Aggression is a behavior that harms the security of the sufferers and causes pain or injury to others. (Townsend, 2006) Anger can be expressed in different ways such aswords, fists, weapons etc. which may result in bitter outcomes. Aggression is common in both of the genders regardless of their age. Adolescents are the vulnerable population in terms of aggression which can cause negative outcomes in their late life and results in poor adjustments and academic difficulties.
Risk Behavior and Target Population
Problems of aggressive behaviors in adolescents are growing seriously day by day (Olweus, 2001). The behaviors involve aggression against colleagues, teachers and friends(Astor, Pitner, Benbenishty, & Meyer, 2002). Aggression is a risk health behavior in adolescents which can lead to depression and suicidal attempts(Herrero, Este´vez, &Musitu, 2006).Adolescents who suppress their anger are at high risk to be depressed and experience the feeling of hopelessness. Moreover, suicidal attempts are more serious in such adolescents. In contrast, adolescents who express their anger are at high risk to have family related problems (Olweus, 2005). The association between aggressive behaviors in adolescents and social health problems are related to family issues and schooling adjustment issues (Musitu&GarcÄ±´a, 2004). Moreover, the aggressive adolescents show lower level of empathy (Olweus, 2005). Aggressive adolescents strive for social recognition (RodrÄ±´guez, 2004).Desire of becoming powerful in adolescents leads to disruptive behavior (Buelga, Ravenna, Musitu, & Lila, 2006). Therefore it is very important to assess the mode of anger expression in adolescents to identify their health risk behaviors. The target population is adolescents aged between 10 to 19 years. (Add who definition of adolescents)
A questionnaire has been developed in order to assess the level and expression of aggressionamong adolescents. This questionnaire will also help to identify the sex, age differences and ethnic background of these adolescents.Furthermore, it will give an understanding of the risk factors for developing aggressive behaviors which is one of the important steps in developing the strategies for prevention of aggression. Gender, age educational status and ethnic background are important aspects in order to know the vulnerability of adolescents for aggression.(Goldberg, Sweeney, Merenda& Hughes, 1997)
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Therefore, it is important to study these demographic variables because each individual is different from another individual. Aggression causes continues depressive symptoms such as loneliness, self-esteem and externalizing behavior in victimized adolescents. (Prinstein, Boergers, &Vernberg, 2001). Adolescents with experience of aggression burst out their anger either verbally or physically. If anger is not managed properly, it results in poor social skills with cognitive distortions (Nelson & Finch, 2000).Furthermore; it also leads to physical problems such as migraine, headaches, ulcers in adolescents (Townsend, 2006).
Purpose, Variables and Hypothesis
The aim of this research is to identify the modes of expression of anger in adolescents in relation to physical, psychological and social health risks. The independent variable is anger whereas physical, psychological and social health problems are dependent variable
The hypotheses to be tested in the study are as follows:
- There is an association between suppression of anger and physical and psychological health problems
- There is an association between improper expression of anger and social health problems (interference with relationships)
The hypothesis will be tested by using chi square test of independence because the level of measurement is qualitative categorical in nature. Chi square procedure is employed to test hypothesis because it best suites with form of data and study question. It is used to see the association between the two qualitative variables which do not show any causal relationship. Thus the chi-square statistic is used to test the hypothesis of association between two groups. The assumptions for chi-square test are taken into consideration when the data are qualitative categorical, the observed number in each category can be compared to an expected number and all the expected counts are greater than or equal to five. (add blueman reference here)
Anger is a strong emotion that creates a pressure inside you in response to a harm or wrong act experienced by you.
Suppression of anger
When an individual feels anger and do not express it.
Inappropriate expression of anger
When an individual feels anger and express it by harming others.
Physical health problems
When the normal functioning of the body is affected due to uncontrolled emotions like anger and leads to headache, ulcers etc.
Psychological health problems
When an individual’s ability to enjoy life and expression of emotions becomes maladaptive it leads to low self esteem and depression.
Social health problems
When an individual is unable to maintain healthy relationships with other people due to anger it leads to isolation.
We filled the questionnaire as well as asked three other colleagues to fill the questionnaire and identified the difficulties which they faced during completing the form. One of the difficulties identified was problem in remembering the key for the questions on the second page as the key was written only on the first page and it was difficult to go back and forth to see the key. In order to resolve this problem, we will add the keys on the every page of the questionnaire.
Please read all the questions carefully, there is no right or wrong question. Use the key given below and circle the appropriate number which you think is most relevant to you.
Age of respondent (in years): ——————————–
Birth order of the respondent: ——————————–
Gender of respondent: ——————————–
Class in which you read: ——————————–
Years of education: ——————————–
Number of family members: ——————————–
Number of siblings in the family: ——————————-
Parent’s marital status: ——————————-
Ethnicity of respondent: ——————————-
Risk behavior data
1- Never, 2- Occasionally, 3- Often, 4- Frequently, 5- Always
Do you get angry?12345
Do you express your anger?12345
Do you shout on others when you feel angry?12345
Do you beat others when you are angry?12345
Do you throw objects when you are angry?12345
Do you suppress your anger?12345
Do you feel headache when you are angry? 12345
Do you cry when you get angry?12345
Do you experience tremors when you get angry?12345
Do you isolate yourself when you get angry?12345
Do you share your feelings with your friends/siblings/parents when you are angry?
Do you think recreational activities (music, games, outings etc.) can decrease your anger?
Do you perform prayer when you get angry?12345
Do you feel bad about yourself when you get angry?12345
Do you feel relax after expression of your anger?12345
Do you continue your relationship with whom you expressed anger?
Do you feel loss of control when you get angry?12345
Do you feel to take revenge from others?12345
Do you want to harm yourself?12345
Do you like fighting games and wrestling?12345
Do you say sorry to others after you express your anger to others?
Do you accept sorry from others?12345
Do you think about the consequences of your actions?
Do you reflect on your actions?12345
Do you feel difficulty in concentration due to anger?12345
Do your studies affect due to your anger?12345
Astor, R., Pitner, R. O., Benbenishty, R., & Meyer, H. A. (2002). Public concern and focus on school violence.In L. A. Rapp-Paglicci, A. R. Roberts, & J. S. Wodarski (Eds.), Handbook of violence. New York: Wiley.
Buelga, S., Ravenna, M., Musitu, G., & Lila, M. S. (2006). Epidemiology and psychosocial risk factors associated with adolescent’s drug consumption. In S. Jackson,& L. Goossens (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent development. UK: Psychology Press.
Goldberg, L. R., Sweeney, D., Merenda3, P. F., & Hughes, J. E. (1997).Demographic variables and personality.Person Individ diff 24(3), 393-403.
Herrero, J., Este´vez, E., &Musitu, G. (2006). The relationships of adolescent school- related deviant behavior and victimization with psychological distress: Testing a general model of the meditational role of parents and teachers across groups of gender and age. Journal of Adolescence, 29(5), 671–690.
Musitu, G., &GarcÄ±´a, F. (2004).Consecuencias de la socializacio´ n familiar en la culturaespan˜ ola. Psicothema, 16, 288–293
Nelson, W. M., Finch, A. J., & Ghee, A. C. (2006).Anger management with children and adolescents.Child and adolescent therapy: Cognitive-behavioral procedures, 114-159.
Olweus, D. (2001). Olweus, core program against bullying and antisocial behavior: A teacher handbook. Bergen: Research Centre for Health Promotion
Olweus, D. (2005). Bullying at school: Data and intervention. In IX international meeting about biology and sociology of violence: violence and school, Valencia, Spain.
Prinstein, M. J., Boergers, J., &Vernberg, E. M. (2001). Overt and relational aggression in adolescents: Social-psychological adjustment of aggressors and victims. Journal of clinical child psychology, 30(4), 479-491.
RodrÄ±guez, N. (2004). Guerraenlasaulas [War in the classrooms]. Madrid: Temas de Hoy.
Townsend, M. C. (2006). Psychiatric mental health nursing: Concept of care in evidance-based practice. (5th ed.). Oklahoma: Davis companyPhildelphia.
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