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1b.) The freedom of individuals to make choices becomes problematic when those choices undermine the safety and stability of society. In A Clockwork Orange the state the characters live in is willing to protect its society by taking away freedom of choice and replacing it with prescribed good behavior. In Alex's world, both the power of the individual and the power of the state prove to be dangerous throughout the movie. Alex steals, rapes, and murders merely because it feels good to him and he almost considers it a hobby of great enjoyment, but when his violent impulses are taken away in a rehabilitation center, the result is equally as dangerous. This occurs because his natural impulse to kill has been taken away so Alex does not know how to act or think and this causes him to become an even bigger monster. This is apparent in our society as well. When a criminal is put in a jail for a crime they are eventually released back into society after serving an allotted amount of time. Usually the criminal within the first six months commits a similar crime and is put back in jail. Just like Alex, a criminal that has an inborn desire to do harm to society will always have impulses to do so.
The minister of the interior stands on one side of Alex, and supports an ordered society, but the prison chaplain and Mr. Alexander stand on the other supporting freedom of choice even with the negative consequences that go along with it. The minister of the interior argues that government should have the power to bring law and order to the streets, and that questions of individual liberty are not significant when dealing with creating safety and order in their society. He thinks since Alex made his victims struggle for his own sick pleasure that he does not need to give Alex any kind of freedom, but the minister's own decisions of abusing power, such as hiring policemen that don't obey the law themselves and imprisoning political opponents, disrupts his argument. Mr. Alexander however, argues for the protection of individual liberty, but he becomes hypocritical in his point that he is trying to make when he becomes more than willing to sacrifice Alex in order to make his party happy. The prison chaplain seems more genuine in his defense of the right of individuals to make moral choices, but his stubborn ignorance of Alex's true potential makes him seem like he doesn't know what he is talking about. Throughout A Clockwork Orange, the film forces us to weigh the values and dangers of both individual liberty and state control, and consider how much liberty we're willing to give up for order, and how much order we're willing to give up for liberty.
I feel like in our society today we are dealing with the same issue. Everyday murderers and rapists are charged and placed in maximum security prison or on death row. We as a society seem like we couldn't care less about people charged with these crimes and are basically branded as an automatic bad person and they will be labeled as that for the rest of their lives. We don't care what they did before they committed their crime because our society feels that violence and especially violence involving sex is the worst possible act you can put upon another human.
2.) The most prominent reason given for genetic engineering is its potential use in preventative medicine. A few cells from an embryo could be genetically analyzed to detect harmful mutation towards a disorder and then the doctor could see that and change that before the birth of a child. Schizophrenia has been shown to run in families and sometimes even adopted children of schizophrenic parents are ten times more likely to develop schizophrenia, regardless of whether or not their adoptive parents are affected. Lastly, birth defects such as downs syndrome could be eliminated through genetic engineering.
Due to relatively recent historical events, including predominantly the practices of the Nazis before and during World War 2, eugenics is rightly seen as a major risk to developing genetic engineering technology. Eighteen percent of people interviewed in the United Kingdom said that if they could choose, they would make their child less likely to exhibit aggressive or alcoholic behavior. If the gene could be isolated that causes these two problems then it could altered in a way that would benefit the child but isolating the gene and manipulating it is very difficult and even if it were to happen there is no guarantee that it would be successful throughout the child's entire life. By looking at these facts, genetics could be seen as highly unlikely to provide a complete positive quality.
Also whether genetic engineering is undertaken for good or bad must be considered. In the recent experiments in cloning Dolly, many of the mistrials were forgotten or not told to society because of the severe harm that was done to the lamb and its mother. And finally thought must be given to the psychological trauma that may result from any genetic choice made; family members of victims of Huntington's disease sometimes display signs of guilt that they have escaped a positive diagnosis while their loved one must suffer, much like the survivor of a major natural disaster feeling guilty that they lived while many others did not. The idea of eugenics is related to the chaos theory because everything we change about a person genetically will affect us in the future. For example if we completely get rid of a disease genetically then a new disease will begin because we got rid of that one. Usually the new disease that occurs is usually worse than the original that was gotten rid of genetically. Researchers predict that if we keep genetically altering diseases and getting rid of them and worse diseases are made that one day we will create a disease we have no management or cure for and it will wipe out our species.
3.) John Stuart Mills wrote guidelines about how he felt a society should be structured and how it should be ran. Some of his beliefs one can relate to our government in our present society. One of the beliefs is that the government should not be able to control you and you should be able to do whatever you want. In our society today our government does decide what we can and cannot due but we are more free than ever in our society to do what we want and we have less restrictions then we have had ever in our past. Mill also opposed the sensory of speech. Mills believed that everyone has an opinion and everyone should be able to voice that opinion as they feel fit. In today's society we are able to voice our opinions in all kinds of different civil ways. Everyone in our society might not listen but anyone is allowed to voice whatever they believe in and no one has the right to stop them. Another belief by Mills that can be observed in our society today is his idea of liberty. Mills had an idea that a person can do whatever they want as long as they are not harming another human being. This theory can be observed in our society today because people are usually able to do whatever they want as long they are not endangering another human being.
Unlike Mills, a man named Karl Marx also created theories about how a government should be structured and ran. Marx had a very strong belief in communism which in America's society is not prominent which is a good thing. In a government ran by communism everyone receives the same pay and the same amount of material objects. In a government ran by communism everyone is supposed to be treated in an equal way since everyone has the same amount of everything. In America however, we frown upon the idea of communism because there is no advancement. America runs on everyone working hard trying to advance themselves. If every had reached their maximum potential like in a communism government then people would not cooperate or work as hard. An example of communism in America could be minimum wage. If someone works a minimum wage job then usually there is not much opportunity in advancement unlike other jobs that don't pay minimum wage there is usually always a chance of receiving a raise in salary. Another theory by Marx is that the government will regulate society's general production. An example of this is America can be related to our produce intake. With our crashing economy today the price of produce goods has escalated and buying a certain food item out of season can cost an outstanding price difference then a food that is grown I season and around the area where you are buying from. Another one of Marx beliefs was in class struggle. In America different classes struggle more than others. Since we do not live in a communism ran government we are not all given equal opportunities so the lower class struggles more in life then the high class would.
4.) Every society's standards and laws are based on some kind of form of religion. Throughout European history, we have seen many society's under the control of the church, and many governments trying to control the church. The key element in the running of countries societies is religion. Even not believing in a religion is a religion. Religion defines who we are and how we live our lives. While such controls might be good for us, religion is important in the shaping of our society as we know it today, and as how we knew it in the past. These days the amount of faith a person has in their own religion has led to inhuman behavior. Difference of opinions in religious matters has caused riots and wars and has confused many in the amount of violence that has been caused.
Believing in religion can be important in someones life and can helpo them beomce happy because of the comfort it may bring. If religion is important in anyone's life, it should be evident in their behavior and not just in their words. People should show people how much they love God rather than telling them. If religion is truly important in someone's life then it should be able to be observed by all.