In Northern Carolina, it is very difficult to find diseases that are preventable through the use of a vaccine. This is because of an efficient vaccination program that normally targets its citizens at a younger age, as well as a constant monitoring of the emergence of diseases that are preventable through vaccination programs. It is the philosophy of the State of Northern Carolina to continuously vaccinate diseases that are also under control, for purposes of ensuring that they do not re-emerge. This includes diseases such as polio and measles (Department of Health, 2014). Furthermore, the health department of Northern Carolina would always seek to ensure that the vaccination record of a child is checked once the child under consideration enrolls in a school, or a child care facility.
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It is important to provide an explanation that a child is not allowed to enroll in a school, whether it is private, religious, or even public without the same child receiving all immunizations that are appropriate and useful for their age. This policy is aimed at reducing the chances of a child to acquire diseases that are preventable through vaccination, as well as reducing the chances of such a disease spreading to vulnerable children. It is the following ailments that the state of North Carolina actively vaccinates its citizens against, HPV, Hepatitis A, and B, Diphtheria, Anthrax, Influenza, Mumps, Rabies, Tetanus, Typhoid, etc (Department of Health, 2014).
Furthermore, for purposes of turning this vaccination policy into a success, the Government of North Carolina has developed a vaccination schedule that all health care agencies must follow while vaccinating children under the ages of 18 years. This schedule contains the identification of the ages in which children are supposed to be given certain doses of the vaccine, and identifies the type of vaccine to be administered. These vaccination schedules do not only identify the vaccination programs of children, but they also identify the vaccination programs of adults.
Cohort Study Data:
In the medical field, a cohort study is always used to obtain evidence for purposes of disapproving the existence of an association between the causes and effects of a disease or medical condition. It is important to provide an explanation that by failing to disapprove an hypothesis, then chances are high people will start having confidence in it. It is important to understand that the cohort study can be a useful method in reporting on HPV, and tracking the disease. This is because scientists will identify a particular group of people, who are not infected with the HPV disease and thereafter conduct a study on the people who acquire the HPV disease (CDC, 2014).
This would help in coming up with the characteristics and behaviors of these people, and hence develop a plan, based on their behaviors and characteristics on how to treat, as well as prevent the development and the spread of the HPV disease. It is important to provide an explanation that the results of the cohort study regarding the emergence of HPV are accurate, mainly because this study has been conducted over a long period of time, and data has been collected at regular intervals, reducing any chances of errors.
A cohort study can also be used for purposes of analyzing the effects of HPV on the victims and the society, and thereafter provide a report on the best methods of minimizing the effects of these medical condition on the society. Take for instance; various findings from cohort studies indicate that stigma is one of the associated effects of HIV AIDS (CDC, 2014). On this basis, conducting a cohort study will enable policy makers to know the effects of HPV on the society, and hence come up with ways and means of solving the problem. It is important to understand that a cohort study will identify the environmental agents that play a role in accelerating the negative impact of HPV. Without this knowledge, it would be impossible for policy makers to come up with a solution on how to tackle the negative effect of HPV on an individual, as well as the society.
Finally, researchers can use the Cohort study to calculate the exposure of risk in contaminating HPV that different groups have. This is because the cohort study will start by studying people who are not infected with HPV, after which it will study the people affected with the HPV, from the same group. This would help the researcher to come up with a report that calculates the absolute, relative, and attributable risks of people. Policy makers can thereafter use these calculations for purposes of developing a policy aimed at preventing the spread and emergence of HPV.
Efficacy of Cardiovascular Diseases:
Cardiovascular Diseases includes diseases such as stroke, heart attack, and other ailments of the circulatory system. In Northern Carolina, stroke and heart diseases contribute to the fourth and second largest killer diseases or ailments. In total, cardiovascular diseases were the largest killer diseases in Northern Carolina. This was as per the statistics of the year 2012. It is important to provide an understanding that the mortality rates in Northern Carolina are higher than the national average mortality rate. However, over the years, the differences between these rates have reduced, with North Carolina depicting a decrease of more than 50%. For instance, in the year 1979, the mortality rate of North Carolina due to cardiovascular diseases was 555 deaths, for every 100,000 people.
This reduced to 242 deaths, for every 100,000 people. Furthermore, over the last ten years, the mortality rate due to cardio vascular diseases in North Carolina has remained equal with that of the average national government (Government of North Carolina, 2014). This is an indication that the strategies employed by North Carolina to prevent the spread, as well as the emergence of these diseases are taking shape. Despite these improvements, the rate of stroke in North Carolina is very high in the United States as a whole. North Carolina has the 10th largest mortality rate of stroke in the country. On this basis, there are efforts of reducing the emergence of stroke in the country, and this is through improving an access of gaining services in caring for the patients with stroke, as well as initiating preventive measures such as education forums that promote healthy living.
Furthermore, to increase efficiency in further reducing the emergence of cardiovascular diseases, there is a need of following the following steps;
- Carrying out education clinics for purposes of educating the public on the need of healthy living, and using proper diets.
- Sponsoring research, for the main aim of developing new methods of fighting the disease as well as treatment methods.
- Partnering with the local communities, and all stakeholders of health, for purposes of coming with suitable measures of preventing the occurrence and spread of the disease.
- Improving the health sector, through building of more hospitals, training medical experts who specialize in this field, as well as improving an access to medical facilities in the state.
- Making it mandatory for people to be medically screened on a monthly basis.
Steps to take when utilizing Cohort study design in following CVD:
There are four important steps to take when utilizing a cohort study design in following the emergence of the disease; these steps include the following (Community Guide, 2014),
- Describing the situation:
This involves providing a description on the intentions of the cohort study, the type of people used for purposes of the study. Furthermore, this step involves identifying the patterns, as well as the frequencies of the occurrence of the disease in terms of person, place and time of diagnoses.
- Examining the Determinants:
This involves the search of the factors or causes that has been associated with an increase in the probability of the development of the disease. This involves asking questions such as what, who, where, and when. Furthermore, this also involves asking questions such as why, and how.
- Health Related problems.
Identification of other health related problems that relate to the emergence of cardiovascular diseases. This is for purposes of developing an effective design that will be effective in serving its purpose.
Identifying the right population, who are not infected with the disease, for the purpose of conducting the cohort study. It is important to understand that a right population matter, in the sense that they would determine whether the study is successful or not.
CDC. (2014, March 20). Genital HPV Infection – Fact Sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved May 24, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/std/HPV/STDFact-HPV.htm
Government of North Carolina. (n.d.). Chronic Disease and Injury Section. DPH:. Retrieved May 24, 2014, from http://www.publichealth.nc.gov/chronicdiseaseandinjury/
Department of Health. (n.d.). Vaccine Preventable Diseases. NC DPH, WCH: Immunization: Family:. Retrieved May 24, 2014, from http://www.immunize.nc.gov/family/vacc-prev.htm
Community Guide. (n.d.). Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Control: Team-Based Care to Improve Blood Pressure Control. The Community Guide-Summary-Cardiovascular
Disease: Team-Based Care to Improve Blood Pressure Control. Retrieved May 24, 2014, from http://www.thecommunityguide.org/cvd/teambasedcare.html
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