The quantitative research titled, "A Quantitative Study Comparing Adjustment and Acceptance of Illness in Adults on Renal Replacement Therapy” and the qualitative research, "Palliative Care Nurses' Views on Euthanasia" were both compared and contrasted. The aim of the qualitative research study was to explore views held by palliative care nurses about euthanasia. The purpose of the quantitative research was to examine how patient's who have renal failure accept renal replacement therapy and addressed patient's acceptance of chronic illness.
The quantitative research was conducted by Leicester General Hospital Research Committee. Consent was assumed by the patient completing and sending back the questionnaire for the study. The questionnaire used was sent to 273 patients giving the name of the researcher's address, name and telephone number with a cover letter and an explanation of the study being conducted. The questionnaire obtained relevant demographic data and included acceptance of illness scale. This method of conducting the survey was similar to the qualitative study in that the letter sent to the palliative care nurses asking if they would participate in the study. This is where the similarity ends because the nurses needed to sign a letter of consent in the qualitative study, but the participants in the quantitative study were assumed to be giving permission when their surveys were mailed back and filled out.
A grounded theory approach was used in the qualitative research design to better understand the views of palliative care nurses on euthanasia. Moreover, in the qualitative study face-to-face interviews were used involving an interview guide. The data was grouped into concepts according to significant passages, then the concepts were grouped into categories for continuous comparison, then the data was ordered through connections between categories and sub-categories. This process of analyzing data makes this process very easy to understand.
As in the quantitative study, previously formulated questions in the form of questionnaires were used. The difference is that in the qualitative study there were unformulated questions included as the study progressed to get more information as needed. In the quantitative study the similarity ends with the interview questions that were scheduled to be asked. In order to control the quality of the questions a meeting was held with the research supervisors on a regular basis in the qualitative study.
The sample size of the quantitative research study was fixed and much larger than that of the qualitative study. The response rate of the quantitative study was high. Data collection was based on the principles of saturation, which means that the total number of participants was not fixed in advance in the qualitative study. Purposeful sampling was used in the composition of sample participants in the qualitative study that the sample consisted of 12 palliative care nurses to obtain a comprehensive and reliable picture of palliative care nurses' views on euthanasia.
Data analysis in the qualitative study consisted of open-ended coding phases, with significant passages were noted and concepts allocated to words, sentences, or paragraphs. Whereas, the quantitative study utilized t-tests, analysis of variance, Mann Whitney U tests, and Chi squares to analyze the data. None of the instruments used in the qualitative study were tested for validity and reliability. The quantitative study has high internal consistency and reasonably high test-retest reliability.
It is recommended in the quantitative study that future work should include prospective monitoring of acceptance of illness during modifications to treatment and more detailed qualitative studies investigating the precise reasons for poor acceptance in certain patient groups. The qualitative article recommends that quantitative research based on the findings is recommended in order to generalize the results to a broader population.
Keogh, A & Feehally, J. (1999). A quantitative study comparing adjustment and acceptance of illness in adults on renal replacement therapy. ANNA Journal, 26(5), 471-477.
Verpoort, C., Gastmans, C., & Dierckz de Casterle, B. (2004). Palliative care nurses' views on euthanasia. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 47(6), 592-600.