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This paper addresses the theories, approaches and intervention for children who demonstrate delays in development that may place them at risk for later identification as having a learning disability (LD). Such delays include atypical patterns of development in cognition, communication, emergent literacy, motor and sensory abilities, and/or social-emotional adjustment that may adversely affect later educational performance. (National Joint Committee on Learning Disability, 2006).
Learning Disability is a heterogeneous group of disorders of presumed neurological origin manifested differently and to varying degrees during the life span of an individual. These disorders are developmental in nature, occur prior to kindergarten, and continue into adult life. (National Joint Committee on Learning Disability, 2006).
Early indicators that a child may have learning disability include delays in speech and language development, motor coordination, perception, reasoning, social interaction, prerequisites to academic achievement and other areas relevant to meeting educational goals. These indicators may occur concomitantly with problems in self-regulation, attention, or social interaction. (National Joint Committee on Learning Disability, 2006).This paper describes how such programs can be established and implemented, emphasizes the importance of family and caregiver involvement and responsibilities, discusses issues in professional preparation and development, and analyzes the effect of environment.
Theories involve in the atypical development are critically analyze to identify the needed approaches and intervention. The increasing numbers of children who are having delays in development are the main concern of studies conducted by psychologist and other concerns. Factors affecting the knowledge and comprehension of the child are identified using the case of a child experiencing abuse and neglect.
Attachment is a central component of social and emotional development in
early childhood, and disordered attachment is defined by specific patterns of abnormal social behaviour in the context of "pathogenic care."(Boris, Zeanah, 2005). Extremely adverse care giving environments have been associated with aberrant social behaviours in young children. Reactive attachment disorder is the clinical disorder that defines distinctive patterns of aberrant behaviours in young children who have been maltreated or raised in environments that limit opportunities to form selective attachments. (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). According to DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000), the behaviours should not be "accounted for solely by developmental delay". Children with reactive attachment disorder have a history of being reared in atypical environments characterized by extreme neglect, and they manifest abnormal social behaviours such as lack of responsiveness, excessive inhibition, hyper vigilance, indiscriminate sociability, or pervasively disorganized attachment behaviours. Implicit in the criteria (although not addressed directly) is the absence of a clearly identifiable preferred attachment figure (Zeanah, 1996). The criteria for reactive attachment disorder are introduced in the DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). The emotionally withdrawn/inhibited pattern is characterized by emotionally constricted and socially withdrawn behaviour during interactions with others. In times of distress when young children ordinarily seek comfort from a discriminated attachment figure and respond to the comfort that is offered, children with the inhibited type of RAD exhibit aberrant responses. They do not consistently seek comfort from others and may even be fearful of seeking comfort despite observable distress. When comfort is offered by a caregiver, these children may fail to respond or may actively resist that comfort. These responses are not isolated or rate but rather are characteristic patterns over time. This pattern of reactive attachment disorder has been identified in children with histories of maltreatment (Boris et al., 1998, 2004) and in children who are being reared in institutions (Smyke et al., 2002). However, the overlap between inhibited attachment behaviour and hyper arousal symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder raises the possibility that young children who are inhibited around their caregivers may be more appropriately conceptualized as having an anxiety disorder (Hinshaw-Fuselier et al., 1999; O'Connor, 2002). As yet, there are few available data on whether the inhibited subtype of RAD overlaps with acute stress disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder.