Effect of Coffee on Health

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8th Feb 2020 Nutrition Reference this

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That is the second most consumed beverage after water? The answer to that is Coffee. Commonly it is known as beverage consumed to relax and to make mornings easier. Although it is also known as an energy booster, to cure headaches, hang overs and allows one to go about their day after a restless night of sleep. It is believed to be a source that stimulates neurotransmitters such as dopamine. This is a neurotransmitter that helps the brain’s reward and pleasure center, thus leading to our body feeling pleasure after a cup of coffee which is why it is addictive.

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This topic is important as it mentions reasons from a yes perspective and no perspective if it is beneficial to health. For the no side Speculations or myths, can be solved, and it can be used as a form of treatment. As for the yes side it can help prevent addiction also the several diseases that can put one’s life in danger. It is a way to introduce this topic to individuals to be aware of the effects rather than being clueless in what one is consuming or believing the myths. So, the real question to ask, does coffee have a bad impact on health?

 

  1. Evidence for the “yes” side:

 Pre-mature ventricle contractions (PVC) are when the heart stimulates extra beats in the chambers of the ventricles also known as arrhythmia. Consistent premature contractions lead to dangerous heart rhythms and cardiac death. 1 A study has shown that consuming high amount of coffee on daily leads to a dangerous factor of Ventricular Arrhythmia. An experimental study was performed in 1985 using 18 patients who had frequent PVC (experimental group) and 18 patients who did not have PVC (control group). Patients were given about 1mg/kg of caffeine serval times during the day in a period of weeks. After every week they were given a Holter monitor to measure the ectopy for 24h period. The results demonstrated that the experimental group had an increase in the number of PVC/hours; from 207±350 to 307±414 PVC/hour, while controls did not have an increase in ectopy. This proves the fact that consumption of coffee will lead to a more dangerous risk factor to those diagnosed with premature ventricle contractions.2

 

 Homocysteine is an amino acid that is in the blood. Consuming coffee allows the concentration of homocysteine to increase leading to cardiovascular disease.3 A study was conduct on 26 individuals between the ages of 18-53-year-old individuals, performed using a randomized cross over design. The individuals and were asked to consume 1L per day of paper filtered coffee brewed with 70g ground beans or no coffee at all for 4 weeks straight. The results showed that the mean (+/-SD) of the plasma concentration of homocysteine in the blood for those who didn’t consume coffee was 8.1 +/- 1.8 micromol/L. While the mean for those who did drink coffee for the 4-week period had 9.6 +/- 2.9 micromol/L of concentration in their blood. The difference in between the two groups were about 1.5 micromol/L of concentration. Therefore, this study demonstrated that drinking coffee raises the plasma concentration of homocysteine in healthy individuals leading to higher risk to cause a heart disease.4

 

 Consuming coffee daily allows a higher possible risk factor for loss of bone mass. This was assessed in a group of study of 619 individuals of 70-year-old men and women who were examined with dual photon absorptiometry. The study of the population was performed through interviews between the patient and occupational therapists and physical therapists. The patients were asked to consume coffee, amongst other dairy products. The results after the data was collected between the individuals who consumed > 3 cups daily vs < 2 cups daily indicated that there was a decrease in BMC after an increase of consuming coffee. This study proved majority have led to the loss of bone mass/marrow due to daily drinking of caffeine and it has led to a long-term effect after assessed through a dual photon absorptiometry.5

  1. Evidence for the “no” side:

 Parkinson disease is a dynamic disorder in relation to the nervous system, influencing the movement of your body. To prevent this, the consumptions of coffee helps decrease the risk of Parkinson’s disease. A study was performed, and it revealed that those who did not drink coffee are 3-5 times likely to develop Parkinson’s disease than those who did not consume any coffee. 6 This study was conducted for 30 years of follow ups from 8004 individuals aged between 45-68 years old who were enrolled in prospective longitudinal Honolulu heart program. The study involved measuring the amount of coffee intake vs no coffee in takes following yearly checkups. They discovered that the rate Parkinson disease decreased as the intake of coffee increased. This was evident when the results showed that the rate decreased from 10.4 per 8004 person/years in men who didn’t consume coffee to 1.9 rate per 8004 person/years who drank at least 28 oz/day. 7

 Hepatocytes is known as the main component of cells in the liver that allow the process of functioning to occur. Coffee helps protect hepatocytes from being damaged, which prevents the liver from developing cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is known to be a disease that occurs when liver is damage.6 An data analysis study was taken place from 1994 – 1998 from patients who were admitted to 19 hospitals due to signs of cirrhosis. Data was collected based on cigarette used, intake of alcohol, intake of caffeine, and hepatitis B and C infection. The results statically proved that lower cirrhosis risk with higher coffee intake. The ratios of Liver Cirrhosis decreased from 1.0 to 0.47. 8

 Type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs mainly in adults, but it is evident in adolescents passed down by genetics. Type 2 diabetes mellitus forms when the body is unable to control the production of insulin made from the pancreas.9 Consumption of coffee reduces the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. A cohort study was taken from the nurses’ health study and the health professionals follow up study’s. This study was conducted on 41,934 men from the ages of 20-32 and 84,276 women from the ages of 20-38. None of these individuals were diagnosed with any type of diabetes. This study used a control group and an experimental group to design the study using validated questionnaires. The control group did not consume any coffee, while the experimental group consumed coffee. Each group was assessed every 2-4 years. The results showed in the experimental group that 1333 men and 4085 women were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. According to the data it suggested that consumption of coffee is associated with lower risk of type 2 of diabetes mellitus.10

  1. Comparison of the “yes vs. no” evidence:

 To assess whether or not which side favours or opposes towards the topic question of this essay if through the results of the experiments and designs used. The results from the PVC study shown that it can only be dangerous to health if the individual is already diagnosed with PVC. This evidence clarifies that it does not necessarily prevent PVC from occurring. Meanwhile, the study that was conducted for Parkinson disease, does convey that it will reduce the risk of getting Parkinson disease. The differences between the two is that coffee actually helps Parkinson disease more than PVC. Secondly, the similarity between Hepatocytes and Homocysteine is that they are both cells that if damaged will lead to diseases. As for the use of coffee in relation to being useful towards hepatocytes more than homocysteine because in homocysteine the results are only true if coffee is brewed a specific way. Lastly there is no relation between type 2 diabetes mellitus and the loss of bone marrow or bone mass. Although the differences are the during the studies they discovered that decrease bone marrow/bone mass wasn’t all due to the cause of coffee rather the influence of smoking having a negative impact.

 The yes side relayed more so on random crossover designs, surveys and questionnaires. As for the no side, most of their experiments were conducted using the experimental and control group methods. With surveys, crossover designs and questionnaires it cannot be more so reliable as to actual experiments done. This proves a fact that the results collected from the “no” side is more reasonable to consider. For the yes side, experiments that was done on Homocysteine was randomized, thus had no specific amount of people used might lead to false results. Similarly, the study that was collected from Hepatocytes, also didn’t have specific number of patients. But the difference in between those two studies is that rather than collecting data based on the process of coffee being brewed, it used sources from 19 different hospitals. The no side experimented greater population of individuals rather for the opposing side it conducted experiments on small portions of groups.

  1. Conclusion

The need of consuming coffee has become a popular drink, but to answer the myths and speculations about the dangers or beneficial components of coffee to health is justified in this essay. To assess both sides of the arguments, in relation to supporting or going against the topic, both sides presented significant measure of proof to help their case and their side of the examination. Although the arguments from the “no” side did justify with more reliable evidence that coffee does not have a bad impact on your health, overruling the yes side. Thus, based on the quality of both the arguments through experiments and results, it was evident in the no side supported the topic question of this essay.

  1. References:
  1. Mankad, R. Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). Mayo Clinc. 1, 1-2. (2008)
  2. Pelchovitz, D. J., & Goldberger, J. J. Caffeine and cardiac arrhythmias: A review of the evidence. The American Journal of Medicine, 124(4), 284-289. (2011)
  3. Petra Verhoef, Wilrike J Pasman, Trinette van Vliet, Rob Urgert, Martijn B Katan; Contribution of caffeine to the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee: a randomized controlled trial in humans, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 76(6).Pages 1244–1248. (2002)
  4. Rob Urgert, Trinette van Vliet, Peter L Zock, Martijn B Katan; Heavy coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine: a randomized controlled trial in healthy volunteers. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 72(5), 1107–1110. (2000)
  5. Johansson. C, Mellstrom. D, Lerner .U, Osterberg. T. Coffee Drinking: A Minor Risk for Bone Loss and Fractures. Department of Geriatric Medicine. (1);20-6, 21-22. (1992)
  6. Jane V. Higdon & Balz Frei. Coffee and Health: A Review of Recent Human Research, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46:2, 101-123. (2006)
  7. Ross GW, Abbott RD, Petrovitch H, et al. Association of Coffee and Caffeine Intake With the Risk of Parkinson Disease. JAMA. 283(20), 2674–2679. (2000)
  8. Corrao G., Zambon A., Bagnardi V., D’Amicis A., Klatsky A. Coffee, caffeine, and the risk of liver cirrhosis. Annals of Epidemiology. 11(7), 458-465. (2001)
  9. Diabetes mellitus. World health organization. 5(6), 1. (2018)
  10. Salazar-Martinez E, Willett WC, Ascherio A, Manson JE, Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, et al. Coffee Consumption and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Ann Intern Med.140(1), 1–8
  1. Topic Justification:

 The most consuming drink after water would caffeinated drinks, mainly coffee. In our everyday lives we are encompassed by stress and anxiety, enabling us to constantly be restless. The first thing that crosses our mind in the morning is the need for coffee to function. In my experience I had to drink at least two to three cups of coffee just to go about my day, which lead me to a medical condition called premature ventricle contractions. This topic matters to me because I am interested to know regardless whether I was harming my health without knowing, along with others who are adjusting to the life style/ bad habits due to caffeine. Most individuals assume instantly that coffee is unhealthy and also considered as a drug because they tend to get addicted. Caffeine gives the ability to enhance brain functions and to stay wide awake with energy but is it really a drug? Is it really not healthy as we thought?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

That is the second most consumed beverage after water? The answer to that is Coffee. Commonly it is known as beverage consumed to relax and to make mornings easier. Although it is also known as an energy booster, to cure headaches, hang overs and allows one to go about their day after a restless night of sleep. It is believed to be a source that stimulates neurotransmitters such as dopamine. This is a neurotransmitter that helps the brain’s reward and pleasure center, thus leading to our body feeling pleasure after a cup of coffee which is why it is addictive.

This topic is important as it mentions reasons from a yes perspective and no perspective if it is beneficial to health. For the no side Speculations or myths, can be solved, and it can be used as a form of treatment. As for the yes side it can help prevent addiction also the several diseases that can put one’s life in danger. It is a way to introduce this topic to individuals to be aware of the effects rather than being clueless in what one is consuming or believing the myths. So, the real question to ask, does coffee have a bad impact on health?

 

  1. Evidence for the “yes” side:

 Pre-mature ventricle contractions (PVC) are when the heart stimulates extra beats in the chambers of the ventricles also known as arrhythmia. Consistent premature contractions lead to dangerous heart rhythms and cardiac death. 1 A study has shown that consuming high amount of coffee on daily leads to a dangerous factor of Ventricular Arrhythmia. An experimental study was performed in 1985 using 18 patients who had frequent PVC (experimental group) and 18 patients who did not have PVC (control group). Patients were given about 1mg/kg of caffeine serval times during the day in a period of weeks. After every week they were given a Holter monitor to measure the ectopy for 24h period. The results demonstrated that the experimental group had an increase in the number of PVC/hours; from 207±350 to 307±414 PVC/hour, while controls did not have an increase in ectopy. This proves the fact that consumption of coffee will lead to a more dangerous risk factor to those diagnosed with premature ventricle contractions.2

 

 Homocysteine is an amino acid that is in the blood. Consuming coffee allows the concentration of homocysteine to increase leading to cardiovascular disease.3 A study was conduct on 26 individuals between the ages of 18-53-year-old individuals, performed using a randomized cross over design. The individuals and were asked to consume 1L per day of paper filtered coffee brewed with 70g ground beans or no coffee at all for 4 weeks straight. The results showed that the mean (+/-SD) of the plasma concentration of homocysteine in the blood for those who didn’t consume coffee was 8.1 +/- 1.8 micromol/L. While the mean for those who did drink coffee for the 4-week period had 9.6 +/- 2.9 micromol/L of concentration in their blood. The difference in between the two groups were about 1.5 micromol/L of concentration. Therefore, this study demonstrated that drinking coffee raises the plasma concentration of homocysteine in healthy individuals leading to higher risk to cause a heart disease.4

 

 Consuming coffee daily allows a higher possible risk factor for loss of bone mass. This was assessed in a group of study of 619 individuals of 70-year-old men and women who were examined with dual photon absorptiometry. The study of the population was performed through interviews between the patient and occupational therapists and physical therapists. The patients were asked to consume coffee, amongst other dairy products. The results after the data was collected between the individuals who consumed > 3 cups daily vs < 2 cups daily indicated that there was a decrease in BMC after an increase of consuming coffee. This study proved majority have led to the loss of bone mass/marrow due to daily drinking of caffeine and it has led to a long-term effect after assessed through a dual photon absorptiometry.5

  1. Evidence for the “no” side:

 Parkinson disease is a dynamic disorder in relation to the nervous system, influencing the movement of your body. To prevent this, the consumptions of coffee helps decrease the risk of Parkinson’s disease. A study was performed, and it revealed that those who did not drink coffee are 3-5 times likely to develop Parkinson’s disease than those who did not consume any coffee. 6 This study was conducted for 30 years of follow ups from 8004 individuals aged between 45-68 years old who were enrolled in prospective longitudinal Honolulu heart program. The study involved measuring the amount of coffee intake vs no coffee in takes following yearly checkups. They discovered that the rate Parkinson disease decreased as the intake of coffee increased. This was evident when the results showed that the rate decreased from 10.4 per 8004 person/years in men who didn’t consume coffee to 1.9 rate per 8004 person/years who drank at least 28 oz/day. 7

 Hepatocytes is known as the main component of cells in the liver that allow the process of functioning to occur. Coffee helps protect hepatocytes from being damaged, which prevents the liver from developing cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is known to be a disease that occurs when liver is damage.6 An data analysis study was taken place from 1994 – 1998 from patients who were admitted to 19 hospitals due to signs of cirrhosis. Data was collected based on cigarette used, intake of alcohol, intake of caffeine, and hepatitis B and C infection. The results statically proved that lower cirrhosis risk with higher coffee intake. The ratios of Liver Cirrhosis decreased from 1.0 to 0.47. 8

 Type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs mainly in adults, but it is evident in adolescents passed down by genetics. Type 2 diabetes mellitus forms when the body is unable to control the production of insulin made from the pancreas.9 Consumption of coffee reduces the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. A cohort study was taken from the nurses’ health study and the health professionals follow up study’s. This study was conducted on 41,934 men from the ages of 20-32 and 84,276 women from the ages of 20-38. None of these individuals were diagnosed with any type of diabetes. This study used a control group and an experimental group to design the study using validated questionnaires. The control group did not consume any coffee, while the experimental group consumed coffee. Each group was assessed every 2-4 years. The results showed in the experimental group that 1333 men and 4085 women were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. According to the data it suggested that consumption of coffee is associated with lower risk of type 2 of diabetes mellitus.10

  1. Comparison of the “yes vs. no” evidence:

 To assess whether or not which side favours or opposes towards the topic question of this essay if through the results of the experiments and designs used. The results from the PVC study shown that it can only be dangerous to health if the individual is already diagnosed with PVC. This evidence clarifies that it does not necessarily prevent PVC from occurring. Meanwhile, the study that was conducted for Parkinson disease, does convey that it will reduce the risk of getting Parkinson disease. The differences between the two is that coffee actually helps Parkinson disease more than PVC. Secondly, the similarity between Hepatocytes and Homocysteine is that they are both cells that if damaged will lead to diseases. As for the use of coffee in relation to being useful towards hepatocytes more than homocysteine because in homocysteine the results are only true if coffee is brewed a specific way. Lastly there is no relation between type 2 diabetes mellitus and the loss of bone marrow or bone mass. Although the differences are the during the studies they discovered that decrease bone marrow/bone mass wasn’t all due to the cause of coffee rather the influence of smoking having a negative impact.

 The yes side relayed more so on random crossover designs, surveys and questionnaires. As for the no side, most of their experiments were conducted using the experimental and control group methods. With surveys, crossover designs and questionnaires it cannot be more so reliable as to actual experiments done. This proves a fact that the results collected from the “no” side is more reasonable to consider. For the yes side, experiments that was done on Homocysteine was randomized, thus had no specific amount of people used might lead to false results. Similarly, the study that was collected from Hepatocytes, also didn’t have specific number of patients. But the difference in between those two studies is that rather than collecting data based on the process of coffee being brewed, it used sources from 19 different hospitals. The no side experimented greater population of individuals rather for the opposing side it conducted experiments on small portions of groups.

  1. Conclusion

The need of consuming coffee has become a popular drink, but to answer the myths and speculations about the dangers or beneficial components of coffee to health is justified in this essay. To assess both sides of the arguments, in relation to supporting or going against the topic, both sides presented significant measure of proof to help their case and their side of the examination. Although the arguments from the “no” side did justify with more reliable evidence that coffee does not have a bad impact on your health, overruling the yes side. Thus, based on the quality of both the arguments through experiments and results, it was evident in the no side supported the topic question of this essay.

  1. References:
  1. Mankad, R. Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). Mayo Clinc. 1, 1-2. (2008)
  2. Pelchovitz, D. J., & Goldberger, J. J. Caffeine and cardiac arrhythmias: A review of the evidence. The American Journal of Medicine, 124(4), 284-289. (2011)
  3. Petra Verhoef, Wilrike J Pasman, Trinette van Vliet, Rob Urgert, Martijn B Katan; Contribution of caffeine to the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee: a randomized controlled trial in humans, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 76(6).Pages 1244–1248. (2002)
  4. Rob Urgert, Trinette van Vliet, Peter L Zock, Martijn B Katan; Heavy coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine: a randomized controlled trial in healthy volunteers. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 72(5), 1107–1110. (2000)
  5. Johansson. C, Mellstrom. D, Lerner .U, Osterberg. T. Coffee Drinking: A Minor Risk for Bone Loss and Fractures. Department of Geriatric Medicine. (1);20-6, 21-22. (1992)
  6. Jane V. Higdon & Balz Frei. Coffee and Health: A Review of Recent Human Research, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46:2, 101-123. (2006)
  7. Ross GW, Abbott RD, Petrovitch H, et al. Association of Coffee and Caffeine Intake With the Risk of Parkinson Disease. JAMA. 283(20), 2674–2679. (2000)
  8. Corrao G., Zambon A., Bagnardi V., D’Amicis A., Klatsky A. Coffee, caffeine, and the risk of liver cirrhosis. Annals of Epidemiology. 11(7), 458-465. (2001)
  9. Diabetes mellitus. World health organization. 5(6), 1. (2018)
  10. Salazar-Martinez E, Willett WC, Ascherio A, Manson JE, Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, et al. Coffee Consumption and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Ann Intern Med.140(1), 1–8
  1. Topic Justification:

 The most consuming drink after water would caffeinated drinks, mainly coffee. In our everyday lives we are encompassed by stress and anxiety, enabling us to constantly be restless. The first thing that crosses our mind in the morning is the need for coffee to function. In my experience I had to drink at least two to three cups of coffee just to go about my day, which lead me to a medical condition called premature ventricle contractions. This topic matters to me because I am interested to know regardless whether I was harming my health without knowing, along with others who are adjusting to the life style/ bad habits due to caffeine. Most individuals assume instantly that coffee is unhealthy and also considered as a drug because they tend to get addicted. Caffeine gives the ability to enhance brain functions and to stay wide awake with energy but is it really a drug? Is it really not healthy as we thought?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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