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Role of High-protein Diet in Weight Management

Info: 2982 words (12 pages) Essay
Published: 26th Sep 2017 in Nursing

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Structured Reflection: One of the most widespread and popular problems in the world is the obesity that people suffers from and forces them to follow a well-known diet. Most people in the community will search for a diet that is most effective, regardless of their risks and benefits. But this is probably a big issue that we have to put into consideration that the community needs a fast effective diet showing results within a short period of time. One of the most shared diet through dietitians, social networks and nutritional journals is the high-protein diet. Many researchers are putting this type of diet into consideration due to it is popularity within the community. Most of the obese people who is suffering from obesity will have had some experience of following a high-protein diet. Personally this has come into my areas of interests as my belonging to be an obese person. As I wanted to learn more about this type of diet to enhance my poor knowledge and try as much as possible to make it beneficial for myself and for the community. As most people think that high-protein diet is fast enough to show results within short period of time this is how I acted and followed the same type of diet, I based my decision on many people testimonial through social networks. It is now the time for realizing that I have to take an action to investigate the role, benefits and risks of this type of diet so more beneficial knowledge will be offered to the community and myself to make the situation better and establish a clearer understanding and increasing awareness of the community following this type of diet. As a nurse this will help me to provide a rich in knowledge health education to obese people, as a group work this will be encouraging all health care providers in gaining more knowledge about high-protein diets sharing it with the patients. Search Strategy: The role of high-protein diet in weight management: Benefits and risks.

Key words

Synonyms

Broader Terms

High-protein Diet Obesity Role

Type of diet, effective diet Nutrition, eating style Weight management, weight loss Effectiveness, effect, outcomes

Nutrition & diet Weight management Overweight Benefits and risks

Search Terms

Search Statement (Use Boolean connector– and, or, not & limiters)

Source

Type of Source

No. of results (hits)

Comments

High protein, diet

High protein and diet limiters: after 2009.

Proquest

Database

41417

Retrieved too many articles on high protein & diet.

high protein, obesity

High protein and obesity limiters: after 2009.

Proquest

Database

26183

Retrieved articles only on high protein & obesity

Diet, Obesity

Diet and Obesity limiters: after 2009.

Proquest

Database

25818

Combined results for diet and obesity.

Role, High-protein, diet

Role and high-protein and diet. Limiters: after 2009.

Proquest

Database

1784

Less combined results for role and high-protein and diet.

Limit 3 to Scholarly Publications

Refined to scholarly journals. Limiters: last 30 days.

Proquest

Database

23

Articles published in clinical journals in the last 30 days

Annotated Bibliography Article No 1: Santesso, N., Akl, E.A., Bianchi, M., Mente, A., Mustafa, R., Heels-ansdell, D. & Schünemann, ,H.J. 2012, “Effects of higher- versus lower-protein diets on health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis”, European journal of clinical nutrition, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 780-788.

In this article Santesso et al. professionals in medical field which is currently working in the department of clinical epidemiology and biostatics and Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Department of Medicine, State University of New York. Have been evaluating the health effects of high-protein diet by comparing the difference between high-protein diets and low-protein diets by conducting a systematic review of randomized controlled trials that will support in gaining knowledge whether high-protein diets could aid in weight loss and if it has another health benefits. The review in general determine that there is an evidence with this type of diet shows beneficial effects on adiposity, metabolic parameters and hypothesis that may be due to thermogenesis and satiety. Many reviews has been focusing on body consumption, weight loss and single outcomes related to high-protein diet, So a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials asses the benefits and health outcomes. The main objectives were to systematically investigate in the effect of higher protein intake related to health and if it has any risk factor for a chronic disease and to perform meta-analysis to check the correct dose that conduct a relationship between protein intake and health indicators. It is very beneficial for those who are following this high-protein diet to manage or lose weight. The authors followed the Cochrane handbook for systematic review of intervention, developed a protocol to search Midline, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases using subject terms and words with no language restriction. The method described very clear as studies that provide evidence that is related to a general population consumed a diet were included, also people with chronic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension or metabolic syndrome were included and studies that is designed for weight-loss or not, co-interventions, different calories content and comparisons. The author modified the primary outcome which were direct to any health complication, quality of life and adverse events. Statically analysis were used as random to conduct the meta-analysis to determine the effect of diet varied by calorie-intake. A secondary analysis were conducted to assure many eligible studies which did not report values, a random model in the meta-analysis were used using the pooling results from the last follow-up reported, which remains the study reliable. The strengths included the systematic approach to a topic that has been put to unsystematic methods use in studies, first review to use meta-analysis of RCTs to conclude effects on health outcomes, risk of bias in studies and grade of the quality of the body of evidence has been used. The limitations were that no study focused on outcomes, the description is based on pre-defined surrogate outcomes. The author concluded that the higher-protein diets improves adiposity, blood pressure and triglyceride levels in small and need to be weighed against the possibilities for harms. Other study in this annotation supports that the long use of high-protein diet is putting individuals into risks for chronic disease regardless of the effectiveness of this diet to lose weight which has been approved by three articles.

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In this article many aspects was related to my subject including the risks which supports my annotation. It would help me in determining the minor risks that high-protein diet does. As a nurse this will support me having a better understanding of the focus area sharing this knowledge to patients and encourage them to follow a healthy balanced lifestyle to lose weight and to avoid the high-protein diet possibilities for harms.

Annotated Bibliography Article No 2:

Soenen, S., Martens, E.A.P., Hochstenbach-Waelen, A., Lemmens, S.G.T. & Westerterp-Plantenga, M. 2013, “Normal Protein Intake Is Required for Body Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance, and Elevated Protein Intake for Additional Preservation of Resting Energy Expenditure and Fat Free Mass1,2”, The Journal of nutrition, vol. 143, no. 5, pp. 591-596. In this article Soenen et al. Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Have been evaluating the effects of dietary protein content on weight management loss related with the use of diets that contain proteins as required level (gram per kg) for the body during a 6 month energy restriction, putting in to consideration the difference between normal protein diet and high protein diet, body weight, body composition, metabolic responses and daily energy requirements for individuals specially overweight and obese participants, In addition to several risks and possible adverse effects into account. The Authors described the methods as clear as they conducted the study in a randomized parallel design including two energy-restricted diets with a difference in protein consumption, Normal-protein-diet and high-protein-diet, which has been approved by the medical ethics committee of the Maastricht University Medical Centre. Participants recruited by an advertisement in newspaper. The study followed a standard protocol according to their latest dietary intervention study. They indicated several procedures to measure the effect considering all related body changes such as body composition, energy expenditure, eating behavior, physical activity, physiological characteristics and appetite profile. Statistics were used that data are presented as means. Diet groups were evaluated using independent samples t tests, factorial ANOVA with repeated measures and baseline values as covariate to test changes over time and whether changes differed between the normal-protein-diet and high-protein-diet. Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons and post-hoc analyses were applied with the ANOVA tests. The following studies on the protein diets and their effect on body weight loss qualify as a good example to compare the results which qualifies it to be reliable and valid. The limitations were comparing the results to another study results which is similar and only small group of participants participated in this study. There were some strengths in this study including the different use of several methods comparing the results in each method and every aspect and the effect of each on the desired outcome. The authors concluded the study stating that both diets were equally effective for body weight loss and maintenance, the metabolic profile improved in both groups, blood pressure similarly decreased after 6 months but the diastolic blood pressure decreased more on the High-protein diet group. The study clarify that when the control diet provided with incorrect amount of protein, this has an adverse effect that a rapid body weight will regain. This article supports the aspect of using high-protein diet for weight loss which has been clarified in other two articles that it is beneficial but with minimal risk for short term use. This article have been clearing the understanding of the high-protein diet which is relevant to the role of the diet. As a nurse this will make the vision clearer for the patient with this information during health education and assessment of the obese individuals and will help in taking history if this diet has been followed before with low energy consumption. The study shows that high-protein diet has more beneficial effect than risks which is a good point in dealing with obese individuals having a chronic disease. Annotated Bibliography Article No 3: Noto, H., Goto, A., Tsujimoto, T. & Noda, M. 2013, “Low-Carbohydrate Diets and All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies”, PLoS One, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-10. In this article Noto et al. Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Medicine, Center Hospital, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. Department of Diabetes Research,

Diabetes Research Center, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. Have been evaluating low-carbohydrates diet in their combination with high-protein diet for weight management, they may develop several short term risk factors for chronic disease such as cardiovascular disease. The objectives in this study was to clarify the long-term adverse effects on cardiovascular disease and mortality as the exploration are of clinical importance for the control of weight. Investigation with greater precision for the effects of low-carbohydrate diets on patients by using original reports combining their data to obtain useful clues for evaluating the benefits and risks that is associated with the diet. Overweight and obese individuals are most groups that this article may be beneficial for, even health care providers. The authors searched for studies evaluating the risk of cardiovascular disease through several databases including Medline, EMBASE, ISI web of science and Cochrane Library using key terms low-carbohydrate diet or carbohydrate-restricted diet and cardiovascular disease. The references list has also been inspected. The assessment of the studies done based on original data analysis to clarify their eligibility in a qualitative analysis. Meta-analysis were used as published full-text, randomized controlled trials or observational studies that follow-up for at least one year clearly stated by the authors. Statistical procedures were identified by stating that heterogeneity among the studies was evaluated using I statistics. To assure the validity of this study, references CONSORT and STROBE statements were used in each report and evaluated using Newcastle-Ottawa scale indicating high risk of bias. Different studies used quantitative and qualitative to assure the comprehensive information on the population with the use of meta-analysis which strengthens the systematic review. The limitations in this systematic review that the observational studies were moderately heterogeneous in addition to that there may not have been enough statistical power for the study, the targeted population were free of chronic diseases. In this meta-analysis it supported long-term harm and no cardiovascular protection with this type of diet, there are some complex interactions between the diet and the long-term outcomes which Highers the risk of all-cause mortality but not significantly associated with CVD incidence. The articles has been found to be supportive for the benefits of weight loss following a high-protein diet but they also clarify that the long-term use of this diet may develop harm or put individuals in risk for developing adverse complications. This article stated the effect of high-protein diet on health especially for individuals that may or may not have chronic disease but it can be a risk if the diet used for long period that is relevant to the risks of high-protein diet. As a nurse this will help to understand the importance to health of a balanced diet, improving the nutritional care of patients, promoting a healthy diet even with critically ill patients or patient with learning disabilities. This study has offered myself with new knowledge among the risks of long-term use of the diet that could be avoided in the future.

Conclusion:

To conclude my annotation the used research design in two articles were a systematic review meta-analysis and they both used randomized design while one article used a method comparing two diets high-protein and low-protein using a protocol according to their latest dietary intervention study. The aim of the three articles was related and similar investigating the role of high-protein diet that may be beneficial or harmful, they found similar results that high-protein diets are effective for weight loss but it has some small risk factor for chronic disease that occur when individuals follow the diet for long time.

References:

Noto, H., Goto, A., Tsujimoto, T. & Noda, M. 2013, “Low-Carbohydrate Diets and All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies”, PLoS One, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-10. Santesso, N., Akl, E.A., Bianchi, M., Mente, A., Mustafa, R., Heels-ansdell, D. & Schünemann, ,H.J. 2012, “Effects of higher- versus lower-protein diets on health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis”, European journal of clinical nutrition, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 780-788. Soenen, S., Martens, E.A.P., Hochstenbach-Waelen, A., Lemmens, S.G.T. & Westerterp-Plantenga, M. 2013, “Normal Protein Intake Is Required for Body Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance, and Elevated Protein Intake for Additional Preservation of Resting Energy Expenditure and Fat Free Mass1,2”, The Journal of nutrition, vol. 143, no. 5, pp. 591-596.

Page 1 of 9

N305B: Annotated Bibliography-S 2.

Prepared (January 2014).

 

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