This project plan entitled “Insufficient Nurse Staffing Problem versus Economic Crisis: Do We Need Professional or Non-Professional Nurses?” discussed about the importance of choosing between a Professional Nurse and a Non-Professional Nurse to meet the divergence of supply and demand that is evidenced in the insufficient nurse staffing against economic crisis, with significant implications for patient safety, which is also what Nursing profession faces continuously.
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The aims/objectives of this project plan are (a) to explore the nurse education and patient’s quality of life in a broader sense, (b) to determine the divergence between demand and supply that is evidenced in insufficient nurse staffing with significant implications for patient safety is what Nursing profession faces continuously. Background discussed about the Level of Nursing Education & the Quality of Care taken from researched articles correlated to the topic. Methodology used is Literature Review.
Conclusion: In the issue of economic crisis versus staffing problem, the institutions will be the one to decide in managing changes needed to make both ends meet, provide an adequacy on staffing and financial crisis of the institutions/hospitals, but should consider the quality of care and that the standards of nursing practice must be met in order not to demoralize the image of nursing, whether the nurse provider is a professional or non-professional nurse.
Key concepts: Professional and Non-Professional Nurses, Occupation, Profession
Nursing profession is a great human elements provided great services to humanity. Since the earliest times to the present, the healthcare workers in the nursing profession help individuals and families in their communities and countries. Nursing as a profession focused on assisting individuals and families. Workers in nursing participate competently and bravely in health care in all countries of the world. In war and peace, work in difficult circumstances and contribute to the development of their communities. All nurses must remember as what has been stated in nurses’ pledge by Florence Nightingale:
“I solemnly pledge myself before God and in the presence of this assembly to pass my life in purity and to practice my profession faithfully. I will do all in my power to maintain and elevate the standard of my profession and will hold in confidence all personal matters committed to my keeping and all family affairs coming to my knowledge in the practice of my calling.” (American Nurses Association, 2010)
However, in recent years, questions have been raised about whether nursing is a profession or an occupation. This is important for nurses to consider for several reasons, starting from differentiating the terms â€›profession’ and â€›occupation’, ‘professional and â€›non-professional nurse’. An occupation is a job or a career, whereas a profession is a learned vocation or occupation that has a status of superiority and precedence within a division of work. In general terms, occupations require widely varying levels of training or education, varying levels of skill, and widely variable defined knowledge bases. Indeed, all professions are occupations, but not all occupation is profession. (McEwen et al., 2007).
Therefore based on â€›nursing as an occupation’, a professional nurse is a healthcare professional who, in collaboration with other member of a healthcare team, is responsible for treatment, safety and recovery of acute or chronically ill individuals; health promotion, and maintenance within families, communities and population; and treatment of life-threatening emergencies in a wide range of healthcare settings. (Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nurse)
While, the term “non-professional” means one who is not of, relating to, suitable for, or engaged in a profession or not undertaken or performed for gain or by people who are paid. (Farlex, 2010). Therefore the term “non-professional nurse” is a person responsible for assisting in the delivery of non-professional nursing care, under the direction of a Registered Nurse/Professional nurse in a defined care team and in accordance with scope of practice. (NWJobs, 2010)
This research work is presenting the current problem nowadays: (1) In the problem of insufficiency of nursing staffs versus the economic crisis; do we need a professional or non-professional nurses?
A. Level of Nursing Education:
Diploma programs: diploma programs are hospital based educational programs that provide a rich clinical experience for nursing students. These programs are often associated with colleges or universities.
Baccalaureate degree programs: Baccalaureate degree programs are located in senior colleges and universities and are generally 4 years in length.
Masters programs: Masters Programs provide specialized knowledge and skills that enable nurses to assume advanced roles in practice, education, administration, and research.
Doctoral programs: these programs further prepare the nurse for advanced clinical practice, administration, education, and research. (Berman et al., 2008)
B. Quality of Care:
The quality of care can be more precisely described as seeking to achieve excellent standards of care. It includes assessing the appropriateness of medical tests and treatments and measures to improve personal health care consistently in all areas of medicine. (Duffy, 2009)
Issues nowadays tackled the changing image of nursing as profession in the community due to the economic value caused by cost-containment strategy played out in restructuring and redesigning care delivery, decisions were made to replace registered nurses with non-professional, less skilled, unlicensed personnel/nurses because professional/registered nurses were seen as too costly. Also implemented were new models of patient-centered care delivered by cross-trained, non-professional unlicensed personnel. (AACN,2010)
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A divergence between demand and supply that is evidenced in insufficient nurse staffing with significant implications for patient safety is what Nursing profession faces continuously. Many believe this shortage of registered nurses is entrenched in long-standing problems related to the value and image of nursing and the limited role nursing has had in identifying priorities within health care delivery systems. (AACN, 2010)
There is a predicted shortfall of qualified nursing staff in both low and high-income countries. A combination of demography, restructured health care systems and social values has made lack of nursing personnel a main concern for health care administrators, politicians and the nursing professions. The growing shortage of health care workers has become an international challenge. (Sorgaard KW et al. 2010)
One of the central tenants of professional self regulation is the ability to maintain and control a professional register. To this end self regulating professions, such as nursing, have been responsible for controlling entry to their register. This is done through the setting of the standards to be achieved before entry is possible (Irving, 1997). In addition, the professions also have responsibility for the removal of practitioners who are considered unfit to practise. (Unsworth J. 2010)
The Practice nurses are an integral part of general practice/ family medicine teams in the UK, with a role which encompasses general treatment room duties, nursing duties and chronic disease management. (O’Donnell et al., 2010)
There has been little or no attention paid to professional isolation as it impacts on practice nurses. These developments need to be considered in the wider context of nursing recruitment and retention. Recruitment and retention of staff presents challenges for both nursing and medicine, in the UK and abroad. (Shields et al., 2001; Camerin et al., 2006)
Doctoral education, which systematically helps to develop nurse scholars, has been offered the longest in the USA, since the 1930s (Redman & Ketefian 1997). Over 30 years ago Andreoli (1977, p. 53) described the struggles of that country’s nurses to overcome prejudice in higher learning institutes, and the steps needed to prepare nurses professionally for scholarship and research if they were to be accepted and survive in academia. Such struggles were mirrored in other countries, including the UK and Australia where academics stated their predictions and preferences for the development of nursing within academia (Deans et al. 2003). In South America, several countries now offer doctoral programmes for nurses, but there is significant work to be done because poverty is the norm. In a number of European countries, nursing research is also beginning to flourish (Turale et al. 2009).
The number of nurses currently in the workforce based on their educational preparation: those with undergraduate education (diploma, associate, baccalaureate degrees) and those with graduate education (master’s and doctoral degrees). The figure depicts a much higher number of nurses prepared at the diploma/associate degree level compared to all other categories and the relatively small number of nurses prepared with graduate degrees. The limited number of nurses prepared with graduate degrees presents a significant problem for educating future nurses and furthering effective nursing practice; master’s-prepared clinicians are needed to teach and provide primary care, and doctoral faculty are needed to teach and conduct research. Without an adequate number of nurses prepared at the graduate level, we will be unable to educate enough nurses to meet the demands for care at all levels in the near future (Ellenbecker ., 2010).
III. Aim / Objective:
A. To explore the nurse education and patient’s quality of life in a broader sense.
B. To determine the divergence between demand and supply that is evidenced in insufficient nurse staffing with significant implications for patient safety is what Nursing profession faces continuously.
Literature review : a critical summary of research on a topic of interest, often prepared to put a research problem in context (Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T, 2008). The authors searched in the books, and accessed for free on the internet through the pubMed website . We found 142 search serves the purpose in one way or another, but, according to the Plan of Action Research the authors selected 10 was very close to the idea that foucas to study Which served in our aim. The authors used all the elements in the full text can be printed on Library. The authors have read the articles lists and review them, and looking such research in the knowledge that related to the our aim.
V. Research Ethics:
The author’s foundation from the article was clear and the researchers displayed respect for human dignity. The author did the job for searching by honest and professional way, without hidden or disappear any good or truth result. (Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T, 2008).
The author conveyed the informations through this research to increase awareness for the staff nurses about knowing the difference between professional and non-professional nursing is important and vital to the life process.
This research shows that professional development can enhance the skills of both new and long time staffers. Though the concept of professional development is not new, its significance for youth workers has been gaining momentum slowly. This research summarizes the importance of professional development, identifies core competencies for youth workers, highlights professional development training delivery models, and sets forth next steps for professional development that can benefit youth programs.
In the issue of economic crisis versus staffing problem, the institutions will be the one to decide in managing changes needed to make both ends meet, provide an adequacy on staffing and financial crisis of the institutions/hospitals, but should consider the quality of care and that the standards of nursing practice must be met in order not to demoralize the image of nursing, whether the nurse provider is a professional or non-professional nurse.
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