this limitation, but mainly within the limits of the ethics in which it to make it is impossible. From here it is shown at it sometimes pessimism and complaints about decline of customs in modern to it Italy.
Ethical sights Machiavelli are close to humanistic as lean against idea of advantage of the person which, probably, has extended to all mankind medieval representation about value of each individual in the role. New consists at Machiavelli in attempts to deduce on a general review social harm, to show, what not the morals create a society, and a society morals. Accordingly not from the form of the state and not from the governor of a society, and Â«correct developmentÂ» depends on its own condition; this thought was expressed at Machiavelli in the moralized form - in the doctrine about the "corrupted" and "not corrupted" people, but combined with rudiments of representations about class struggle.
8. Paul Anthony Rahe, Against throne and altar: Machiavelli and political theory under the English Republic, Cambridge University Press, 2008
This volume examines the political thinking of three men -John Milton, Marchamont Nedham, and James Harrington - who championed the abortive republican experiment in England between 1649 and 1660 and that of Thomas Hobbes, who lent his support after initial opposition. They discuss their own positions and try to draw the line between the Renaissance Epoch and the modern state. Though times differ, policy, religion the wars inside are the same.
9. The Prince. Translated by Harvey C. Mansfield, Jr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985
"The Prince" presents manual grown wise experience and knowledge of the politician to the governor - to the monarch before whom there is a problem of consolidation of the power and state prosperity. According to it for the sake of high aim achievement the most unseemly actions are admissible.
10. Valarie P. N "Machiavelli and his time", the translation from Italian, I, Ðœ, 1969.
Machiavelli considered that the political science is a science practical, serving to the decision of the vital problems. The political science, in his opinion, should comprehend a true state of affairs, directly observing for the facts: Behavior of political leaders, weights, their interaction.
Method of political realism which has entered into political science N.Machiavelli definitively releases it from religion.
Problem of a political science he saw in revealing:
Laws of development of various forms of the state;
Factors of their stability;
- Their communication with arrangement of political forces;
- Conditionality of a policy economic, military, geographical,
A brief biography of the famous philosopher. His works and main dates.
He saw the main reason of disasters of Italy in its political dissociation, to overcome which only strong government is capable. For the sake of state consolidation considered admissible any means. In the end of 1513 the treatise the "Prince" who has immortalized a name of the writer has been created. In it position that the end justifies the means, used for its achievement was proclaimed as norm of political action; however a true purpose of "a new sovereignÂ» should become, on Machiavelli, not private, especially a personal interest, but the "general welfare" meaning association of Italy in the strong national state. In Â«Reasonings on the first decade of Tito LibyaÂ», finished, apparently, in 1516, Machiavelli proved advantages of a republican form of government.
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During next years he has written a poem Â«Gold donkeyÂ» to the subsequent (1549), Â«the Fairy tale about arch devil BelphagorÂ» (1549), a comedy Â«MandragoraÂ», Â«Life Kastrutstso Kastracani from LuccaÂ» (1532). In 1520 Machiavelli has started to write Â«History of FlorenceÂ» (1532), in 1525 first eight books of this product have been presented its customer, Arhibishop Kliment VII.
The given site as well as many educational sites, tells about biography Machiavelli, his basic works, brought to him popularity in the circles, and further and at descendants. Interesting thoughts and visions of events of that time of this not ordinary Ñ„Ð¸Ð»Ð¾ÑÐ¾Ñ„Ð°.MÐ°ÐºÐ¸Ð°Ð²ÐµÐ»Ð»Ð¸ are stated divided belief of the majority of humanists in mighty creative possibilities of the person. According to concept Machiavelli, the strong personality is capable to resist to "fate", casual coincidence of circumstances (which role in history is great), having opposed to them the energy and an insight (in idea of struggle of personal "velour" - virtu and "fate" lines were especially brightly showed, characteristic Renaissance for sights); all-round consideration of circumstances and ability to change a policy according to a situation are capable to provide success to governors. As the best form of the state Makiavelli considered republic, however has been convinced, that the Italian validity (continuous enmity among themselves the Italian states which are exposed to attacks of foreigners) demands an autocracy establishment; only at a strong sovereign probably to create the independent Italian state, free from a foreign yoke. He believed, that for state consolidation any means - violence, murder, a deceit, treachery (subsequently there was a term "machiavellism", designating a policy neglecting with laws of morals) are admissible.