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Preventing Limb Amputations Across Borders In Latin American

2386 words (10 pages) Essay in Nursing

5/12/16 Nursing Reference this

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The collaborative partnership was established to raise the awareness of diabetes. The project showed that with a collaborative partnership among countries would enable a stronger health care system. (Long, Rodriguez, & Holtz. 2008) The five countries that participated were Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Columbia, & Venezuela. The focus was on education, treatment, & care of diabetes to improve reduction and prevention methods.

Long J., Rodriguez B., and Holtz C., (2008), Global Perspectives on Diabetes and Respiratory and Orthopedic Chronic Diseases, In Holtz (ED), Global Healthcare: Issues and Policies, (pp. 267-297), Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

What are the philosophical and practical pitfalls encountered?

The philosophical and practical pitfalls were the implementation and prevention of foot amputations among health care professionals. The health care workers had local knowledge and it was difficult to implement new knowledge of diabetes care.

3. What is the most difficulty boundary to work across?

The most difficult boundary to work across was foreign and local knowledge (Long, Rodriguez, & Holtz. 2008). According to the World Bank Group, indigenous knowledge is the knowledge of a particular society, and foreign knowledge is short solutions into society (n.d). So in order to overcome this boundary the project has had to explain any foreign knowledge and implement it into local knowledge.

Long J., Rodriguez B., and Holtz C., (2008), Global Perspectives on Diabetes and Respiratory and Orthopedic Chronic Diseases, In Holtz (ED), Global Healthcare: Issues and Policies, (pp. 267-297), Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

World Bank Group, (n.d.), What is indigenous knowledge, revised from www.worldbank.org/afr/ik/basic.htm

4. How was the project’s action plan developed?

The projects action plan was developed to reach many different individuals or organizations affected by diabetes. By reaching everyone involved, the project would be able to implement the plan so that everyone would have the same knowledge of the projects purpose.

5. What was the project’s priority?

The EVA (Eja Vascular Andino) Project was implemented to inform health care providers and society about potential risks. The priority of the EVA was the abatement and prevention of amputations in diabetes patients in the Andean countries.

6. What was the commitment of the five Andean countries?

The commitment of the five Andean countries was the EVA project, Program for prevention, and early detection of the diabetic foot (Long, Rodriguez, & Holtz. 2008). The five countries constructed all parts of the programs and followed up with the results.

Long J., Rodriguez B., and Holtz C., (2008), Global Perspectives on Diabetes and Respiratory and Orthopedic Chronic Diseases, In Holtz (ED), Global Healthcare: Issues and Policies, (pp. 267-297), Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

7. What was the EVA project community-based initiative?

The EVA project community-based initiative was to focus on only people with diabetes and health professionals. With the project’s focus, they could implement education about diabetes and prevention methods to people with diabetes and health care professional.

8. What was the geo-political goal of the Diabetes Intervention Project?

The geo-political goal of the diabetes intervention project was to bring together the five Andean countries, and the IDF-SACA. By combining all of these regions within the project, the healthcare providers and people with diabetes can improve the health care system and prevention methods. The foot care knowledge will also be increased and will ensure better foot care to people with diabetes.

9. What was the purpose of the Project?

The purpose of the project was to bring more people with diabetes to get interventions (Long, Rodriguez, & Holtz. 2008). Interventions include education on amputations of the foot in order to prevent foot injuries. Prevention methods such as annual checkups would be introduced to the healthcare professional and diabetic patients.

Long J., Rodriguez B., and Holtz C., (2008), Global Perspectives on Diabetes and Respiratory and Orthopedic Chronic Diseases, In Holtz (ED), Global Healthcare: Issues and Policies, (pp. 267-297), Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

10. What were the objectives of the Project?

The objectives of the project were to prevent complications and amputations of the foot of people with diabetes. Interventions and prevention was the main focus to achieve this objective with people who already had neurological and vascular complications.

11. The Eje Vascular Andino Project (EVA) objectives guided a process to identify three objectives. What were those?

The EVA guided a process to identify objectives of people with diabetes and foot complications. The first objective was to discover patients with diabetes that were most at risk for foot complications. The second objective was to educate about foot complications, promote early detection, and how to get proper treatment for any foot problems. Lastly, the third objective was to provide knowledge to people with diabetes about prevention of foot complications.

12. What was the Problematic Situation addressed by the Project?

The most problematic situation that the project addressed is the diabetic foot. The diabetic foot refers to all injuries of the lower body parts in diabetic patients. The biggest problem that occurs with the diabetic foot is lower extremity amputations (Long, Rodriguez, & Holtz. 2008).

Long J., Rodriguez B., and Holtz C., (2008), Global Perspectives on Diabetes and Respiratory and Orthopedic Chronic Diseases, In Holtz (ED), Global Healthcare: Issues and Policies, (pp. 267-297), Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

13. What were the five basic steps for prevention?

There are five basic steps to prevention according to IDF’s International consensus of the diabetic foot. Diabetic patients must regularly check the foot and footwear used. Discover who is at risk the most and focus on those patients. Educating people with diabetes of any complications that may arise with a diabetic foot. Making sure adequate footwear is worn with people that have diabetes. Lastly, the treatment of the diabetic foot.

14. What was the relevance of the project?

The project was relevant due to many factors. One factor is the high percentage of diabetes mellitus in the five Andean countries. Physical ability and healthcare costs impact high costs to the patient and the health system is another factor relevant to the project.

15. What was the intended outcome of the project?

The intended outcome of the project was to promote prevention of amputations among patients with diabetes. With having more patients with diabetes receive treatment and education on prevention, injuries and amputations would be decreased dramatically.

16. What was the challenge of the project?

The biggest challenge the project faced was foot complications. With so many living with foot complications, one can assume the costs involved. The implementation of prevention awareness to those with diabetes is imperative to not just the patient, but the health system as a whole.

17. Who were the key team members?

There are several key team members who participated in the project. Representing each country is the PAHO/WHO, PAHO Washington, societies related to diabetes, people with diabetes, the five Andean countries and the IDF-SACA (Long, Rodriguez, & Holtz. 2008). All of the participants played a key role in developing and implementing the project.

Long J., Rodriguez B., and Holtz C., (2008), Global Perspectives on Diabetes and Respiratory and Orthopedic Chronic Diseases, In Holtz (ED), Global Healthcare: Issues and Policies, (pp. 267-297), Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

18. What were the protocols developed?

The protocols developed were the clinical protocol and the project protocol. The EVA used the protocols already developed and introduced them into the Andean countries along with what was already happening within the countries.

19. How was training provided?

The training was provided by people trained with knowledge of diabetes of the EVA. A work shop was provided to each country so that the country may train the health care professionals (Long, Rodriguez, & Holtz. 2008). It was very helpful to be trained by experts within the field when it came to training the health care professionals.

Long J., Rodriguez B., and Holtz C., (2008), Global Perspectives on Diabetes and Respiratory and Orthopedic Chronic Diseases, In Holtz (ED), Global Healthcare: Issues and Policies, (pp. 267-297), Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

20. How were the training sites selected?

Several factors helped select where the training sites would be located. First the amount of individuals with diabetes played a role in selecting the sites. The ministries of health of each country and the PAHO also had input about where the training sites would take place. Lastly, the five Andean countries chose how the training sites would be selected (Long, Rodriguez, & Holtz. 2008).

Long J., Rodriguez B., and Holtz C., (2008), Global Perspectives on Diabetes and Respiratory and Orthopedic Chronic Diseases, In Holtz (ED), Global Healthcare: Issues and Policies, (pp. 267-297), Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

21. What facilities were targeted?

The facilities that were targeted were the public and private facilities (Long, Rodriguez, & Holtz. 2008). Both of these were targeted because in order for a patient to be treated properly for diabetes, they must work together to ensure adequate treatment.

Long J., Rodriguez B., and Holtz C., (2008), Global Perspectives on Diabetes and Respiratory and Orthopedic Chronic Diseases, In Holtz (ED), Global Healthcare: Issues and Policies, (pp. 267-297), Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

22. How was information related to foot care transmitted?

The information related to foot care was transmitted to the diabetic patients as they went to seek treatment. The health care workers were responsible of the education and training of patients on how to properly take care of the diabetic foot.

23. Who was responsible for monitoring the implementation of the project in each respective country?

In each of the countries, there is a head of the project. The head of the project was responsible of their country in the monitoring and implementation. (Long, Rodriguez, & Holtz. 2008).

Long J., Rodriguez B., and Holtz C., (2008), Global Perspectives on Diabetes and Respiratory and Orthopedic Chronic Diseases, In Holtz (ED), Global Healthcare: Issues and Policies, (pp. 267-297), Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

24. What were the four components of the project?

The four components of the project was delivery of care, education, promotion, and referral system. Delivery of care ensured that all diabetic patients received care. Education was ensured to all health care professionals about the diabetic foot and to make sure the patients are being educated by the health care professionals. Promotion of knowledge and how to care for one-self was shown to the patients. The referral system is the last of the components and it was implemented to ensure treatment and follow-up was received.

25. What are the Current Status and Expected Outcome for the EVA Project?

The current status is considerably lower than what the expected outcome is. The number of people receiving treatment is only 10% compared to the expected 90%. There is yet to have implementation of standards and protocols when it comes to treatment, expected outcome are that clinics have the use of the necessary tools to achieve diabetic protocol and technical capabilities. There is no promotions set in place for the diabetic patient, while they expect at least 90% of patients to know how to self help themselves. There are limited referral systems so far, when the project would like to have high standards of referral system in all health settings.

26. How was the project implemented?

In order to implement the project, the treatment protocol must be implemented, training of health care workers and patients and a referral system must be set in place. All of these must be successful in order for the project to work effectively.

27. What were the parts of the project’s evaluation?

The evaluation process had four parts involved. First the implementation of treatments in all parts of the diabetic foot process. Training health care workers and people with diabetes was second and third part of the evaluation, and this process was very essential for the understanding of the disease. The last was the implementation of the referral system and counter referral system. All parts of the referral system are vital to ensure proper treatment of patients.

28. What are the expected results?

It is projected that there will be a minimum of ten care facilities in each of the five countries. A minimum of fifty people were trained in the three to four training sessions. Three hundred individuals are expected to attend per clinic, resulting in about three thousand patients in each country (Long, Rodriguez, & Holtz. 2008).

Long J., Rodriguez B., and Holtz C., (2008), Global Perspectives on Diabetes and Respiratory and Orthopedic Chronic Diseases, In Holtz (ED), Global Healthcare: Issues and Policies, (pp. 267-297), Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

29. What conclusions are expected to be drawn for the study project?

The conclusions expected are similar among the different countries. These include services provided, duties and rights, centralization of social services, coverage issues and domination of a powerful structure. Although all of the countries have differences, the EVA project tries to implement the plan so that it may be similar and easily implemented to all.

30. What is the key to the EVA project?

The key to the EVA project is the five Andean countries. The project may be able to focus on the differences in diabetes knowledge, laws, and treatments of the five Andean countries and help improve the quality of care of diabetic patients.

31. How will the project be sustained?

The project will be sustained by the cooperation of the Ministries of health, scientific societies, trained health workers and evaluations of the project. With the help of all of these, the program can ensure that it will sustained and improve the quality of care for people with diabetes.

32. What is the “Andean community”?

The Andean community is made up of five countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. These countries combined are the organization that supports the people with diabetes.

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