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White Food:Â Breakfast and lunch were the important meals of the day. Some of the things they ate were mutton, milk, rice, flour, and yogurt. Their food was called Tsagan-ide (white food).
Fire Stones:Â Food was cooked over a fire. To bake food, they placed meat and bread dough on hot stones that had been placed near or in the fire.
To make fire, they did not use wood. Wood was scarce on the steppes. Instead, they used dried animal dung. If you were a Mongol child in ancient times, it would have been one of your jobs to collect animal dung and set it out to dry.
Salty Tea:Â Tea with salt was their main beverage. Sometimes they added milk, butter and flour to their tea, which turned a cup of tea into a warm and nourishing soup. They drank tea at breakfast, lunch, and dinner.
Even today, if you visited a modern Mongol family, you might be offered a cup of nourishing salty tea.
The yurt (Mongolian:Â Ger) is theÂ traditionalÂ dwelling of the nomads in Mongolia, as well as in the neighbouring countries, over to as far as in Turkey. It is a tent-like structure made from a wooden frame and covered by wool felt. A traditional yurt is very easy to collapse andÂ assembleÂ again, and it can be transported on no more than three animals (horses, camels, yaks). Today it will fit nicely on a small all-terrain vehicle.
Genghis Khan Has Just Left the Building...
The constructive principle of the Mongol yurt has changed little since Genghis Khan's times. Only a few elements were adapted to newly developed or imported technology, such as carpentry. This made it possible to craft a wooden crown similar to a wheel in place of a simple piece of wood bent into a circle. Even more obvious are the use of a wooden door instead of a felt curtain, and of course the iron stove with a chimney in place of open fire
Dels: Clothes varied from tribe to tribe. Both men and women wore leather boots. And, both men and women wore dels (also spelled deels.)
A del is a wrap that looks like a dress tied at the waist. A man's del could be short or long. A woman's del was always long.
Dels made of cotton fabric kept people cool in the summer. Dels were lined with fur for winter wear, to keep the people warm and toasty.
There were no pockets in a del. Eating utensils and anything you wished to carry was hung from your belt.
Applique: The Mongols invented appliqué. In the winter months, the women would cut shapes out of colorful felt and sew them onto clothing and wall hangings. Horses and cockerels were two of the most popular shapes. They also embroidered their clothing.
Jewelry: Both men and women wore jewelry made of bronze and gold. They liked to wear wide bracelets and necklaces.
Hairstyles: To the Mongols, hair was a symbol of honor and strength.
In BCE times, the Mongols believed that hairstyles should look like the wings of an eagle. Women wore their hair pulled smoothly away from their face. They glued strings of decorated felt to hairbands. The men left a strip of hair down the middle of their head, and shaved their head bald on either side. They left the back hair long and braided it.
Hats: They spent a great deal of time making hats and head-dresses. Hats were important.
Both men and women wore hats decorated with fur - sable and silver fox especially. In the summer, they wore hats made from colorful fabrics.
They made other kinds of hats to wear on various occasions. They had top hats and plush velvet hats with turned up rims. They loved hats.
The term geography is derived from two Latin words:http://school.discoveryeducation.com/clipart/images/geography-color.gif
GRAPHI = Study
In geography one studies about the Earth and the interaction of man and nature. This subject is divided into 3 major parts.
Physical Geog:-Deals with the physical system of the Earth in relation to the Structure of the earth, the weather and its phenomena etc.
Human Geog: - Deals with the man and his activities on the surface of the Earth. It clearly stows the study of how much man converted nature according to his needs.
Economic Geog: - Deals with man's economical activities related to farming, trading, developing communications, transportation network, etc.
It is defined as the total number of people living in a particular place for a particular period of time.
Density of population.
It is defined as the number of people living per unit; sqkm area. It is calculated by the total population divided by the total area.
Crude Birth rate: Total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society. http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTFpu3QsuXIKYv1U75eSrLvjxiCdPLQ2qterP0lCoGVE0MWxRhq
Crude Death rate: Total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society.
Natural increase: The growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate-crude death rate.
Migration is the movement of people.
It is classified by such indices as:http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSsVBWrsmXRy1UT2gqPD4x45LLYDZQ98rr9rP1V-lc4itGxuy5QQQ
Reason for travel
Period of time of travel
Volume of migrants
Consequences of migration include:
Increased understanding between people of different cultures.
Increased animosity between people of different cultures
Changes in numbers of people at the destination and origin
Creation of ghettos in urban areas.
Consequences of Migration
These can be divided into 3 categories:
Changes in the numbers and distribution of people within a region are changed.
Inter marriages are created, leading to a new group of people.
Migration brings different people together leading to conflicts
Migration however also creates understanding between different groups of people
Rural- urban migration creates ghettos in cities.
This depends on the "quality" of the migrants and the economic needs of the origin and destination.
Quality refers to the skills, age, educational attainment, health etc.
In over populated areas, emigration is beneficial because it reduces the pressure on the land.
In under populated areas, emigration may slow down development.
Problems faced by Migrants
The type and quality of education available to these new residents are not appropriate.
Economic issues: lack of secure jobs that pay an often undocumented population and their resulting poor or crowded housing.
Isolation in immigrant and refugee communities: isolation from services that could help them, as well as emotional isolation due to stress.
Prejudice and discrimination that new immigrants and refugees report they face, as well as the cultural differences that may deter them from seeking and receiving services.
Q. What do you understand by farming?
A. Farming is the way people produce food by growing crops or rearing animals. There are various factors which affect farming such as labour, market, finance, climate, relief, soil, etc.
Types of farming. http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT7eDZKpD8cuFCZZNEn5xj0XizE3eXVjT1DFvfdyzEBRKnme3Mn
On the basis of the crops people grow and animals they rear, farming is divided into the following:
Arable farming: This farming is crop dominant farming and it includes sloughing of land, doing small scale farming etc.
Pastoral farming: It is animal dominant farming and the farmer leaves the land under grass for the grazing of animals or they move from one place to another searching for an appropriate place
Mixed Farming: When crops are grown and animals are reared in the same area or the left of arable farming is provided for pastoral farming and vice-versa.
Collecting and using natural resources.
E.g. farming, fishing, forestry, mining.
Industries that make or manufacture things by processing raw materials or assembling parts to make a finished producthttp://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSyy5256-OknDUHodxrqL7v1WuUomW5N6zYat_dnnZzXOZ2RVGs3A
E.g. Steel making, car assembly
Manufacturing is another name for this industry.
Activities that provide a service for people
E.g. teaching, nursing, retailing
Also known as the service industry
The proportion of people working in primary, secondary and tertiary activities is called the employment structure.
History of atoms
DEMOCRITUS'S ATOMIC THEORY
This is the Greek philosopher Democritus who began the search for a description of matter more than 2400 years ago. He asked: Could matter be divided into smaller and smaller pieces forever, or was there a limit to the number of times a piece of matter could be divided?
His theory: Matter could not be divided into smaller and smaller pieces forever; eventually the smallest possible piece would be obtained. This piece would be indivisible. He named the smallest piece of matter "atomos," meaning "not to be cut."
To Democritus, atoms were small, hard particles that were all made of the same material but were different shapes and sizes. Atoms were infinite in number, always moving and capable of joining together.
DALTON'S ATOMIC THEORY
John Dalton (1766-1844) was such a brilliant youth that he became an English school teacher when barely 12 years old.
He proposed the Atomic theory of matter based on his experimental observations. The main postulates of Dalton's atomic theory are as follows.
All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible.
All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties.
Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms.
A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms.http://profmokeur.ca/chimie/imchim/dalim.gif
Atoms can be neither created nor destroyed.
The Billiard Ball
THOMSON'S ATOMIC THEORY
Thomson's atomic theory proposed a model of atom which is known as plum pudding model or Christmas pudding or chocolate chip cookie model.
Till the end of the nineteenth century the concept of atom was similar to a small solid billiard ball.
In the year 1897 Joseph John Thomson (1856-1940) totally changed the view of an atom by discovering electron. Thomson's atomic theory suggested that the atom is not indivisible as it was of smaller pieces - electrons and protons.
An atom consists of a sphere of positive charge with negatively charged electron embedded in it.
The positive and the negative charges in an atom are equal in magnitude, due to which an atom is electrically neutral. It has no over all negative or positive charge.
The Plum Pudding
RUTHERFORD'S ATOMIC THEORY
100 years ago, on March 7, 1911, Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) presented a paper to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society accurately describing the structure of the atom. Based on an experiment he had performed - with totally unexpected results - he realized that the atom must have almost all of its mass concentrated at its center, in a nucleus, with the vast majority of the atom consisting chiefly of empty space.http://profmokeur.ca/chimie/imchim/Ruth2.gif
Two years earlier, in 1909, he had conducted an experiment with two other scientists, in which they studied the deflection angles of "alpha particles" that they shot through a microscopically thin layer of gold. Alpha particles are just helium atoms stripped of their 2 electrons.
He showed that while the nucleus contains virtually all of the mass of the atom, it only takes up one-billionth of the volume of the atom, an inconceivably tiny amount. Much smaller particles - electrons - orbit the nucleus at a great distance, relatively speaking.
Rutherford analogized his version of the atom, in contrast to the Thomson's atom, to a fly in a cathedral; it has since become known as the planetary model because electrons orbit the nucleus like planets around the Sun.
BOHR'S ATOMIC THEORY
Neils Bohr (1885-1962) refined Rutherford's model in 1913 by proposing that electrons:
orbit the nucleus without losing energy;
Could move only in fixed orbits of specific energies.
Electrons with low energy would orbit closer to the nucleus while electrons with high energy orbit further from the nucleus.
In 1932,Â James ChadwickÂ identified the neutron. The particle proposed by Rutherford as having significant mass and no charge. With the discovery of the neutron three subatomic particles were identified that would help explain observations made at the atomic level. One observation was the existence of radioactive variances of the same element.
How could two atoms of the same element have identical chemical properties but one be radioactive and the other not? A British scientistÂ Frederick SoddyÂ who made this observation called varieties of the same element isotopes.
Chadwick was now able to explain the existence of isotopes through his discovery of the neutron. Isotopes of the same element have the same number of protons and electrons but differ in the number of neutrons found in their nucleus.
The Quantum Model of the Atom
Although the Bohr model adequately explained how atomic spectra worked, there were several problems that bothered physicists and chemists:
Why should electrons be confined to only specified energy levels?
Why don't electrons give off light all of the time?
As electrons change direction in their circular orbits (i.e., accelerate), they should give off light.
The Bohr model could explain the spectra of atoms with one electron in the outer shell very well, but was not very good for those with more than one electron in the outer shell.
Why could only two electrons fit in the first shell and why eight electrons in each shell after that? What was so special about two and eight?
Obviously, the Bohr model was missing something!
In 1924, a French physicist namedÂ Louis de BroglieÂ suggested that, like light, electrons could act as both particles and waves. De Broglie's hypothesis was soon confirmed in experiments that showed electron beams could be diffracted or bent as they passed through a slit much like light could. So, the waves produced by an electron confined in its orbit about the nucleus sets up a standing wave of specific wavelength, energy and frequency (i.e., Bohr's energy levels) much like a guitar string sets up a standing wave when plucked.
Another question quickly followed de Broglie's idea. If an electron traveled as a wave, could you locate the precise position of the electron within the wave? A German physicist,Â Werner Heisenberg, answered no in what he called the uncertainty principle:
To view an electron in its orbit, you must shine a wavelength of light on it that is smaller than the electron's wavelength.
This small wavelength of light has a high energy.
The electron will absorb that energy.
The absorbed energy will change the electron's position.
We can never know both the momentum and position of an electron in an atom. Therefore, Heisenberg said that we shouldn't view electrons as moving in well-defined orbits about the nucleus!
With de Broglie's hypothesis and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in mind, an Austrian physicist namedÂ Erwin SchrödingerÂ derived a set of equations or wave functions in 1926 for electrons. According to Schrodinger, electrons confined in their orbits would set up standing waves and you could describe only the probability of where an electron could be. The distributions of these probabilities formed regions of space about the nucleus were called orbitals. Orbitals could be described as electron density clouds. The densest area of the cloud is where you have the greatest probability of finding the electron and the least dense area is where you have the lowest probability of finding the electron.
http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSqP3IU0Ch6H-xb4HJ_YxMRrrvwQ7LAszXiqHvqgXY9YUmgz2uZ_AModern model of an atom