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In general, there are 5 basic defensive principles that can apply in team or individuals sports or games of invasion, they are immediate chase, delay the attack and deny penetration, balancing and concentration. (The Soccer Coaching Bible, 2005)
The application of these principles will increase players:
The ability to deny goals.
The ability to limit the opportunities, such as shooting, crossing chances.
The ability of recapturing the ball back once it is loss.
In particular, the principle of concentration is refers forming a team shape in defending, i.e. how to place the team players between the opponent player in possession of the ball and its own goal.
For example, a typical type of 3 man team shape in defending could be as such:
Play with a triangle with one players positing in front and 2 players positing left and right behind against the attacking player.
Play with an inverted triangle with 2 players positing in front, one on the left and one on the right and one playing behind against the attacking player.
The main objective of the team shape is to limit time and space, making it tough for the opponent to penetrate. An attacking team moving forward toward a crowded defending half will be facing no room to move forward and no space between defenders. In addition, concentration takes place by moving more defending players to the areas adjacent to the attacking player with the ball to outnumber them and close off the attacking teamâ€™s best attacking angles and passes.
Players need to be families with their roles, the rules of the game, their functions and offside tactics; in order to keep a compact team shape. Players also need to have the basic knowledge of zone marking, man-to-man marking, support and coverage. There are also several factors that affects the team shape formation, these includes stepping up to press, dropping back to restrict space behind the defense, and squeezing play to the flanks or central. Pressure on the ball, movement of the ball and players, speed of play, and the role of the different players all affect team shape. (The Soccer Coaching Bible, 2005).
The method of teaching
Teaching methods are defined as types of principles and instruction used for teaching. The types of teaching methods that the teachers are trying to convey can be as such: class participation, demonstration, recitation, and memorization (Wikipedia, 2010).
According to the studies done by The National Training Laboratories of Bethel, Maine in 1960, the average retention rate after 24 hours is 90% for teaching others, 73% for learn by doing and 30% for demonstration. Therefore, this lesson is conducted by the teacher effectively using demonstration, getting the students to participate in a small side game, and the game will be played progressively from a simple (no rules, no tactics) to more complexity (some rules, some tactics) format.
As noted, FACA believed that using small sided games will provide a more enjoyable and lasting introduction to sports for the youngsters involved. It is because there will be more touches on the ball, more participation, fewer players on in the game, simpler decisions, better understanding, greater concentration, more individual success, more children playing, sustained participation levels beyond 10 years old.
The lead-up practices and modified games
A good teacher or coach needs to be able to start the training with a simple practice and develop it into a modified game and eventually the actual game (Alan Hargreaves, 2010), if possible each game activity should built on the previous activity.
The practice session after the warm up will be divided into 3 sections, the introduction, main theme, a game situation. One-sixth of the time will be for introduction activity, two sixth of the time will be for main theme activity and three sixths will be for game situation.
The introduction session contains a game of 1 v 1, showing how a player (defender) can be effective in stopping, slowing down another player (attacker) by good positioning and intercepting. There will be 1 ball given to a pair of players to be play within a court of 13m and 9m. The player 1(defender) plays the ball to the player 2 (attacker), moves towards the player 2. Then player 1 tries to prevent the player 2 to get over the line behind him but without executing a tackle. (Appendix 2)
Next, the main theme session will include a 1st game of 2 v 1, showing how 2 players (defenders) combine to play against another player (attacker). Players are in groups of 3, an attacking team A of 1 (player 1) and a defending team B of player 2 and 3. Player 1 controls the ball, tries to get pass player 2 and 3. Player 2 tries to pressure player 1. If player 1 outplay player 2, player 3 will support and cover player 2. (Appendix 3)
The 2nd game within the main theme session will be of 2 players (attackers) against 3 players (defenders). The game is the same as the 2 v 1, but this time 2 additional players will be included to create more attacking space through more choices of passing and more concentration. (Appendix 4)
And finally, the last session is a game practice of a game with 4 players (defenders) against 4 players (attackers).
The lesson plan
See Appendix 1
Sequence components of a 3 touch play
A 3 touch play/system/rule is one of the international volleyball rules. According to the FIVB official volleyball rules 2009-2012, commissioned by the 31st FIVB World Congress held in Dubai in 2008, under the rule 9.1 - team hits, it states that the volley team is entitled to a maximum of three hits (in addition to blocking, Rule 14.4.1), for returning the ball. If more are used, the team commits the fault of: â€œFOUR HITSâ€Â. (A hit is any contact with the ball by a player in play.) (FIVB, 2008)
A 3 touch system consist the bump-set-spike scenario. This scenario needs 3 touches on 1 side of the net before the ball needs to get over. The main objective of the 3 touch system is to keep the volleyball moving across the court.
However, if the game is without the 3 touch system, this implies that the player can get more than 3 hits on each side of the court, for this instance, the ball could be set up to be spiked and the player (spiker) do not like the set, then he might just bump the ball back to their own player (setter) so they could get a better set for the next spike attempt.
Therefore, with the 3 touch rule, it makes the volleyball playersâ€™ motivation to become better players to get a good setting for the player (spiker) to hit the ball because they are not be allowed to re-do their mistake until the ball comes back over the net.
In summary, the 3 touch system is a set of volleyball sequence that consists of the component of a bump (hit), and followed by a set and finally by a spike.
Consideration to ensure that play is active
The defaults for the play to be active are as follow:
The bump (hit). The player or 1st player must hit the ball forwards to the players especially the setter standing in front of him.
The setter. The player (setter) or 2nd player must set the ball as high as possible and also the place or location that the spiker will have best spiking touch.
The spiker. The player (spiker) or 3rd player must jump as high as possible and hit the ball as hard as possible so that the ball can land on the area (space) that the opposite players are not guarding or standing.
FIVB (2010). Rules of Games. Retrieved 15Nov 2010 from http://www.fivb.org/EN/Refereeing-Rules/RulesOfTheGame_VB.asp
National Soccer Coaches Association of America, NSCAA (2004). The Soccer Coaching Bible. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Coach Manual (1999). Certification and Licensing for Soccer Coaches. Retrieved 15Nov 2010from http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~dgraham/manual/Pages/Resources/cert.html
Wikipedia (2010). Teaching Method. Retrieved 15 Nov 2010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teaching_method