Bleeding and Clotting Time in Different Blood Groups

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23/11/17 Medical Reference this

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Comparison of Bleeding Time and Clotting Time in different Blood Groups among Medical students

Nadera Yasmeen

Assistant professor,Department of Physiology, KBNIMS Gulbarga-585104, Karnataka, India

Abstract

Background and objectives

Blood grouping, Bleeding time and clotting time are clinically useful tests, extensively used during blood transfusion, platelet disorders and a variety of forms of treatment in hospitals. The objective of our study is to find out if there is any relationship between the blood groups with the bleeding time and clotting time in 1st year medical students.

Materials and methods

The study was performed in 172 apparently healthy 1st year MBBS students in the age group of 17-20 years, of the department of physiology at KBNIMS, Gulbarga. Bleeding time and clotting time were estimated by Duke Method and capillary tube method respectively. Blood grouping was done with standard antisera. Finally bleeding time and clotting time of different blood groups were compared and statistical analysis was done.

Results and conclusion

The study showed that O group was found in more number of cases (39.5%) than A, B & AB blood group. Clotting time was increased in blood group B than A which was statistically highly significant. (p<0.001).On comparison with blood group B and O, clotting time was more in blood group B than O which was statistically significant. (p< 0.05). Bleeding time did not show any statistically significant change. (p > 0.05).

Keywords: Blood Group, Bleeding Time, Clotting Time.

INTRODUCTION

Blood grouping is very essential as it plays an important role in blood transfusion, genetics forensic pathology and it may have some association with diseases like duodenal ulcer, diabetes mellitus, urinary tract infections, feto-maternal incompatibility leading to haemolytic disease of newborn.1-3

Earlier it has been reported that blood group O was over represented in Caucasian patients admitted with epistaxis compared with the general Caucasian population.4

It is also seen that there is an association between ABO blood group status and levels of vWF. Blood group O is associated with lower expression of Von Willebrand factor causing a relative bleeding tendency 5, 6 ,7 but other workers 8 could not find out any association between the level of vWF and bleeding time.

The objective of this study is to find out if there is a relationship between the ABO blood groups with the bleeding time and clotting time in our population.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This study included 172 apparently healthy 1st year MBBS students in the age group of 17-20 years of the department of Physiology at KBNIMS, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India. Blood groups were determined by mixing the samples of blood with the antisera A, B and D and looking for clumping of RBC’s under the microscope. Bleeding time was estimated by Duke Method and clotting time by Capillary tube method respectively9. Prior to the study ethical committee approval was taken from college authorities.

RESULTS

Statistical analysis was done using SPSS package version 19.0. During the study it was found that most of the students belonged to O group [39.5%] than A [25.5%], B [28.4%] and AB [6.3%] and Clotting time was statistically significant in all the blood groups. Bleeding time remained non-significant. [Table 1].

Table 1: Distribution of blood groups (n = 172)

Blood group

No. of subjects

CT/sec

BT/sec

A

44

216.591 ± 48.558

161.136 ± 35.056

B

49

246.122 ± 39.201

157.959 ± 40.401

O

68

227.574 ± 53.786

154.412 ± 30.340

AB

11

215.455 ± 48.034

152.727 ± 21.019

F value

Total 172

3.348

0.417

P value

 

P < 0.05 *

P >0.05

*P< 0.05- Significant

Graph 1. Comparison of clotting time Graph 2. Comparison of bleeding time in different blood groups in different blood groups

DISCUSSION

Considerable research has been carried out all over the world regarding diseases and their correlation with blood group. Reddy et al 4 found in their study that among Caucasian epistaxis patients 50.4% of patients were blood group O but among control groups, this was 45.10%.

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Another study performed by Daniel et al 8 pointed out that admission for epistaxis was more common among Caucasian than Asian people. Morant AE 5 showed in their study the prevalence of blood group O was more among Caucasians than Asians. (Caucasians 46 versus Asian 31%.) It is seen that persons having any other blood group except O are at more risk of venous thromboembolism. Non O group individuals have higher levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and factor VIII (FVIII) 10, 11.

In our study population also, O group was prevalent in more number (39.5%) of cases than other blood group (B- 28.4, A- 25.5, AB- 6.3%). Clotting time was increased in blood group B than A which was statistically highly significant. (p<0.001).On comparison with blood group B and O, clotting time was more in blood group B than O which was statistically significant. (p< 0.05).[Graph 1]. Clotting time was statistically significant. (p<0.05) in all blood groups. Bleeding time did not show any significant change. [Graph 2]

Conclusion

Our study suggests that O blood group is prevalent in more number of students. Clotting time is more in all the blood groups which was statistically significant. Bleeding time did not show any statistically significant change. Further larger study is needed to verify the above mentioned findings. Further study needs to find out if there is any association of this finding in cases of epistaxis in our population.

REFERENCES

1. Akhtar MN, Tayyib A, Tasneem T, Butt AR. ABO blood group in patients with peptic ulcer disease : Association with secretor status . Ann King Edward Med Coll 2003; 9: 238-40.

2. Qureshi MA, Bhatti R. Frequency of ABO blood groups among the diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2003; 13: 453-5.

3. Ziegler T, Jacobsohn N, Fünfstück R. Correlation between blood group phenotype and virulence properties of Escherichia coli in patients with chronic urinary tract infection Int. J Antimicrob Agents. 2004; 24 Suppl 1:570-5.

4. Reddy, V.M., M Daniel, E. Bright, S.R. Broad and A.A. Moir, 2008. Is there an association between blood group O and epistaxis ? J. Laryngol. Otol., 122: 366-368. DOI: 10.1017/S0022215107008560

5. Mourant, A.E., 1983. Blood Relations: Blood Groups and Anthropology. Oxford University Press, New York, pp : 146.

6. Favaloro, E.J., S. Soltani, J. McDonald, E. Grezchnik, I.. Easton and J. W. Favaloro, 2005. Reassessment of ABO blood group, sex and age on laboratory parameters used to diagnose Von Willebrand disorder: Potential influence on the diagnosis Vs the potential association with risk of thrombosis. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 124: 910-917.

7. Gill, J.C., E.J. Brooks, P.J. Bauer, W.J. Marks Jr and R.R. Montgomery, 1987. The effect of ABO blood group on the diagnosis of Von Willebrand disease. Blood, 69 : 1691-1695

8. Daniel, M., M.C.Jaberoo, R.E. Stead, V.M. Reddy and A.A. Moir, 2006. Is admission for epistaxis more common in Caucasian than in Asian people? Preliminary study. Clin. Otolaryngol. 31: 386-389.

9. Ghai, C.L., 1999. A Text book of Practical Physiology. 5th Edn. Jaypee Brothers, New Delhi, Haematology, pp: 84-101.

10. Jenkins PV, O’Donnell JS. ABO blood group determines plasma von Willebrand factor levels; a biologic function after all? Transfusion. 2006; 46 (10):1836-1844.

11. Kamphuisen PW, Elkenboom JCI, Bertina RM. Elevated Factor VIII levels and the risk of Thrombosis. Arterioscler Thromb vasc Biol. 2001; 21 (5):731-738.

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