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The business ethics was defined as the principles and standards that determine acceptable conduct in business organizations. The acceptability of behavior in business is determined by customers, competitors, government regulators, interest groups, and the public, as well as each individual's personal moral principles and values. This paper is focus on the role of ethics and social responsibility in business decision making. First, it was discuss about business ethics and examine why it is important to understand ethics in business. Next, explore a number of business ethics issues to help user learn to recognize such issues when they arise. Finally, the consideration on steps businesses can take to improve ethical behavior in their organizations.
Keywords: ethics, business ethics, ethical issues
Nowadays, many business organizations were conduct without ethics. They should believe that businesses should not only make a profit but also consider to the workers ethics. On this paper, social responsibility was defined as a business's obligation. This business obligation is to maximize the positive impact and minimize the negative impact on society. Furthermore, many people use the terms social responsibility and ethics interchangeably. Actually, they do not mean the same thing. Business ethics was relates to an individual or a work group decisions that society evaluates as right or wrong, which is social responsibility is a broader concept that concerns the impact of the entire business activities on society. For example, we may be concerned about a health care organization overcharging the government for Medicare services. This is from ethical perspective. From a social responsibility perspective, we might be concerned about the impact that this overcharging will have on the ability of the health care system to provide enough service for all citizens. The most basic ethical and social responsibility concerns have been codified by laws and regulations that encourage businesses to conform to society's standards, values, and attitudes.
In completing this term paper, primary and secondary literatures are used to enable in depth understanding of business ethics. To get the reliable information about business ethics and social responsibility, we have conducts the survey, give questionnaire and some research from other article. We just not focus in certain organization but we make it randomly. For examples, we give the questionnaires to people around us that related to my topic such as workers, businesspeople and manager. From the literature review, we also get much information. Besides that, we get the examples of situation that relate to this term paper. It was making me more understand to complete this term paper. I also use the viper software to detect plagiarism.
Definitions and concepts of Ethics
There are various definitions of ethics. Ethics is defined by The Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the science of morals, treatise on this, moral principles or rules of conduct" (1964: 415). What I was understand by this definition of ethics, it was explain more on behavior of person to survive their daily life. The world of ethics was defined in many definitions. It also focuses on rules. The word comes from the Greek éthikos meaning 'of or for morals'. Morals are described by the same dictionary as being concerned with the distinction between right and wrong. This comes from the Latin mos (pl. mores) which mean a measure or guiding rule of life. It was determined as not by the law but by men's will and pleasure (Lewis and Short 1900). Clifford G. Christians et al. define ethics as "The liberal arts discipline that appraises voluntary human conduct insofar as it can be judged right or wrong in reference to determinative principles"
(1998: 7). In practice, ethics is a way of studying morality which allows decisions to be made when individuals face specific cases of moral dilemma. At their most praiseworthy, the journalist's tussles are going to be between the right of the public to know and some other moral opinion that perhaps the invasion of an individual's privacy which would militate against publication.
Ethics Conceptual Theory
Ethical/unethical choice in business
Individual standard and value
Manager and Co-worker influence
Opportunity: code and compliance requirement
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Three Factor That Influence Business Ethics
Recognized Ethical Issue in Business
In the topic recognize ethical issue in business, I will discuss more detail about ethics issue in business. The business people must learn to recognize ethical issues because it is the most important step of understanding the business ethics. An ethical issue is an identifiable problem, situation, or opportunity that requires a person to choose from among several actions that may be evaluated as right or wrong, ethical or unethical. In business, business people are more to get the profit without think about their suitable action to get the profit.
Abusive and Intimidating Behavior.
Abusive or intimidating behavior is the most common ethical problem for employees. These concepts can mean anything from physical threats, false accusations, being annoying, profanity, insults, yelling, harshness, and ignoring someone. Abusive behavior can be placed as a minor distraction to a disruption of the workplace. For example, when the person shouts, it will be normal for curtain people but to another people it will be unethical. When the employee wants to convey a compliment, but the other person was considered abusive, so, this must be control. The way a word is said such as voice inflection can be important. Add to this the fact that we now live in a variety environment that doing business and working with many different cultural groups and the businessperson soon realizes the depth of the ethical and legal issues that may arise. There are problems of word meanings by age and within cultures. When we seat in a big company, we must suitable our self to the company. When we talked with old person we must use a proper language and if we talked with our batch of age, we can use any language that we comfortable. This is important for the business and organization to avoid of any misunderstanding from member of organization.
Communications is another area in which ethical concerns may arise. The issues are false and misleading advertising, as well as deceptive personal selling tactics. It will make the user anger and can lead to the failure of a business. Truthfulness about product safety and quality are also important to consumers. For examples, the claims about dietary supplements and weight loss products can be particularly problematic.
Nowadays, some companies in Malaysia fail to give accurate information about their product. Actually, they must give the information about the differences or similarity between products. For example, the counterfeit product, consumer more prefers to buy counterfeit product from internet. Actually the preview of the counterfeit product is not the same. The condition of the drug in the counterfeit product is not same with their label. So, it will give the bad impact to consumer. Peoples today were driven by high prices for medicines. It cause many consumers are turning to Canadian, Mexican, and overseas internet sources for drugs to treat a variety of illnesses and conditions. However, from the research was suggest the percentages of drug at the label of counterfeit, and the counterfeit drugs could even be harmful to those who take them.
The definition of plagiarism is taking someone else's work and presenting it as your own without mentioning the source is another ethical issue. As a student, you may be familiar with plagiarism in school. For example, copying someone else's term paper or quoting from a published work or Internet source without acknowledging it. Student was preferred to make plagiarism when they want to complete their work and the submission date was arrive. In business, an ethical issue arises when an employee copies reports or takes the work or ideas of others and presents it as his or her own. Actually, the employee must cite their report on the part that they take from internet or so on.
Making Decisions about Ethical Issues.
Although we've present a variety of ethical issues that may arise in business or organization, it can be difficult to recognize specific ethical issues in practice. Whether a decision maker recognizes an issue as an ethical one often depends on the issue itself. For examples as a manager, she or he must tend to be more concerned about issues that affect to those close to them, as well as issues that have immediate rather than long-term consequences.
Identify Conflict of Interest.
The common ethical issue by employee is conflict of interest. The employee must identify their conflict of interest to make they use their position in a good way. A person must choose whether to advance their organization for his or her own personal interests or those of others. For example, a manager in a corporation is supposed to ensure the company is profitable for their organization. Their stockholder owners must receive a return on their investment. In other words, the manager has a responsibility to investors. if she or he make a decision with their power without to advanced their company and take a company profit, then she or he has a conflict of interest because she or he acting to benefit herself and is not fulfilling her responsibilities as an employee. To avoid conflicts of interest, employees must be able to separate their personal financial interests from their business dealings.
Identify Fairness and Honesty.
The definition of fairness and honesty are at the heart of business or organization ethics and relate to the general values of decision makers. All workers in business or organization must follow all applicable laws and regulation. But beyond obeying the law, they are expected not to harm customers, employees, clients, or competitors knowingly through deception, misrepresentation, coercion, or discrimination. Honesty and fairness can relate to how the employee uses the resources of the organization. This is because every employee must understand about the fairness and honesty. They must use organization resource in proper way. The manager of the organization must recorded every single product of organization to make the worker fairness and honestly. The organization resource must be managed in proper way.
Identify Business Relationship
The employee must know about business and relationship. The most important is employee that dealing with customer and dealer. Ethical behavior in business involves keeping company secrets, meeting obligation and responsibilities for avoid any workers in organization action like unethical. Especially as a manager, they must ethical because he or she has opportunity to influence another worker unethical. For examples, manager is use pirated software and exactly their workers will follow. The using of pirated software will make their organization in dangerous. This is because they will get the punishment. This situation shows the relation of worker and manager in business or organization. So, the company must spend money to by the license of original software.
As a conclusion, the employee in organization must understand about ethics. The word of ethics has many meaning. Every action that we make in organization or business dealing it will relate to this ethic. The manager must briefly explain to their worker about ethics. In my opinion, ethic cannot be force to workers without the understanding of them. If the workers understand about ethics, for sure they use it for their daily life. To that extent, at least, ethics can only offer an incomplete solution to everyday moral problems. If the action make me feel good, if the action make me happy, if the action I like and can live it then it is all right for me to do. What we see, this is the good principle because we can do anything. But in ethical side, this is not good because we must thinking about the person around us. Is it our action will make any person angry? This is what we must think in our organization. The action without ethic will give many conflicts to organization. decisions until one starts to think about it. As a guide for all people that principle would lead and does lead to many conflicts. What is needed in an ethics is something that will enable humans to live with one another in an order rather than in chaos of self-interested action.