Contraception is the control of fertility to prevent unwanted pregnancy. Methods prevent ovulation in the woman, stop sperm from meeting an ovum in the fallopian tube, or prevent a fertilized ovum implant in the uterus. Methods of contraception include total or periodic abstinence from the sexual intercourse (“Contraception”, 2010, p.167). Contraceptive (2001) provides that contraceptive is “An agent that prevent conception” (p.333). Contraceptive (2001) also provides that “Relating to any measure or agent designed to prevent conception” (p.333). This essay briefly outline the historical background of contraception, and then discuss the benefits and risks of one specific form of contraception, followed by a discussion of a range of possible causes of infertility.
For all practical purposes the education of the general populace on the subject of contraception was not initiated until the early 1800s. The first systematic work in contraception was begun in 1882 by Dr. Aletta Jacobs of the Netherlands (“Contraception”, 2014, para. 2).
Quarini (2005, pp. 28-30) acknowledge that in 1839, the process of vulcanizing rubber was developed for that reason condom became cheap and widely available. Seamless condoms were being made up in factory by 1890. When liquid latex became available in the mid-1930s, condoms became more reliable. Polyurethane condoms, usable since the 1990s. These are thinner and possibility of break is lower than latex condoms. In addition, they are less likely to cause the allergic reactions and these are not affected by heat
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There are many discussion about benefits and risks of using condom. The benefit of using condom condoms during sexual intercourse, the infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV – 2) to female is significant decreases according to the first study to examine the effectiveness of condoms in preventing this infection. (Larson et al, 2013, pp. 25-31). According to Tishler (2009, para. 1) Condoms can help to prevent people against herpes. But Tishler (2009) stated that herpes can spread by simple skin contact as well as by sexual intercourse so the protection is only partial. People who used condom only for sometimes was less protection.
Another benefits of condom is that it can prevent unwanted pregnancy. According to Long et al (2012, pp.1-2) using condom constantly and correctly will reduce unwanted teenager pregnancy. Male partner can improve reproductive health outcome by using condoms consistently with sexual partner to prevent unwanted pregnancy. A better understanding about factors associated with condom use among male students will not only protect students from unwanted pregnancy. However M Carter et al (2012, pp. 449-456) acknowledge that condom is good material to prevent unwanted pregnancy but reported that teenagers do not often use condoms plus other contraception.
The first risk of condom is that breakage is quite high In South India the surveys of female sex workers (FSWs) suggest that breakage of condoms are quite high. In Benin in 2005, the study of FSWs reported that 33% of FSWs had experienced a breakage in the previous 2 days. 11.4% of FSWs reported that in the previous month, at least one condom break. (Bradley et al, 2011, pp.S6-S14). However, condom breakage is high in vulnerable population than cross-sectional studies but condom breakage were lower than estimated rates because the proportion all condoms used that broker was only 2.1%.
The second risk of condom is that it is not fool proof which mean is that it can fail to prevent pregnancy. Durrer et al (2011, p. 580) acknowledged that there are some condom failure because of miss used. According to laboratory test, they reported that the used condom breakage rate was 1.1% and leaks rate was 2.0 %( Bradly et al, 2013, pp.559-567)
Majra (2009, p.53) stated 100 woman and their partner used condoms and approximately 15 of woman pregnant but when they used condom perfect way, only two woman pregnant. However, Majra (2009) believe when people use condom constantly and correct way, it can prevent unwanted pregnancy as well as decrease failure rate.
Infertility can occur to female or male and there are many possible causes of infertility. There have been many discussions about possible cause of male or female infertility. The first possible causes of infertility is endocrine disorder. Luciao, Lanzone and Goverde (2013, pp.s9-s17) stats that endocrine disorder is one of main causes of female infertility. The management of female hormonal causes of infertility involves a thorough understanding of all the potential disorders that may interfere with normal ovulatory function. Unuane, Tournaye, Velkeniers and Poppe (2011, pp.861-873) acknowledged that Female infertility occurs in about 37% of all infertile couples and ovulatory disorders account for more than half of these. The ovaries are in continuous interaction with the other endocrine organs. Many endocrine disorders, can lead to female infertility by interacting and impairing the normal reproductive ovarian function. However, Unuane, Tournaye, Velkeniers and Poppe (2011) added these endocrine disorders should be excluded in women with ovarian causes of infertility, without neglecting the other causes of female infertility, such as tubal disorders, obstructions of the genital tract and endometriosis
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The second possible causes of infertility is oxidative stress. It cause male infertility. It results from high concentrations of free radicals and suppressed antioxidant potential, which may alter protein expression in seminal plasma and spermatozoa. The test found out 30 to 80% of male infertility causes by sperm damage due to oxidative stress. (Agarwal, Durairajanayagam, Halabi, Peng &Vazquez-Levin, 2014, pp.32-58). Lanzafame, La Vignera, Vicari and Calogero (2009, pp.638-659) stats that Oxidative stress (OS) has been recognized as one of the most important cause of male infertility. Despite the antioxidant activity of seminal plasma, epididymis and spermatozoa, OS damages sperm function and DNA integrity. However, it emerges that no single antioxidant is able to enhance fertilizing capability in infertile men and a combination of compounds, at an appropriate dosage, may be a possible better approach.
The last possible causes of infertility is smoking. The test states that smoking is affected negatively every system in body include reproduction system. Smokers’ Spermatozoa have decreased fertilising capacity, and embryos display lower implantation rates. In additional, the smoking cause decrease fertility in woman. It also increase the frequency menstrual abnormalities. It make female memopause age decrease. (Mostafa,2010,pp.179-186). According to Ji,Yan, Jianhua,Qu and Gu, (2011,pp.144-149) Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1)is an very important role in repairing oxidative DNA damage induced by chemical agents, such as cigarette. This study found out that OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and cigarette smoking is damaged on sperm oxidative DNA also it can causes the male inferilityHowever, Ji,Yan, Jianhua,Qu and Gu, (2011) suggest it need additional test to validate our findings. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of association, mechanistic test are needed.
In conclusion, over the centuries, contraception developed quickly. Recently contraception material is getting cheaper. Also it is easy to find and use it. Contraception is very affective to prevent unwanted pregnancy. There are many discuss about benefits and risks. Contraception help to prevent spread sexual transmitted such as herpes and HIV. However it has risks as well such as it is not foolproof it means it can fail to prevent unwanted pregnancy or spread sexual diseases and the breakage is quite high but people can reduce this risk when they use contraception in correct way. There are many possible causes of infertility such as endocrine disorder, oxidative stress and smoking. Endocrine disorder is the diseases which affected to female infertility and oxidative stress is affected to male infertility. Smoking is negatively affected to male and female. Important thing is that use contraceptive correctly and constantly.
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