The health risk appraisal report generally include the individuals chronological age, his or her calculated risk age Common overall score, meaning how old the general population is that matches the individuals health status. The risk age is based upon the participant current health status as reported on the questionnaire. The risk age is used as appraisal score, the risk attribute of each precursor might be reported as the number of “risk years “that could be gained by modifying that precursor of its target age (meaning the age of general population that has the characteristic the individual could achieve with improvement).
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Health risk appraisal report motivates people to change their unhealthy behaviors and to stay healthy by giving risk age and modifiable age. The report can also provide recommendations on how individual can reduce their health risks by changing their lifestyle. ( Achievable risk age by modifying risk factors ) .Information from the health risk appraisals not only important for employers to know on an aggregate level in order to assess the risk of their employee population for health care cost, but is also extremely vital for employees to know their health status. By using the information gathered from the health risk appraisal, employees can determine the necessary steps on order to improve exercise, nutrition, safety, smoking and drug use, and other important areas of health in order o increase life expectancy and quality of life. The reports can then be used to provide a first step by which organizations can target and monitor appropriate health intervention within their workforce. It is used effectively to identify health risk factors, predict health related costs, measures absenteeism and evaluate the efficacy and return on investments of health promotion strategies.
2 } “Systemic approach to collect and analyze information about the educational needs of individual or organizations is referred as needs assessment process “. Needs may be either perceived ,imagined, desired or thought to be important or real. Conducting quality needs assessment would give direct assessment assist to health educator in investigating the web of factors that affect the health of the target population and the ability of health educators to positively influence them . Needs assessment are a necessary part of planning and implementing a program and serve as the beginning of program evaluation. Quality needs assessment and evaluations are based on collecting, organizing, and considering as much appropriate information as possible.
There are four steps in conducting a needs assessment i.e., 1) Perform a gap analyses : The difference between current situation and desired situation will help to identify the need, purpose and aims of the program. 2) Identify priorities and importance : Identifying a number of interventions that could potentially address the need i.e., training and development, organization development etc.3) Identify cause of performance problems and opportunities : Identify specific problem areas within the need to be addressed and also assessing the skills of people that will be carrying out the interventions. 4 } Identify possible solutions and growth opportunities : Need analysis is very crucial in evaluating programs because the effectiveness of a program cannot be assessed unless we know what the problem was in initial phase. A real need is something that when done will solve an identified problem and change its outcome, e.g. ; Finding transportation to work . Felt needs are directly perceived by the people. They are conscious about these and are able to express them. It is another matter that they may not be sufficiently motivated to meet them. For example Students would tell about the portions in each subject area, which they find difficult to learn. An important goal of organization analysis is an assessment of ability to collaborate on identifying needs, to agree on priorities , to agree on strategies, to address the priorities and to work together in carrying out the desired action.
3 }Behavioral objective demonstrate the desire to change an unhealthy behavior in the target population to a healthy enhancing behavior. These objective relate to the priority behaviors that are considered to be the cause of the health concern or issue . These objectives look at changing the behaviors of people ( what they are doing and saying ) and the product (or results) of their behaviors. These objectives are concerned with what the trainee will be able to do at the end of training.. (McKenzie& Smeltzer,2001:deeds,Cleary & Neiger,1996). To create a smokeâ€free work environment the objectives would be, 1) To reduce the number of employees that use tobacco products from 20% to 12% by July 2013. 2) To achieve a 10% reduction in the amount spent on medical claims related to tobacco use and related diseases by January 1, 2014. 3) Offer free smoking cessation aids such as patches and medications to participants of smoking cessation classes in May, 2013.
Program : The program seeks to increase awareness of positive healthy behavior to motivate employees to voluntarily adopt healthier behaviors and to provide opportunities and supportive environment to adopt positive life style changes , This session is to help the employees to recognize patterns of tobacco use and discover the way to change behavior. Employees participate in an exercise to identify tobacco use tries by reviewing their reasons for and key times of use . Healthcare advisor provides a discussion regarding potential replacement behavior. The employees participate in another exercise to discover enjoyable activities that do not involve tobacco use and are encouraged to start incorporating more of these activities into weekly times. It can shows a positive behavioral in specific , modifiable health factors. The program objectives target activities that employee enjoy and that make him feel relaxed or refreshed. Communication and promotion are extremely critical components for behavioral objective in a wellness program. It also includes strategies to encourage participation(incentives and multimodal communication effort), stratification of the people according to risk and use of evidence based programming with integration of program components.
4. An objective describes an intended result of instruction rather than the process of instruction itself.” (Mager, 1975). Objectives are specific, measurable, steps that can be taken to meet the goal. Measurable objectives are essential for evaluating progress. For example , instead of saying ” I will talk to people about health education” say ” I will interview three current health educators including questions about their position and career development by December1,2013″. The objectives are specific accomplishment that must be accomplished in total or in some combination to achieve the goals in the plan .
Objectives are usual “milestones” along the way when implementing the program. However writing objectives are a necessary part of planning and implementing a program and serve as the beginning of program evaluation. Program objectives may relate to the social and epidemiologic phases of procedure and are measured as part of the outcome evaluation. Writing objectives and evaluations are based on collecting , organizing and considering as much appropriate information as possible. Program objectives emerge from the needs assessment process and are used to provide the frame work for planning and evaluating programs and interventions. Prior to conducting any needs assessment or evaluation a through determination of the available resources should be made .The major objective for evaluation is to assess what has occurred as a result of implementation of program.
Evaluation is an indicator of the performance of employers and to test the quality of planning purpose. When the objectives are constructed with criteria for performance included the anticipated evaluation of the program is helped, for example ” By the end of the occupational health program all employees of local mills who participated will have demonstrated the proper use of all safety equipment located in the work are ” is an objective and the anticipated evaluation would be assumption that demonstrating proper use if all safety equipment indicates changes in everyday behavior would be tenuous indeed.
5 } Health promotion model :Health promotion model recognizes that health behaviors are multi-dimensional in their scope and effect. Modifying factors ( behavioral and situational factors ) , cognitive-perceptual factors and variables influencing the likelihood of action are categorized as the factors influencing behavioral changes in this model. Health promotion model is focused on achievement of higher levels of well-being and self-actualization.
It involves the steps like, Conducting a needs assessment , Identifying goals , Populations of interest and objectives , Identifying strategies , Identifying activities and resources , Developing indicators , Review of program plan and results / impact.
Model sets priorities based on identified needs , potential strategies to address needs and feasibility of potential strategies. By determining the needs we can identify issues with greatest impact on health using defined health status scores.
Potential and current strategies helps to identify potential feasible interventions to estimate impact on the identified issues.
Evaluate strategies: Determining efficiency , effectiveness , avalibility and appropriateness of the strategies.
Determining priorities ranks the identified health issues in the basis of the evaluation, setting target for the implementation and identify barriers to health promoting behavior.
Action and advocacy : Appropriate implementation to be advocated.
Evaluate impact : Evaluating impact on the chosen straggles. These components are suggested to indirectly affect health behaviors. ( Nola j Pender, 1982:revised,1996).
6 } Program mix is a total program opportunities offered in a health promotion program. Planning a program mix by a multilevel program that reaches to all employees to gain the interest is referred as program mix. The program should be made for people in different stages of behavior change, i.e. those looking to make a behavior change, those who have already made a behavior change, and those who are maintaining a behavior change. Program should be diverse in the age groups targeted gender and cultural difference as well as levels of fitness. Program that combines multiple levels can have a greater impact than programs using only 1 setting. The program mix uses multiple systems of delivery to promote lifestyle changes for example “the diabetic prevention program comprised of a health and physical education, a health club, and a cafeteria program. Across all components , program targeted a similar cluster of behaviors- decrease dietary saturated fat , increase fruit, vegetable and whole grain intake, decrease intake of sugar and increase physical activity .The aim of these targeted behaviors was to control diabetic in employees “. Components of the program include ,
1 ) Health and physical education classes on nutrition, physical activity , self-esteem, self -control and diabetes mellitus. 2 ) Physical education classes in health club which reinforce learning and emphasize leisure time physical activity . 3) Activities covering cooking demonstrations , dancing and games on nutrition and exercise to improve the nutrition knowledge of the staff/ employees.
4) Reduce inactivity and providing opportunities for every employee to participate.
The program followed some level of intervention to facilitate behavioral changes like of making awareness over the problem , change of lifestyle and supportive environment.
7 }Implementation is putting the program into action . Applied to health promotion programs it would be something like the proof of planning is in the implementation. Implementation involves identifying and structuring specific tasks to be carried out at specific times and places, using specific resources. Implementation plans can be thought of as blueprints for putting the program into action, based on the anticipated steps needed to address the needs of the target population. These plans set forth the specific steps to be taken by the program.
Implementation occurs in a series of five interrelated phases and are as follows , Preparing target for change by gaining acceptance for the program as new program means change and many individual and organizations resist change. Everyone must be ready to attempt change if the program is to be implemented. The health professional musk keep the changes processing mind when planning for program implementation. Program task must be specified through a detailed review of the program plan. When the program plan has been reviewed and implementation task have been specified resource estimation can proceed. Review of the program plan enables those persons involved with implementation to understand more fully the intentions of the program .This developing plans for the program activities is often left to the last minute or overlooked completely . Establishing a system for program management is to be developed , the health educator reviewed all the project activities and separate tasks and resources that would be needed to carry out the activities and generated a schedule to coordinate activities needed for implementation by identifying indicators and source of information. When the program activities are ready to begin , a quick check should be conducted to be certain that the target population has not changed during the planning period in terms of tasks to be carried out , resources needed and available . The effort spend in planning becomes apparent when the program is successfully put into action.
8 } The process evaluation is intended to determine the extent to which a program is executed so as to reach desired goal. The actual attainment of the goal is generally not included as part of process evaluation, rather the assumption is made that if the process is as planned. Process evaluation involves measuring how a program or activity is implemented in order to control or improve the quality of delivery ( CDC, 2002; Green& Kreuter,1999;CDC,1997).For example ” by June 2013 , the community action team will train at least 15 local childcare providers on non-violent child rearing practices”.
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Impact evaluation is the measurement of the extent to which the program has caused the intended short term changes in the target population( CDC, 2002; Green& Kreuter,1999;CDC,1997). Depending on the nature of the goals and objectives, impact evaluation looks at improvement in behavioral environmental, predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors. For example ” at the end of the training ,10 of the 15 local childcare providers at the training will be able to identify at least 3 non-violent child rearing practices they use”.
Outcome evaluation considers the extent to which goals and objectives of a program are reached. Outcome evaluation focuses on either the impact of a program or the consequences of the impact of the program through time ( Warden, j .w, 1997 ). An outcome evaluation focus on whether the long-term goals of the program were attained. Changes in health status or quality of life indices are measured ( Green &Kreutzer, 1999). It is important to attempt to measures any unintended outcomes that arises as a result of the program and the program’s impact on related organization and institutions( W.K.Kellogg foundation, 1998 ) .For example ” by 2015 , there will be a decrease in the rate of child abuse by 25 % in community “.
9} The wellness program calendar highlights special events to promote awareness and responsibility in the areas of health , nutrition, food , safety , culture, society , disability rights and environmental issues. The calendar is created to inspire / implement the program ideas. There are numerous events each day of the year, but there were too many and it was a bit overwhelming , so most calendars states days that deals with health, nutrition, food , safety , disability rights and environmental issues. The goal for most calendar would be “remember to make everyday special , make everyday count “.
There are many events conducted in a particular month for example, high blood pressure is something most people don’t know they have and yet is the number one preventable risk factors for stroke. High blood pressure is heredity and can be predisposed in certain races. If you have high blood pressure taking and or mixing certain medications and over the counter diet pills , weight loss products and diet supplements without doctor approval can lead to fatal. To help control blood pressure ,eat less fat and salt , exercise , stop drinking and stop smoking . The time is now to reduce your risks!
February is referred as American heart month , The American Heart Association recommends that heart attack prevention begin by age 20. This means assessing your risk factors and working to keep them low. For those over 40, or those with multiple risk factors, it’s important to calculate the risk of developing cardiovascular disease in the next 10 years. Many first-ever heart attacks or strokes are fatal or disabling, so prevention is critical. The sooner you begin comprehensive risk reduction, the longer and stronger your heart will beat. (American Heart Association ) .There are many more events take place in other months too like of march for diabetic awareness month and October as American diabetic month by American diabetic org.
10 } Job title : Physical therapist at wellness centre.
Physical therapist must have knowledge of working with diverse community audience, possess excellent communication skills and be skilled in working with racial/minorities.
He should possess a minimum of a bachelor’s degree or equivalent.
Must pass national physical therapy examination to obtain license to practice .
Need to have sound knowledge over the subject and conditions dealing wellness centre.
Answer to phone, schedule physical therapy appointments , perform confirmation calls, maintain all physical therapy charts in organized form , including technical chart audits.
Assist in fitness classes, assessments and personal training sessions and condition specific programs, schedule and perform new member orientation sessions..
Maintain patients records , following up on members and patients to maximize retention..
Answer members and patients questions on fitness/ health centre .
Transition physical therapy patients from physical therapy to fitness appropriate.
Monitor vital signs as appropriate for clients, perform CPR if necessary.
Prepare monthly fitness reports (financials and statistics ) maintain equipments.
Perform an other duties as designed by clinic manager that are part of the wellness program.
Participation in office meetings and demonstrate positive ream behavior.
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