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Intelligent Transmit Power Control

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Published: Mon, 12 Mar 2018

The Intelligent Transmit Power Control In Expanding The Limitation Of Range For Bluetooth Communication For Indoor Navigation System

  • Jamilah Binti Mohamed



As time goes by, the technology is grown up very fast. The technology is created and invented according to the necessities of consumers. In addition, there have many scientist did researched and experiment to find the solutions for our problems in our life. Therefore, some of researcher had found the Bluetooth technology to settle several problems that come into our life. For instants, we need a cable to transfer any information and to have that cable, we need to spend our money to buy it. Thus the creation of Bluetooth can reduce our cost.

Bluetooth is the one of the indoor navigator that play its own functions. In 1994, Bluetooth was initiated by the team of researchers at Ericsson Mobile Communications. According to the history of the creation of Bluetooth :

“The name “Bluetooth” is taken from the 10th century Danish King Harald Blatand-or Harold Bluetooth in English. During the formative stage of the trade association a code name was needed to name the effort. King Blatand was instrumental in uniting warring factions in parts of what are now Norway, Sweden, and Denmark – just as Bluetooth technology is designed to allow collaboration between differing industries such as the computing mobile phone and automotive markets. The code name as stuck.” (Bluetooth SIG 2006)

Nowadays, many of the gadgets like handphones, smartphones, printers, fax machines, computers and other device provide Bluetooth technology as one of the facilities and attraction to their customers. That why most of the people in the world know about the technology of Bluetooth.

Bluetooth has their own characteristics. Firstly, Bluetooth is short range communication. There have three types of distance that Bluetooth can function which are the longest distance is 100 meters , intermediate distance is 10 meters , and the shortest distance is 10 cm. However, it is very effective at the short distance and in noisy frequency. Bluetooth is different with the Wi-Fi and WLANs technology, Wi-Fi and WLANs had long range communication but need to have networks.

Secondly, Bluetooth supply cable-free environment which can replace the portable cable to connect between two devices and can use to build ad hoc network either at the same device or at different device. At that time, Bluetooth is the most suitable technology for consumers to use it even it have several weaknesses. In addition, to use Bluetooth,

Third, among the technology system that appeared nowadays, Bluetooth is more cheap than other devices. Usually, a traditional testing technology show that most of the devices are expensive because of the use of cable, use an expensive measurement equipment, put many sensors to the measurement and so on. All of the action above will increase cost of the device. Different with Bluetooth, it is a simple process that only used radio waves and spread-spectrum frequency-hopping technique. The cost for adding Bluetooth in any device is not more than $5 to $10. Most of the people are afford to have it.

Besides that, Bluetooth use two types of links for it process. First is Synchronous Connection Oriented (SCO) and second is Asynchronous Connectionless Link (ACL). The process of Bluetooth use the concept of master and slave.

For Synchronous Connection Oriented (SCO), the process is between master and a single slave in the piconet which is symmetric point to point. SCO need a symmetric point to voice link point for sending and receiving voice packets from one device to another device at certain time intervals. SCO process is started from a master device. When the master device send any data via SCO link in a slot, the slave will send back to the following slot. There are several type of SCO. “HV1 carries 10 data bytes and is transmitted every 2 slots, HV2 carries 20 data bytes and is transmitted every 4 slots and HV3 carries 30 data bytes and is transmitted every 6 slots.”(

For Asynchronous Connectionless Link (ACL), the system is different with SCO because it need to wait for acknowledgement from the receiver. This style of link is more safe than SCO. If the signal do not receive to the receiver, ACL will send it back until the receiver get it. After that, the recipient will check the packet and clarify the data transmission via cyclic redundancy code (CRC) to make sure the data is correct. ACL is point-to-multipoint link which is between master and slaves in the piconet. In the piconet, ACL can work only in a single link.

The process of Bluetooth is started when there have piconet master link with slave devices. “One piconet can have a maximum of seven active slave devices and one master device. All communication within a piconet goes through the piconet master. Two or more piconets together form a scatternet, which can be used to eliminate Bluetooth range restrictions” (Haataja, 2006). After that, data will transfer between Bluetooth devices and physical channel. Transmission is occur in packets that is subdivided into time units known as slots.



Bluetooth is created for short range communication without using any cable or cable free environment. Most of the people nowadays use Bluetooth instead of transfer information via cable. Usually, Bluetooth can use at computers, mobile phones, cars, headphone earphone, camera and printer. It is easy and not expensive. However, there are lot of problem during using Bluetooth.


Bluetooth does not have licensed frequency band. The way it works may cause the security of the system easy to attack by other people. It will make harm to the devices. The intruders are easily interrupted the process and know the information transfers during the devices communicate to each other. Thus , Bluetooth need increase the quality of the system to be more safe for consumers to used the communication style.

However, the most important problem that occurs in Bluetooth technology is range limitation or range constraint during the process of transferring data. It is possible for data transmission in a short range. There have three classification of distance that Bluetooth can function. First, data transmission at 100 meters , second is 10 meters and the shortest distance is 10 centimeter but the consumers must remember that the shortest distance, the fastest the data transmission process.

In addition, the amount of data can affect the effectiveness of Bluetooth during the process of transferring the data. If the data is large or big in size, the rate of the transferring data is become slow. This is because the network is over loaded then the data transmission become slower than usual. Sometimes, somebody need to wait for a few minutes and unluckily, if the devices have problem with it, the process will stop without any notice. That why we need to confirm that the data is safely receive to the recipient device. If not, it is just waste your time for waiting the Bluetooth process to finished.

Not only that, Bluetooth always can not reach the device properly even the device is on for Bluetooth, only for certain devices they can pair to each other. Sometimes, they can pair to each other but need an afford to pair them by doing it several times. It will takes time to pair the devices. After that, if the data transmission is large, a lot of time is needed. Therefore, time dilation is occur during using the Bluetooth technology either waiting the devices paring each other or the data safely transmitted to the receiver.

Moreover, the battery of the devices will decrease not same as usual. Transmission of data will cause a little bits of battery. As we know, most of the technology devices are created with short durability of battery like smartphone and laptop. The causes of the decreasing of the battery in a short time for certain devices are there have lots of system installed at the devices with high intensity of light and many more factors. Therefore, the uses of Bluetooth will increasing the rate of battery of the devices getting low.

C:UsersinbimohamedDesktopBT 1.PNGLastly, among the problems above, it is easily to say that the most affected is the range limitation in the Bluetooth. Because of the range limitation, the distance to connect the devices is limited, takes time if the data is quite large, security of the system is vulnerable and difficult to pair among the devices. Thus, a few research was occur to settle the problems. The researchers try to find a single way to expanse range.


Connection– Bluetooth can connect after transmitter and receiver getting pair to each other.

Otherwise, those device can not connect to each other and the data transmission will not happen.

Speed – Bluetooth was created for low speed transmission of data. If the amount of data is larger, the speed become slower. Therefore , we can conclude that transferring data will take time because the speed of Bluetooth process is slow.

Range – The range of the Bluetooth is limit only for 100 meters (the longest distance that Bluetooth can function). If the distance between the devices far from that, Bluetooth system will does not work.


Actually Bluetooth is important in replacement of wire or cable during communication between two or more than two devices. It is also important in GPS receivers and medical equipment. The development of Bluetooth is become fastest and the product of Bluetooth devices appeared into our life with many variation like Bluetooth home-network, Bluetooth earphone, and Bluetooth head phone.

Figure 2: Typical Use of a Bluetooth enabled phone as a data modem for a PC

Typical Use of a Bluetooth enabled phone as a data modem for a PC

In addition, Bluetooth is popular because it can share the data with different device. For example, data from laptop can be transfer via Bluetooth to the smartphone. Furthermore, Bluetooth can transfer data to the eight devices by using piconet. The application is easy and does not need a large provision.

Besides, we can control the data transmission by accepting or rejecting it from any devices that we do not know. Bluetooth can our device more safe from any unneeded data. Indirectly, we can protect our devices from any virus via Bluetooth.

Several common misperception about the function of Bluetooth such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi competing to each other. In fact, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi were created with different function and ability. Bluetooth is created for wire replacement at short distance connection while Wi-Fi is used for getting data, video and voice at 300 meters. Therefore, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi not competing to each other but help to complete and settle the problem of consumers.

Technologies and verticalsThis is one of the research do by connectBlue 2014.


First of all, we need to identify the power transmitted in the Bluetooth process. There have 3 classess of power range which are 1mW (1 meter), 2.5mW (10 meters) and 100 mW (100 meters).

According to the range above, we can see the power restrictions. The highest transmitting power when access at the short distance or small size in data. But if the distance between the Bluetooth devices is far or have large size of data, the lowest transmitting power will access. Due to this problem, there have one way to increase the power during transmit the data or any information via Bluetooth.

Therefore we can do a hypothesis that when the distance between two Bluetooth devices is lower, the power control transmit the data will increase. So, it will slow down the interference with other transmitter.

As we know apart of problems come from Bluetooth can be settle if the range of connection is large. Therefore, the range is the most important parameter for any Bluetooth devices to increase the power control. So, there have one way to overcome the basic limitation of range in Bluetooth.

  1. Establish a network through enabled intermediary device.

Due to the broadcast nature of wireless communication and omni-directional antennae among the most electronics devices nowadays, the transmission of data will sent to any hosts that on the Bluetooth. In addition, the host can on or off the wireless connection without notifying other hosts. Therefore , during the connection ,both two devices must know and on the Bluetooth system to transfer and receive the data.

If both devices that want to connect each other are out of their transmission range, the other devices that around the sender of data will receive it and can forward to another devices. According to the increasing of mobility of wireless hosts, every host must have their own capability of an autonomous system, or centralized administration. Not only because end-hosts are transient the mobility and autonomy introduces a dynamic topology of the networks but also because intermediate hosts on a communication path are transient.

That why both devices must have a network to allow the intermediary device function and Bluetooth process will occur. Moreover , to start the connection of Bluetooth device without any limitation of range, we must provide an ad-hoc network with available to all devices.

For easy understanding, we can apply network at our devices spontaneously and available to who ever at that area. Not only that, the network can use for a specific applications and at temporary usage. However, every devices need to upgrade their accessible devices due to theis list. Thus, it is easy to all consumers to transfer data by using Bluetooth if that network can provide for any devices.

A process to expand the range of Bluetooth or broke the limitation of range in Bluetooth are not complex and only need intermediate hosts. The process need two type of routing process which are static and dynamic.

In static routing process, it is independent and maintained for every node for every requirement. While for dynamic routing process , it is work when it is needed in the process. If the sender and the receiver want to transfer the data, they need to send data and find the route by their own then create the routing table.

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