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An Analysis Relations Between The Us And Israel Politics Essay

3015 words (12 pages) Essay in Politics

5/12/16 Politics Reference this

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During more than four decades of state-building, Israelis have looked to the United States for inspiration, financial and military assistance, and diplomatic support. Americans, in turn, have viewed Israel with a special appreciation for its successful effort to follow the Western democratic tradition, its remarkable economic development, and its determined struggle against its uncompromising enemies. in this Paper will indicate the beginning of US-Israeli relations, the US policy towards Israel , then the public opinion about Israel, the role of Israeli lobby in USA, the timeline of US -Israeli relations , then US Criticism to Israel ,the current relations.

-Research problem: Why does it seem that Israel’s relationship with the United States beyond the barriers of political and ideological?

-Research Questions:

1-what are roots of US -Israeli relations?

2- Is Israel exploiting America?

3- What are the interests between them?

4-Does US criticizes Israeli Policy?

5- Dose US Foreign Policy towards are affected by Israeli policy?

The Hypothesis: The relations between Israeli and United States through politics and history. My approach will be Conflict Management Approach.

Introduction:

Since the creation of the Jewish state on May 14, 1948, the United States and Israel have maintained very strong ties. Israel owes it very existence in large part to the efforts of the United States. Traditionally, Israel has been looked upon as a solid friend and ally in a very tumultuous region of the world. A tremendous amount of aid, especially military and economic, has been given to the country. American support for Israel has been accepted as the “right thing to do.” Israel currently receives about $3 billion per year in economic and military grants, refugee settlement assistance, and other aid. Congress has monitored the aid issue closely along with other issues in bilateral relations, and its concerns have affected Administration’s policies.

the beginning of US relations began U. S.-Israeli relations have evolved from an initial American policy of sympathy and support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in 1948 to an unusual partnership that links a small but militarily powerful Israel, dependent on the United States for its economic and military strength, with the U. S. superpower trying to balance competing interests in the region. American support for the age-old aspirations of the Jewish people to return to their homeland dates from the Colonial period when John Adams wrote: “I really wish the Jews again in Judea an independent nation for, as I believe, the most enlightened men of it have participated in the amelioration of the philosophy of the age.”

In 1917, Lord Balfour sent a letter to Lord Rothschild, president of the British Zionist Federation, stating that the British Government would facilitate the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine. President Wilson expressed his support for the Balfour Declaration when he stated on March 3, 1919. Congress was no less sympathetic to the Zionist objective. One can look back to the joint Congressional resolutions of 1922 and 1944 that unanimously passed an endorsement of the Balfour Declaration. The House Foreign Affairs Committee stated in 1922, Legislatures in 33 states, representing 85 percent of the population, also adopted resolutions favoring the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine. Governors of 37 states, 54 United States senators, and 250 congressmen signed petitions to the President. [1] 23

History of the American-Israeli relations can be divided into during the previous phase to four major periods:

1-Phase ONE from 1948 to 1973: During the first phase of this period was characterized by the development of strategic relations between the two sides slowly with the declaration of the State of Israel and the recognition by the United States, and the Suez Crisis of 1956, which resulted from the introduction of Israel’s strategic vision of America in the region, from the premise that Israel’s moderate is not a burden, and then revealed years following the crisis until the 1967 war on the frequency of strategic cooperation between the two countries and access for the second phase 1967, 1973, marked by the rise of fast at the site of Israel for several reasons the most important failure of the regimes that are hostile to the United States within the region, and the failure of the prestige and the role of the Soviet Union in the region, particularly since the American perspective Israel deems capable of striking the Arab party’s pro-Soviet, so that Arabs understand in the end futility of a military solution, and accept a diplomatic solution.

2-Phase TWO from 1973 to 1981:this phase called Recovery of the strategic role of Israel after the war of 73, which lasted until 81: since the outbreak of the 1973 war and military consequences that resulted from the day after the signing of the Egyptian-Israeli peace in 1979, it moved the position of Israel in U.S. policy from a maximum unreasonable to a minimum is expected to return without a rise gradually to arrive at the end of the decade to its original level, where this war resulted in the destabilization of Israel’s strategic position during 1973 or 1976. Showed the dependence of America, which shook the foundations of U.S. strategy toward the region based on preventing a major Arab-Israeli war and attract the Middle East between the great powers. Or link between the conflict in the region and the oil war confirmed that the future of the Israeli state force of arms, the document warns of pessimism and crossed Kissinger policy step by step for this new vision of the situation of the region.

3-Phase THREE from 1981 to 1992: it called Strategic Alliance This represents the period one of the most important stages of the evolution of American-Israeli relations and the most complicated, as had not gone a single line, In the first phase of 1981 1988 which continued the presidency of Ronald Reagan saw relations return to the doctrine of strategic stock that means has the supporters of this doctrine vision implicitly to the peace of services attributed to Israel, starting from below and up to the most important, from the geographical location, which serves the U.S. presence in region, infrastructure and logistical capabilities that distinguish Israel from other U.S. allies in region, in addition to the defense capacity that supports U.S. interests by protecting the stability of the region, and possibilities of research and development and intelligence .which strengthen over the following years 1983 1989 and despite the intermittent differences and confusion and misunderstanding has continued to emphasize the view Israel as a strategic asset and help the regional and international developments, especially the collapse of the Shah in Iran and the failure of the policy of detente and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the pressures of lobbies and interest groups, and the disunity Arab, where the combined these factors to prevent a crisis in US-Israeli relations as a result of the invasion of the recent Lebanon in 1982, but emphasis was placed on strategic cooperation in the framework of that resolution was adopted Directive 111 and evolved forms of cooperation in 1983 in 1989 under what was called the Cold War following convergence of the Syrian USSR, “and despite a change of the general context of relations under the Bush administration 1988 1992 end of the Cold War and the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the outbreak of the Second Gulf War and the launch of Arab-Israeli negotiations, that did not affect the total general formulation of the relationship even though it had become clear that Israel is a burden on the interests of America, and it is the opposite of what it is rumored as a set for the region’s conflicts and the safety valve to counter the threat of Islamic fundamentalism.

4-Phase Four: from 1990 to 2001 this phase called correspondence of interests that is the phase which began with the arrival candidate Democratic Bill Clinton to the White House, and its continuance in which, for two periods for two successive represent this period Summit in relations between the two parties, which witnessed the first period return of the second formulation, the mouthpiece of the depth of strategic cooperation, which has taken aspects to many of the development of weapons to contribute to projects conquest of space, but in parallel with the revival version of this and raised the strategic relations between the two sides to unprecedented levels, has emerged the principle of burden-sharing in crisis management following the end of the Cold War, the United States of America, According to this principle no longer willing to shoulder alone the burdens and costs of managing crises, and that Figure that you see in this case is the distribution of these burdens on the coalition or a consortium of parties with an interest in the management of a crisis, and for reasons that have resulted from the end of the Cold War and international conflict, and also of the reluctance of public opinion to bear such burdens and pressures to direct spending on overseas programs within the country, as well as an emerging divide within the elite influencing the political decision for the position of foreign policy and burdens. The answer of Why does it seem that Israel’s relationship with the United States beyond the barriers of political and ideological? This interpretation depends on the use of the United States to support the interests of Israel in the first such, it does not explain why America supports Israel, even in cases in which Israel is a burden on the interests of America . This is based on outer interpretation of the influence enjoyed by the pro-Israel Lobby in the United States, which has a special ability to influence, through having contact with the administration and the Senate and the House and possession of a database and the potential to influence the election campaign, and through funding. Also has a lobby, a knack for organizing and directing the Jewish vote during the elections, which is characterized by American Jews that they are so politicized and more than 90% of them participate in elections while than there were 3% of the total population at the same time, more than half the American people are not interested in participating in the electoral process. This maximizes the relative importance of Jewish groups, which in turn are concentrated in cities of the weight of an election as important as California and New York. Lobby based in its role of several factors such as the status of the State of Israel and the role of great power by the U.S. today and ideology of American cultural reference, which is reflected in the relationship with the Jewish community of American society based on inclusion, adoption and special relationship with the State of Israel. [4] 5

The timeline of US -Israeli relations was beginning 1917 Belfour Declaration by the British Government which controlled Palestine, details English support for a Jewish home setting the groundwork for the ultimate creation of the state of Israel.

1948 War/Israel’s Birth Israel wins the first war against its Arab neighbors leading to the establishment of the state of Israel. The United States is the first country to recognize Israel in the United Nations.

1956 Suez Crisis Israel, France, and Britain attack Egypt in October of 1956 after the Suez crisis but the US comes out against the war forcing United Nations intervention and an end to hostilities.

1967 Six-Day War Israel fights its third war in the region against the armies of Egypt, Jordan and Syria, and emerges victorious and in control of the Gaza Strip, East Jerusalem, Syria’s Golan Heights, and Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula.

1973October/Yom Kippur War Egypt and Syria attack Israel in October of 1973 in an attempt to reclaim lands lost in the Six-Day War. Israel initially suffers major losses until the United States arranged a massive airlift of weapons which helped Israel in its counteroffensive.

1978Camp David Accords President Jimmy Carter mediates negotiations between Egypt’s Anwar Sadat and Israel’s Menachem Begin leading to the Camp David Accords, the prerequisite to the 1979 Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty.

1982 War of Lebanon Israel gets explicitly involved in the Lebanese Civil War, attacking Syrian and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) forces. The United States mediates an agreement with the PLO to withdrawal which leads to American troop deployment in Lebanon.

1991-Current The Peace Process The United States plays a mediating role between Israel and its neighboring Arab countries, leading to the Madrid Conference (1991), Oslo Process/Accords (1993), the Israeli-Jordanian Peace Treaty (1994), and most recently the Roadmap For Peace.

2006 War with Lebanon Israel attacks Lebanon in retaliation for the Hezbollah kidnapping of Israeli soldiers. Questions arose about whether or not Israel used American supplied weapons during the conflict. [6] 

The answer of Question Is Israel exploiting America is that Nature of the relationship between the United States with its ally Israel, being related to common interests, of course, all these things are the basis of the relationship between the two parties, but that Israel could exploit the penetration of the Zionist lobby in the joints of the American state to the implementation of stealing technology and espionage and exploitation American figures are important to implement its goals and ambitions Pure unchecked, restriction or fear of cracking the alliance with the United States or taking into account the interests of the U.S., it is something worthy of wonder and a source of uncertainty in what looked like to say that successive U.S. administrations is satisfied with the repeated violations caused by Israel, despite the danger to security U.S. national. [7] 

American Researcher says. Hal Turner “Hal Turner on his Web site, we have to consider whether Israel really an ally of the United States,” or that Israel would exploit the Last Jews in all joints sensitive America for the implementation of their own, which may be subversive and dangerous to the security of the United States secrets and strategy, and it must be asked, is that the US-Israeli relations cost too much for the United States? Why this insistence blind without restriction or condition on the protection of Israeli interests, despite the recent lack of keenness on the interests of the sponsor? If we want to know that we have to look at the evidence the following: where should not ally that the acts contrary to the nature of the alliance as Israel did, spied on the United States, and sold the secrets the U.S. military to the enemies and rivals, America, and is stealing U.S. technology and are used without a license, and produce and storage of weapons of mass destruction, and attacking a U.S. warship (RL) on international waters and destroy, Israel had done a lot of this and are still continuing it.

The United States has been Israel’s closest ally throughout its history; nevertheless, the U.S. has acted against the Jewish State’s wishes many times. Ever since the war began in 1948, the U.S. was unwilling to insist on projects for the resettlement of Arab refugees. The United States was also reluctant to challenge violations of the Arab Charter of the United Nations and its resolutions. Thus, for example, allowed the Arabs to escape from the siege of the Suez Canal, and to impose a boycott on Israel to commit acts of terrorism. In fact, the United States has taken positions against Israel at the United Nations in more often, and do not use the veto in the Security Council to block the anti-Israel resolution until 1972. Perhaps the most dramatic example of American policy different from that Israel came during the Suez War, President Eisenhower when he took a strong stand against Britain, France and Israel. After the war, U.S. pressure, and forcing Israel to withdraw from the territories it occupied. David Ben-Gurion adopted on American guarantees dubious that planted the seeds of conflict in 1967. In 1991, President George W. Bush at a press conference to ask about the delay in the consideration of Israel’s request for loan guarantees to help absorb Soviet Jews and Ethiopia because of disagreement with Israel’s settlement policy. In the interest and prestige in this delay, mild language Bush used that inflame sentiments and have raised concern in the Jewish community that raised anti-Semitism. Though often described as the main pro-Israel more in history, as Bill Clinton was critical of Israel on several occasions. Has shown the administration of President George W. Bush also do not hesitate to criticize Israel’s actions appear to be incompatible with the interests of the United States, but not generally more conservative in public statements. During the first year of the war Palestine, the United States imposed an embargo on spare parts for helicopters due to anger over the use of U.S. helicopters in targeted killings. The Bush administrations also punish Israel to agree to sell military equipment to China in 2005. [8] 

‘Current Relations: Two contentious issues have brought the close relationship of the United States and Israel under scrutiny and have contributed to some tension in the relationship. One is Israel’s continued building of settlements on Palestinian land, despite the illegality under international law and the objection of U.S. politicians. Another issue has been the Israeli lobby in the US which has been criticized for advocating Israel’s interests within the American political system, even if they are contrary or might harm U.S. national interests.’ [9] 

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