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This chapter analyzes the data collected from the case study, Bahla Hospital in the sultanate of Oman. The total sample size for this study was 30 nurses from the hospital and a questionnaire was used to collect primary data from the participants.
4.2 Research Questions
To enable the research achieve its goal the following question will be answered:
1. What are the perceived factors to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction amongst non Omani nurses at Bahla hospital?
2. Is there a relationship between job satisfaction, leadership behaviour and organisational commitment among the nurses in the hospital?
4.3 Background and Sample of Case Study
The study took place in Sultanate of Oman - Ministry of health- at Bahla hospital, for non Omani staff nurses, the average capacities of Bahla hospital were around hundred beds with a total of 139 nurses Omani and non Omani serving in these hospital. The researcher randomly chose 30 nursing from 39 non Omani nurses from a list of nursing staff provided by nursing supervisor. The study utilized the analytical procedure of various regressions to find out whether organizational commitment and leadership predict a score on the Nurses' Job Satisfaction Questionnaire.
4.4 The Questionnaire
The questionnaire was sourced from the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) which provides the sets of questions needed in to answer the questions set out in this research. The questionnaire was in two parts. The first part of the questionnaire looked at the issues of
Nurses' Job Satisfaction Questionnaire focused on respondents' level of organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and roll of leadership as far as their job is concerned.
All items of organizational commitment job satisfaction, and roll of leadership were responded to on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = Not Satisfied; 2 = Somewhat Satisfied; 3 = Satisfied; 4 = Very Satisfied; 5 = Extremely Satisfied). The second part of the questionnaire then looked at a more personal opinion of the nurses. There are a total of 30 questions on the job satisfaction survey rated on a 5-point Likert scale. There were three male and female in the sample for the questionnaire.
4.4.1 Distributing the Questionnaire
The purpose of the research was made clear, with written guidelines were given by the researcher to the nursing supervisor of the questionnaire to conform that each nurse received similar information and the nurse was allowed to decline if he/she did not want to join. Survey questions, were distributed by nursing supervisor during duty time for all nursing shift who met the study criteria. After the questionnaire was finished, the nursing supervisor deposited the questionnaire in a sealed envelope to the researcher.
The answer provided by the selected sample was totally anonymous and no names or identifying numbers were collected.
4.5 Questionnaire Analysis
The questions set out in the questionnaire is analyzed as follows
22.214.171.124 Analysis of Section A
The questions in this section related nurses and their job satisfaction and the role of leadership. Question one asked nurses their overall satisfaction with their job in their role as a nurse. 73.4% said they were satisfied, with 16.6% very satisfied and 10% extremely satisfied. From these results it is clear that most of the participants in this research are satisfied with their job which is shown below.
In question two participants were asked whether they were satisfied about the rate and quality of bonus in their current job. A total of 36.7% said they were somehow satisfied with the rate of bonus.33.3% of nurses were satisfied and 30% were not satisfied. From these results it is clear that only one third of the nurses are really satisfied with the rate and quality of bonus in their present job.
Question three asked participants about the general satisfaction with the institution they are working for. More than half of the participants that is 63.3% said they were satisfied and 37.7% very satisfied with the institution. This results means that majority of the participants in this research are happy with the institution they are working for.
Participants were asked in question four whether they are satisfied with the workload.3.4% of participants said they were somewhere satisfied with 80% satisfied and16.6% very satisfied. This results means most of the participants are pleased with the workload at the hospital.
On how they feel about their job security in question five, participants responses was as follows;33.3% were not satisfied with the security of their job,6.7% were somewhere satisfied and 60% were satisfied. From this results it is clear that majority of participants are satisfied with the security of their job.
In question six participants in the research were asked if they were happy with the level of education and training activities in their current job. Majority of the participants that 70% said they were satisfied, with 6.7% not satisfied,13.3% somewhere satisfied,6.7% very satisfied and 3.3% extremely. Response to this question shows that most participants are satisfied with the level of education and training activities in their job.
Participants were asked in question seven on the level of satisfaction in communication between them and their superintendent. From the results 36.7% said they were satisfied with communication between them and their superintendent, 50% very satisfied and 13.3% extremely satisfied. This results shows that generally participants satisfaction with their superintendent in terms of communication is high.
On whether they are convinced of their superintendent's management's capabilities in question eight, participants responses as follows; 40% of participants said they were satisfied, with 46.7% very satisfied and 13.3% extremely satisfied. From these results, it is clear that almost all participants are satisfied or more than satisfied with their superintendent's management capabilities.
In question nine the research asked participants whether they feel their performances are assessed fairly. The results was diverse, with 3.4% not satisfied,3.4% somewhere satisfied,70% satisfied,19.8% very satisfied and 3.4% extremely satisfied. These results show that most participants are more than satisfied with the way their performance assessed.
Participants were also asked in question ten, the degree of satisfaction with their salary. 26.6% said they are not satisfied, 46.7% were somewhere satisfied and 26.6% satisfied. Form these results it is clear that most of the participants in this research are not satisfied with their salary level in term of their job performance.
Participants were asked in question eleven whether they agree with the level of flexibility in schedules as far as their job is concerned. Of the total participants, 3.4% were not satisfied, 10% were somehow satisfied with 76.6% satisfied and 10% very satisfied. These results means that majority of participants are satisfied with the flexibility in their work schedules.
Finally in this section participants were asked about their level of dedication and commitments to the job and their opinion of it.43.2% said they were satisfied, 53.4% are very satisfied and 3.4% are extremely satisfied. This result means almost all participants are satisfied or more than satisfied with the level of dedication and commitment to their job.
126.96.36.199 Review of Section A
Results of the questionnaire distributed to nurses at Bahla hospital in the sultanate of Oman shows how nurses think and feel about job satisfaction and the role of the leader or superintendent as in the case of the case study in leading his followers or employees. Participants in this research were generally satisfied or than satisfied with their job with only one third of the participants satisfied with the rate and quality of the bonus in their present job.
Almost all the participants in this research it seems are happy with the institution they are working for. Majority of the participants were also happy with the level of workload given to them by the employer or superintendent. Even though 60% of the participants in this research are satisfied with the security of the job, one third of the participants however are not happy when it comes to the security of their job.
Looking at the results of the questionnaire distributed to the participants, it is clear that most of the participants are pleased with the level of activities in their present job and also the level of satisfaction in terms of their communication with their superintendent or employer. Overall most of the participants were either satisfied or more than just satisfied with the level of the management capabilities of their superintendents and supervisors and also most of them were happy with how their performance was assessed.
Participants were generally not happy with their salary levels or how much they were paid for their services. Majority of the participants too was satisfied with the flexibility in their work schedules. On the whole it seems participants were more than satisfied with the level of dedication and commitment to their job.
188.8.131.52 Analysis of Section B
In this section, participants were asked questions about expatriate nurses and their organisational commitment to their employer and the institution they are working for. The first question asked participants the years of field experience they have before coming to the sultanate of Oman. The results was as follows;3.4% of the participants said their field is between 1-2 years,53.3% had 3-4 years,26.6% with 5-6 years and 16.7% having more than 7 years.
This means that more than half of the participants have less than 7 years experience before coming to Oman. In question two, participants were also asked the number of years they have been working in the sultanate of Oman. 13.3% said 1-2 years, 40% have worked for 3-4 years, 16.7% for 5-6 years and 30% for more than 7 years; meaning that only one third of participants have worked in Oman for more than 7 years.
Participant's commitments were tested in question three by asking them whether they have any plans of resigning within the next three years. 6.6% said yes, 10% for no with 83.4% not knowing whether they plan to resign. Finally in this section participants were asked to select the three main reasons that make expatriate nurses resign from their work. The result shows for 96.6% salary is the reason followed by opportunities for career advancement at 50%, Omanisation policy, 36.3% and other factors.
184.108.40.206 Review of Section B
Results from the questions asked in these section shows that almost 80% of all the participants who answered these questions have less than even years field experience before coming to the sultanate of Oman. Only one third of all participants have been working in the sultanate of Oman for more than 7 years. Results also shows that majority of the participants that is 83.4% do not know whether they will be resigning within the next three years with only 10% who specifically said they are not resigning which gives the idea that the level of commitment among the nurses is not high. Overall it was clear that the major reason that makes the expatriate nurses resign from their work as far as the results of this study is concerned is the salary even though there are other factors that are equally important.
4.6 Overview of the Response of Participant in the Questionnaire
Job satisfaction is a vital part of nurses' lives that can influence patient security, employee morale, output and performance, value of care, retention and returns, dedication to the establishment and the line of work with extra alternative costs (e.g. activity staff) and further try to hire and get used to new employees. The role of the leader which in this case is the superintendent is very important in making sure that nurses are satisfied and giving their best performance.
Response from the questionnaire shows that nurses at Bahla hospital are generally satisfied with their work, how they are treated by their employer and communication with leaders. The major issue is salary which may force some nurses to resign. From this research the factors of job satisfaction among nurses questioned are; the role they play, rate of bonus they receive, workload, job security, flexibility in the job, communication with superintendent, capabilities of superintendent and the training and educational activities in the job.
The main dissatisfaction is the salary they receive which may cause of the nurses to resign. It clear from these results that there is a relationship between job satisfaction, leadership behaviour and organisational commitment among nurses at Bahla hospital in Oman.
Four interviews were conducted with two supervisors and two administrators at the hospital. They were asked the best way to increase job satisfaction among staff Their response to questions asked shows that the majority of nurse leaders in Bahla hospital offered a mixture of organizational features they seeming as vital in development job satisfaction and retention among clinical nurses: resources and equipment, enough staffing, leadership visibility, acknowledgment and rewards, continuing education, support services, clinical ladders, and better compensation.
Leaders expressed the importance of adequate staffing, whereas management leaders focused on additional educational services as a retention strategy. The interview with the leaders and supervisors at the hospital revealed that ; allowances and bonuses, in the Ministry of Health are very few because of large number of employees in this sector compared to other public sectors, but still they do get some bonuses every four years. Also Nurnes do not feel job security at work and because of this; a conference was established to make sure that the Omanisation rate which was 7% in 1995 increase to75% in 2020.
The aim was to reduce the total proportion of foreign population in the sultanate from 25% at that time to 15% in 2020. Omanisation policy is now the government's top priority more than ever before. The recent transformation of the Oman labour market has been remarkable. The government's continuing commitment to its labour market structural reform programme is impressive, as it creates more employment opportunities for nationals. Therefore is a demand for new graduates of Omani nurses every year by termination for non Omani nurses.
Another reason is the family which makes the nurses to resign because the Ministry of health do not allow them to bring the families with them to the country only after a long period from service and with permission from the ministry. So they go to the labour market which allows them to enter with their family. These findings in a way verify responses by participants in the questionnaire.
4.8 Summary of Chapter
This chapter has so far analysed primary data collected from case study to answer the research questions. From the responses of participants in this research it is clear that there is a relationship between job satisfaction, leadership behaviour and organisational commitment just like what previous studies states. Response of people interviewed shows that more incentives and support activities are needed to enhance the job satisfaction of nurses.