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Definitions and Typologies of Organizational Culture

3238 words (13 pages) Essay in Organisations

08/02/20 Organisations Reference this

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Organizational culture: What is Organizational Culture; it is just the way we do things around in an organisation. Every organisation does things in their own distinctive way. For example, the way they organise themselves, the working environment office lay out, the uniform, how they recruit, how they talk, how they give training, how they deal with their business, every organisation does things in their own way and some organisation does things in some distinctive way .In some cases it could be advantageous and in some cases it will not be. We have seen this in every organisation, as we have come across as an employee, worker or as a customer. Organizational researchers point out that the culture of an organization is real. They also advocate that organization has characteristics similar like people, for instance, organizations can be supple or not flexible, concerned and unfriendly. Immediately without any hesitation we might share our views and description which is primarily connected with the organizations culture, we might talk about people whom we work with, to whom we report to, the benefits and the facilities that we get from the workplace, and the behaviour of people towards your work and success and how do they acknowledged your achievements, your career endeavours and flexibility towards your work schedule. All the above descriptions will indicate the person to whom you describe your organization is in reality. So, it is vital to supply the information of an organizational culture and it is vital to define the chapter.

Definitions and Components of Organisational culture.

Lunenburg (2011) provides the total elements and features that will give a clear picture of organisational culture.Observed behavioural regularities, while the members of the organisation communicate with each other, the usage of similar languages, the accent, and religious cultures pertaining to the respect that they give to their own community and people is also acknowledged by the other members of the organisation.

Norms, are the basic rules, set of methods, process or procedures that revolve around the organizational culture, it is followed by the work groups which are acceptable and paves way much before, typically wherein a decision is involved. The influence of the behaviours which are agreed by the group members results in certain criteria and standards. Dominant values., and organisation culture promotes by standing behind and look forward for the members to be a part in providing values, ideas and suggestions. Philosophy, in an organization culture, the rules and policies provide how employees and customers has to be handled, for instance a school or an organisation will have a mission statement and they will be directed and rooted accordingly. Rules, are the guidelines on how to move around with the members while working in an organisation, and on how a new comer has to learn the procedures and the flow of process of the behavioural patterns to become an accepted member. Climate, it is an overall atmosphere which is comprehensive, which changes in a short span of time, and it can be influenced by the higher management in an organisation. Culture reflects the behaviour of an organisation whereas climate depends on the mood of the organisation. Steinhoff and Owens (1989) formed four unique culture parameters that explain on how these features can be connected with a culture which has more contradictory cultures and they could be found in some of the public educational institutions.

Lunenburg (2011) continues with a particular importance to the principal values of the organizational culture. He adds more by highlighting the findings of Deal and Kennedy (1984), in order to describe the creation of organizational culture and its four dimensions, Valuesthebasic standards that manage the behaviour of the organization and its members. Bulach, Lunenburg, & Potter (2012) notes that terminal value is something wherein the organization members longs for it to achieve. Few examples of terminal values are quality, excellence, and success and most of the schools adopt these values for their success rate. Lunenburg & Ornstein (2012) adds that an value that is influential is the technique or a strategy which is handled as the tact of behaviour and most schools acknowledge and it involves hard way of working, unique teaching , student courtesy showing equal respect , developing creativity , forming team work and by managing an complete set of standards and yardsticks. Thus the composition of both terminal and instrumental values will lead to a more significant achievement.

A Successful organization has their heroes, they are born or created. Heroes make something indefinitely in the organizations towards the underlying values, they are a role model, representing the organization to others, and set performance standards that drive participant achievement, and they continuously upgrade their skills. Rites and Rituals are a kind of activity and celebrations that distinguish the nature of the organization and by doing this kind of activities and rituals the acknowledgment and the success rate is highly possible. Communication Networks involve the way how to communicate and influence one another through various other ways of providing information, this is carried out by all the members of an organization, and when the interpretation of information happens it impacts the way on how the listener perceives.

Schien (2010) sets out with a lengthy explanation of the significance of organizational culture while pursuing success in any kind of organization. He introduces three levels of the organization.

Artifacts – It is one of the most comfortable levels wherein one can notice while getting into an organization, the visible elements like what he see, hear or feel, the way they behave towards him/her or among themselves, at this level of artifacts it is very transparent and does have an immediate psychological impact

Espoused beliefs and values, analysing this level of culture one should understand on how to distinguish carefully, with those that are agreeable to the assumptions and with those that are part of the ideology and philosophy of the organisation or with those that required an attempt to justify behaviours with logical reasons or stepping towards the hope for the future and the ability to expertise with the concepts of the organisation which provides the definition and gives the complete sense of an organisation..

Basic Underlying Assumptions, this level of assumption is underneath and by which it is surrounded by all the other levels and holds within. Hatch & Schultz (2004) insists that the underlying assumptions are shared and it allows functioning as a group and as an individual and letting its members with a basic sense of self -identity and defines the set of values that gives self esteem.

Typologies of organization culture, Brundrett M & Rhodes C (2011) authors explored on quality leadership and accountability towards education, by searching the role of leadership to construct an organizational culture which includes a demanding quality and improvisation by strengthening the learner outcomes. Leaders have to understand that it is a process and not a position and when they become leaders they first have to understand the cause and the formation of the prevailing cultural conditions, and then if he wants any change he has to take efforts to restructure and had to understand the aims and how to achieve it. The attempt of leaders to modify culture requires a crucial study of how the changes will benefit culturally also in the structure of the organisation if it requires further development which has to be successful and constant. The authors are pursuing to define the term culture and to explore links between leadership and the development of a culture of quality, by doing so they explore culture, quality and ethos, leadership, learning communities and cultural change, leadership, developing a culture of quality and school improvement, leadership, developing a culture of quality and improvement in the further and higher education sectors. Tschannen-Moran (2014) advocates that trust is an integral part of an organizational culture especially where people belonging to a working group community. The author provides five elements that are crucial factors in shaping the culture of trust, it is the confidence and the integrity a person receives from another person. Benevolence, it involves Caring, it manages and be flexible to gain Goodwill and it Supporting teachers without any unfair notion, it continuously expresses appreciation. It is being fair and possesses an Unconditional positive regard. Honesty it showcases integrity, it demands and expects to tell the truth, always try to keep up the promises. Flexibility and adjustability by Honouring agreements, the original statements are discussed with perfect authenticity and it accepts responsibility along with duties. Openness, encourages Open communication, it welcomes by Sharing important information, Delegating the roles and responsibilities , decision making is distributed with all of others views and ideas, the authority is also shared Reliability, it drives an organized environment with routines and Consistency, the Dependability with each other and the Commitment and Dedication towards the work . Competence, it proves the one while handling difficult situations, and when issues raise the Problems solving and the ability to resolve the conflict and being adaptable and flexible by moulding oneself by working hard. Collegiality is a concept we can draw on to help understand organizational and group cultures. Brundrett (1998) provides a starting place for us with collegiality and raises a critical point for consideration. The perceived benefits of collegiality, it is claimed that collegiality best suits for schools and colleges since it comprises of significant people who are intellectual. Trained and professionally experienced. The professional power has a traditional significance and the autonomy of teachers is the central characteristics of the professional life, says Hoyle (1986).

Collaboration and contrived collegiality discussed by Amanda Datnow (2011) highlights the work of

Hargreaves (1994) definitions of collaborative cultures and contrived collegiality.

Collaborative cultures according to Hargreaves (1994) Administered, supported and facilitated, but sustained by the teaching community, Working together is productive and enjoyable, avoiding compulsion instead perceives it differently, Aim to work together, instead of implementing the motive of others. The Effect of collaboration is uncertain and unpredictable.

Contrived collegiality according to Hargreaves (1994) Administrative regulations will streamline working together but not happens naturally. Collaborative work of teachers helps them to reach for directions and guide from the other members of the group.

Considering the consequences of the latest reform movements on the professional impact of recent educational reform with the professional working culture of teachers, it is proven that delegating, sharing and investigating additional information’s on the students takes more time of the teachers apart from their work schedule.

Pollack (2011) explains more deeply about the level of informations that gets supplied will be more when more additional time is spent on. As we are already aware that a continuous interactions between teachers, and between teachers and students plays an significant role in the students achievement, however it ends up with an additional work. Adding on, the usage of data and technology consumes more time whereas, it will be more ease and flexible if interacted directly with learners.

Describing my organization culture, I worked at Accenture a consulting and technology firm for about six years, before getting into the education sector. The motive and vision of the organization are primarily written on all the floors, walls and buildings, across the globe, they allow the people to lead, the knowledge to innovate, the vision to transform. My organisation finds solutions to all its customers on any competitive difficult situation, with their continuous change in organisational behaviour they were able to get partnered and collaborate with the Best Global 500 Organisation, who implements to develop the strategies of working atmosphere. Experts from different economic activity including production, manufacturing and all sort of business functions and the organization was able to provide and supply an remarkable change and could face the new demands in the world of digital technology. Through the core values they build the culture of the organization, and they work with their individual behaviours. The culture by itself educates us on how we need to react to situations and shape ourselves by handling decisions. All the clients are valued customers, and they treat on how to develop highly challenged business with an aim to create a strong connection by responding to the queries, and to attain their level of expectations. The extraordinary service to clients by connecting the global network and produce the expanding technique of business is the prior culture of the has to get equalised with the actions and attempting to take the responsibility is also fostered. The responsibility of managing the staff and taking the initiatives to make arrangements for a better and healthy working environment which should aim for a more stronger company in forth coming generations, living with brand Accenture, attaining the spromises of delivering the business. Upholding the strategies of business, and the portals, aiding to develop communities in an worldly environment. They build corporate culture, make leaders identify and explore their capabilities and talents , shape them up with training and opportunities, develop them by giving exposure at the workplace and recognizing them for their achievements and to create an impact with th new members who joins the organization and set as an model. Their achievements are quite big, which involves a transparency roles and responsibilities, of working atmosphere, strong employer. Dedicate themselves to achieve positive way in creating citizens of corporate culture who change with the impact of the organisation culture

Schein (2010) Organizational Culture framework, the architecture and the physical layout, the brand ambassadors, slogans, pictures, statements on the walls, ceremonies, all that when we get into this organization, will be seen and one can feel it and it will be demonstrated very clearly. This culture cannot be recognized to those who are not part of the organization , whenever we step out of the workstation like the elevator space, the lobby we can see the similar artifacts, the same artifacts will be seen all over the branch offices throughout the globe. Schein advocates that culture is a design of basic assumption which is created, innovated and formed by a group of people and it gets adapted on how to deal with the issues related to internal integration and external adaptation by which it was successful to give training to a new member exactly in the similar way if those same issues occur again, and on how to response to it is an effective way.The new member who enters into the organization primarily completes all the orientations, trainings and workshops and feels confident when enters into his workstation, and starts working in groups together. Respecting the individual, Valuing diversity, Ideal people, Integrity and stewardship these are the values that the organisation possess has its root culture and they try its best to reinforce to the new members of the organisation and get them trained. The power and the stableness of the members in the group is connected and related on how the groups was together since the formation of the group members and the changes and restructure that has happened when leadership changes but the members are strongly rooted with the values and culture from the previous group and these vibrant of team work cannot be measured and understand by the new member, sometimes the assumptions are liberal and not explained Schein also refers to the group of members formed on the assumptions of the things that has occurred before and how the members in the group had reacted to it .When something happens in the organisation good or bad, the group responds, and if the response yields something positive they group together and tend to respond in the similar way to the same kind of situation. Basic underlying Assumptions, the assumptions are reinforced based on groups own experiences and perception of success and failure, Assumptions as discussed by Schein, he refers to two kinds of critical incidents the groups has to cope up with, external adaptation, the members having issues from outside the group, it could be the competitor of Accenture in various business, consulting, technology, digital or operations, new regulations that affect other business groups, these problems are solved and settled in groups. On the other hand, Internal Integration are similar but occur inside the group and among the members who could be a new member or an individual who has worked in the organisation for a few successful years, on the other hand these problems are dealt with individuals working as a group together and the essence of victory and unsuccessful situations are overcome by them internally in the organization , and when they involve themselves with others they get trained and then become equipped to do things in an effective manner and solve the issues raised and will have control over them and it is always widely seen when the organisation announces and declare the achievers with some criteria on an weekly, quarterly and sometimes on yearly basis also, they get competitions conflicts, wherein the organisation has parameters in which parameters are they graded and awarded for their accomplishments and achievements and moreover they also declare in which ways it has helped the success of the organisation.


So as you will see culture is sophisticated, it is more profound and it is hard that it is not possible to see and it is very tough to change , but it cannot change if the members of the group decided to change and alter their underlying assumptions and decisions, by responding to problems and issues differently in the future and it should be better than the way it was reacted in the past with the similar kind of issues and should compare the outcomes and thus the leadership is not natural and which is why Schein has focused his research on aiding leadership in organization culture. After the readings of Schein, the organization in which I will be stepping in my life will have three questions based on his culture model, what artifacts can I see? Which values supports these artifacts? What underlying assumptions are formed and reinforced by those values?


  • Brundrett, M. (1998). What lies behind collegiality, legitimation or control?
    Educational Management & Administration, 26(3), 305-316.
  • Brundrett, M., & Rhodes, C. (2011). Leadership for quality and accountability in
    education. London: Routledge.
  • Datnow, A. (2011). Collaboration and contrived collegiality: Revisiting Hargreaves in the age of accountability. Journal of Educational Change, 12(2), 147-158.
  • Lunenburg, F. C. (2011). Understanding organizational culture: A key leadership asset. National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision
    Journal, 29(4), 1 -12.
  • Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership (4th ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Tschannen-Moran, M. (2014). Trust matters: Leadership for successful schools (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
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