Issue of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in North America

2414 words (10 pages) Essay in Nutrition

08/02/20 Nutrition Reference this

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Introduction

The syndrome is a problem which is brought about by risky taking of alcohol during the prenatal. The syndrome is characterized by the retarded mental and physical development in the face and skull of the child. However, poor nutrition is a challenge because the nutrients play a significant role in the development of the fetus. Ireland has reported the highest prevalence rate of the syndrome and the global prevalence rate is at 14.6 per 10,000 people. An estimation of about 40,000 newborns is affected by the FAS annually. The research will study the relationship between access to proper nutrition and the rate of fetal alcohol syndrome in North America.

The research applies to various states of North America where there is a high prevalence of FAS. Currently, in North America, approximately 4.7% of pregnant women are drunkards. The research focuses on the states of California, Texas, and Alaska where the FAS is increasing at a rapid rate. The evaluation of the relationship between poor nutrition and an increase in fetal alcohol syndrome will offer insight to counter the problem of FAS in the states of North America.

The optimal maternal nutrition is essential to the development of the fetus but its affected by the alcohol consumption. The issues of food insecurity, malnutrition, and risky drinking elevate the risk of FAS. The low food intake for the pregnant mother contributes to the weak growth of the child and increases the effects of the FAS. If the fetus is already affected by the syndrome, then high-calorie foods serve as the catch-up growth approach. Appropriate consumption of the essential nutrients like Vitamin A and Iron play a significant role in lowering the rate of fetal alcohol syndrome.

The research is more concerned with the relationship which exists between the proper nutrition and rate of fetal alcohol syndrome in North America. The essential approaches and nutrition ideas which the pregnant women and children with FAS should adapt to counter the challenge of the syndrome in contemporary American society. I hope to learn the impact of the increasing rate of the FAS in united states and the various nutrition approaches which can be applied to handle the situation. The research will also provide essential understanding of different nutritious foods which the child should have access to lower the effects of the fetal alcohol syndrome. The study will also help in the learning of distinct ways to prevent the high prevalence of FAS in the states of North America, for instance, creating awareness (Mulvihill & Yeager, 1977).

The paper will address various areas which are related to the nutrition as well as the fetal alcohol syndrome. The research will focus on the essence of availing nutritious meals to both the pregnant mothers and children who are already affected by the FAS. The paper will also evaluate numerous approaches which the pregnant women can focus to lower the excessive consumption of alcohol in North America. The research assesses the various data collection approaches in the states of North America regarding the connection between proper nutrition and existing rates of fetal alcohol syndrome.

Literature Review

Bullows, J. A. (1997). Fetal alcohol syndrome — diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention, treatment. Midwifery13(1), 49. doi:10.1016/s0266-6138(97)90045-0

The book provides a report requested by the US Congress regarding the FAS concerns and magnitude of the problem. The nutrition approach can be used in the prevention and treatment of the FAS. The FAS prevalence is increasing in North America at a rapid rate and hence proper diagnosis, prevention and treatment should be provided in those states. The book is essential to the research because it offers detailed information regarding the rates of FAS prevalence and various approaches to counter the challenge.

Dreosti, I. E. (1993). Nutritional Factors Underlying the Expression of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences678(1 Maternal Nutr), 193-204. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632. 1993.tb26122.x

The consumption of alcohol affects the development of the fetus and alcohol was prohibited for the pregnant women since ancient times. Nutrition factors also contribute to both the development of the embryo and to counter the effect of excessive consumption of alcohol. The journal is essential in our research because it offers a clear relationship on how proper nutrition lowers the rate of FAS.

Godfrey, K. M., & Barker, D. J. (2000). Fetal nutrition and adult disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition71(5), 1344S-1352S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/71.5.1344s

The proper fetal nutrition is essential because it determines the health status of an adult. The fetus who are fed with proper nutrition is in a position to handle the effect of FAS as compared to the ones with poor nutrition. The journal is crucial in the research because it supplies a vast understanding of the essence in proper nutrition for the fetus also various approaches the proper nutrition lowers high prevalence of FAS.

Hanson, J. W. (1976). Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. JAMA235(14), 1458. doi:10.1001/jama.1976.03260400024021

Research conducted demonstrates that the fetus suffering from the FAS develop facial and mental abnormalities. The pregnant alcoholic women expose the fetus to the risk of syndrome especially if they are not feeding on the nutritious meals. The chronic alcoholics are exposing the children to the dangers of fetal alcohol syndrome. The journal is important in this research since it offers the abnormalities which are associated with excessive consumption of alcohol for the pregnant women and the importance of proper nutrition to the unborn.

Jones, K., & Smith, D. (1973). RECOGNITION OF THE FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME IN EARLY INFANCY. The Lancet, 302(7836), 999-1001. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(73)91092-1

The prenatal nature of early onset growth deficiency is associated with fetal alcohol. The joint malposition and brain defects are also caused by the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. The journal is essential in this research by providing the recognition of FAS at early childhood and coming up with treatment and prevention measures.

A., Tabachnick, B. G., Gossage, J. P., Kalberg, W. O., Marais, A., Robinson, L. K., … Hoyme, H. E. (2011). Maternal risk factors are predicting child physical characteristics and dysmorphology in fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 119(1-2), 18-27. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.05.009

The consumption of alcohol places the fetus at the risk of suffering from FAS. North America has an increasing prevalence rate of fetal alcohol syndrome. The journal is vital to be applied in our research because it provides reliable statistics of FAS prevalence in North America. The journal also provides factors contributing to the increased rate of FAS in America.

MULVIHILL, J. J., & YEAGER, A. M. (1977). FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME. OBSTETRICAL & GYNECOLOGICAL SURVEY, 32(3), 151-152.

The standard features of the FAS are postnatal and prenatal growth retardation, mental deficiency among other impediments. However, mental deficiency is the most severe defect associated with the syndrome. The survey demonstrates the need to ensure the children and women feed on nutritious meals to counter the effects of fetal alcohol syndrome. The journal is sufficient to be used in the research in developing the relationship between the elevating influences of FAS and proper nutrition.

Rhind, S. (2004). Effects of maternal nutrition on fetal and neonatal reproductive development and function. Animal Reproduction Science, 82-83, 169-181. doi: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2004.04.003

The undernutrition in before and after pregnancy affects the development of the offspring. The fetus with proper nutrition develops healthily. If the fetus is vulnerable to the fetal alcohol syndrome, sufficient nutrition can help to minimize the prevalence of the FAS. Therefore, the journal is essential to be used in the research because it offers a connection between good nutrition and low FAS rates.

Sampson, P. D., Streissguth, A. P., Bookstein, F. L., Little, R. E., Clarren, S. K., Dehaene, P., … Graham, J. M. (1997). The incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome and prevalence of the alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Teratology, 56(5), 317-326. doi:10.1002/(sic)1096-9926

The fetal alcohol exposure is a serious challenge in North America and requires to be addressed. Feeding appropriately offers an opportunity for the fetus to develop well and alcohol consumption leads to the retardation in the development of the fetus. Hence, the journal should be used in the research because it demonstrates proper nutrition leads to lower rates of FAS and essential approaches to counter the challenge.

Wu, G., Bazer, F. W., Cudd, T. A., Meininger, C. J., & Spencer, T. E. (2004). Maternal Nutrition and Fetal Development. The Journal of Nutrition, 134(9), 2169-2172. doi:10.1093/jn/134.9.2169

Teenage pregnant women grow as the fetus, and hence they compete with the fetus for the fetal blood flows, transfer of the oxygen and nutrients. The same alcohol can be consumed by the fetus and lead to fatal problems. The good nutrition is essential in the development of the fetus and helps to eliminate the effects of FAS. The journal is important in our research by providing and broad understanding of FAS effects and connection with proper nutrition.

Methodological Decision making

The data collection methods in this research included the fisher interviews and the port surveys. The observation and obtaining the clinical records from the health institutions in various states of North America to demonstrate the relationship between proper nutrition and rate of FAS prevalence. 30 biological mothers of the children suspected to have FAS were also interviewed on the maternal risk variables and the feeding of the child. Both the evaluative and inferential observations played a significant role in the collection of data. The evaluative scrutiny was applied to make inferences on the behaviors and effects of FAS to the newborns like bone dispositioning (Jones & Smith, 1973).

The retarded development was identified via the anecdotal observations. The children were selected at random to create a sample in determining the rate of FAS prevalence in the North American States. The testing of IQ for the 50 children suffering from FAS was also conducted to assess the effect of mental development. The questionnaires and surveys are the primary instruments applied in the research with an intention to collect information on behaviors and demographics. Sufficient data were collected to make relevant inferences on the relationship between proper nutrition and the rate of FAS in North America.

Ethical Considerations during Field-Work

The research has maintained the moral codes during the field work because the survey did not cause harm to the subjects. The appropriate and necessary permissions were granted by both the institution and the patients also the interviews and observations were made with their consent. The records belonging to the patients are preserved, and confidentiality has been maintained. The relationship with the subjects was professional, and high respect was also supported. Honesty and being open to the research we were conducting also ensured the study was performed within the ethical boundaries.

Implications of the Findings

The proper nutrition has been observed to lower the rate of fetal alcohol syndrome in North America. The FAS has severe effects on the children which involve mental deficiency, stunted growth in face and skull. Feeding the children with appropriate nutrients can counter the challenge of fetal alcohol syndrome. The pregnant women should lower alcohol consumption and adhere to the prevention and treatment interventions (Rhind, 2004). The statistics demonstrate that North America has an increasing rate of FAS prevalence. However, the level is reducing as the parents feed the children with the proper nutrients. The research is significant to the pregnant women who take alcohol on the need to stop and make nutritious meals to ensure appropriate development of the fetus. The government should regulate the consumption of alcohol for pregnant women to reduce the number of children suffering from the severe effects of FAS (Kansal & Miller, 2001).

References

  • Bullows, J. A. (1997). Fetal alcohol syndrome — diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention, treatment. Midwifery13(1), 49. doi:10.1016/s0266-6138(97)90045-0
  • DOSTI, I. E. (1993). Nutritional Factors Underlying the Expression of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences678(1 Maternal Nutr), 193-204. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb26122.x
  • Godfrey, K. M., & Barker, D. J. (2000). Fetal nutrition and adult disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition71(5), 1344S-1352S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/71.5.1344s
  • Jones, K., & Smith, D. (1973). RECOGNITION OF THE FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME IN EARLY INFANCY. The Lancet302(7836), 999-1001. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(73)91092-1
  • Kansal, S., & Miller, M. (2001). Bilateral Duane Syndrome with bilateral congenital glaucoma. Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus5(5), 325-326. doi:10.1067/mpa.2001.117569
  • MULVIHILL, J. J., & YEAGER, A. M. (1977). FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME. OBSTETRICAL & GYNECOLOGICAL SURVEY32(3), 151-152. doi:10.1097/00006254-197703000-00011
  • Rhind, S. (2004). Effects of maternal nutrition on fetal and neonatal reproductive development and function. Animal Reproduction Science82-83, 169-181. doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2004.04.003
  • Sampson, P. D., Streissguth, A. P., Bookstein, F. L., Little, R. E., Clarren, S. K., Dehaene, P., … Graham, J. M. (1997). The incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome and prevalence of the alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Teratology56(5), 317-326. doi:10.1002/(sic)1096-9926
  • Wu, G., Bazer, F. W., Cudd, T. A., Meininger, C. J., & Spencer, T. E. (2004). Maternal Nutrition and Fetal Development. The Journal of Nutrition134(9), 2169-2172. doi:10.1093/jn/134.9.2169
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