During this section of my portfolio, I am going to construct a four week fitness programme which will be designed to improve the physical aspects of a performers fitness relating to participation in Football. Included in this section will be extensive research into the sport of football relating to health, fitness, drugs and injuries sustained. For the fitness programme I will chose specific exercises which will enable the performer to improve of the selected areas of physical fitness. Throughout the course of the fitness programme, I will use a variety of measuring techniques to assess how effective the fitness programme is and whether there has been any improvement upon the fitness components being worked upon. Taking part in the four week fitness programme for football will be Adam Burton. Adam is at the current level of competition standard where the performer represents a club football team in a competitive league.
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The fitness programme will involve Adam taking a part in a variety of training and fitness improving exercises related to specific components of fitness which are aimed to be improved upon.
Health, fitness, skills for sport
The understanding of health is that the body is in a complete state of physical, mental and social well being. Regarding the write up of my portfolio I am interested in the physical component of health and how physical health affects performance in addition to factors that can be achieved to improve physical health. If an individual is termed to be physically healthy they are free from both illness and injury. However there are many factors that can have an impact upon a performers physical health in a negative manner which can restrict their performance levels. An example of some of the factors that harm physical health are as followed;
Constant smoking= more carbon dioxide is combined with haemoglobin in preference to oxygen therefore less oxyheamoglobin is transported the muscles during exercise.
Drugs: Slow down your reactions and have a decreasing effect on main organ function.
Alcohol: Can seriously damage liver and kidney that are two vital bodily organs. In addition contains a vast amount of calories which can unhelpful for body composition.
Poor diet: It is important that the performer has an appropriate balanced diet related to a specific sport to able to compete for the duration of the game. E.g footballer would be required to have a diet that includes carbohydrates.
These individual factors on their own or even combined can have a decreasing effect upon a performance. Smoking is a prime example as it can reduce association of oxygen and haemoglobin as haemoglobin has a higher affinity for carbon dioxide (240+) therefore there is additional carbinoheamoglobin than oxyheamoglobin causing less oxygen to be transported to muscles during exercise. With regards to monitoring health there are many measurements of a performers health that can be assessed such as; blood pressure can be taken, there vital capacity, peak flow expiratory rate, recovery rate and breathing rate.
Fitness is termed as being physically active on a regular basis to maintain good physical condition. To be able to maintain physical fitness appropriate to a performers individual sport there are specific training regimes that are adopted in improve various components of fitness. For example a footballer will constantly work on their cardiovascular endurance to reach their optimum point allowing peak performance during a match. Combined with regular exercise a good diet is needed that contains the appropriate vitamins, minerals, iron and calcium to help strengthen bones, muscle and cartilage aswell as repairing them after sustaining an injury. In addition to this the correct amount of carbohydrates, glucose and protein is important with regards to an energy store for a game situation.
Physical fitness can be measured in a variety of ways both practically taking part in a physical exercise test and by taking readings of measurements such as breathing rate before, during and after exercise. An example of participating in a practical fitness test is the multi-stage fitness test (bleep test). Whereby an individual will run a set distance of 20 metres each time the bleep sounds and must make it back to the opposite end before the following bleep. The test becomes increasingly difficult as each level passed by due the time period before each bleep becomes shorter. The multi stage fitness test is designed to test stamina as well as cardiovascular endurance and the longer period of time you can compete for determines your level of physical fitness. In terms of measurements, an individuals breathing and pulse rates can be taken during exercise and then after to see the time period in which it takes to return to resting values.
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However physical fitness isnâ€™t just classed by your level of cardiovascular endurance as factors that make up physical fitness are as followed; strength, aerobic fitness, strength, flexibility, muscular endurance and body composition.
With Football there is a vast amount of skills and qualities needed dependant upon the position played by the performer. The main skills and qualities that are essential to each individual player are as followed;
Cardiovascular endurance: It is essential that a performer participating in Football has high levels of cardiovascular endurance (V02 max) / stamina to be able to run constantly for long periods of time at a variety of speeds. Having good fitness levels therefore allows the performer to compete throughout the duration of the game without feeling physically or mentally fatigued.
Muscular Strength: As football is a highly physical contest it is imperative that a performer obtains muscular strength throughout a variety of areas of his/her body. Muscular strength is significant to the legs muscles in particular the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis as part of your quadriceps and bicep femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus as part of your hamstrings. These group of muscles are used heavily within running and the movement required for a kicking action therefore this will allow for greater range of movement and flexibility which means the movement will be more effective. Furthermore greater strength, flexibility and range of movement will reduce the risk of an injury being sustained such as a pull or a tear.
Agility, Coordination and Balance: These 3 components of fitness are extremely useful in sport in particular when applying it to Football. Agility is required for a performer to be able to change the bodies position efficiently such as turning away from a defender which also combines with the coordination and balance aspect. Balance is being able to maintain your centre of gravity which is key when running at speed and are trying not to fall over. Coordination is being able to make the parts of the body work together to good effect such placing a pass to a team-mate accurately and at the appropriate speed.
Speed and Reaction time: Having speed can be a significant asset to a football participant as it can give you an advantage over your opponents. This can combine with having good reaction time as the speed of movement can enable you to process information quicker.
Body composition: An invasion game such as football requires a distinct amount of running involved therefore any unnecessary additional body fat that is not requires is likely to restrict the speed and duration of running. This will endeavour that optimum physical fitness is unlikely to be reached until the performer balances their body composition of body fat and muscle.
During my four week period fitness programme for the chosen activity of football, I am to work on the areas of muscular strength and cardiovascular endurance. I have chosen these two aspects as I believe my cardiovascular endurance is very low at the moment and I would like to improve my muscular strength to be able to compete with opponents of a greater height than mine.