Advancements Of The Telephone Media Essay

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Without the existence of telecommunication technology, the world had limited information about different parts of the globe; thus, all countries had no interrelations with regions within the nation and out. All information was gathered from one source, books, containing all facts and ideas recorded. Documented information in libraries was the world's only path to education and was countries approach to learn about one another. The evolution of telecommunication was initiated by the invention of one simple device, enabling the start of long-distance communication. In the late 1970's, Alexander Graham Bell created what was considered a remarkable device at his time (Robertson, 2006), which initiated the growth of telecommunication technology. This simple device developed technologically, and it is what we call now, the telephone. As a result of high-tech advancements, the telephone has increased efficiency and is now being used internationally, increasing contact between different countries in the world. The world that depended on limited information from books is presently being considered to be an international community where we are able to communicate with different parts of the world as if they are our neighbors. A famous media expert of the 1960s, Marshal McLuhan, identified the developing world as a "global village" and specified that the world is getting smaller over time as telecommunication increases (Antecol, 1997). The creation and development of the telephone has played a major role in the creation of the global village. First, the historical process in the creation of the telephone allowed communication to broaden to several regions within the country, ultimately leading to the ability to communicate with another country; therefore, a global village forms. Lastly, the invention of the telephone led to increased forms of telecommunication, allowing unlimited communication between all parts of the world; hence, enhancing the formation of a global village. Certainly, the history and advancements of the telephone played a major role on the creation of what McLuhan termed, the global village.

First, a global village form as the connection between different parts of the country expands to communication with another country, due to the international use of the telephone. The very first form of the telephone in the nineteenth century gave rise to long-distance communication. This historical device first developed in the Western World is known as the telegraph- the world's very first electronic communications device (VALCANIS, 2011). Before the invention of the telegraph, the printing press "remained the key format for mass messages … but the telegraph allowed instant communication over vast distances for the first time in human history." ( ). The act of communication before the invention of such a device involved the inefficient transportation of printed information by train, which took "days, weeks, and even months for messages to be sent from one location to a far-flung position." ( ). The invention of the telegraph was initiated by Samuel Morse, a New York University professor, who invented the Morse code which was used in his version of the telegraph ( ). Morse extended his telegraphic invention from Washington D.C. to New York ( ); thus, representing the expansion of telecommunication from one area to other different areas in the country. In the 1850s, telegraph usage stretched from across the sea to be used in neighboring countries in which "a message from London to New York could be sent in mere minutes, and the world suddenly became much smaller." ( ). Additionally, Britain has shown the efficiency of the use of a telegraph as news is sent very quickly. For example, political news began to be transmitted to many areas in the country rapidly as newspaper presses receive reports through telegraph: "As the meeting was scheduled to finish at 10.30 p.m. the Morning Chronicle journalist, instead of travelling back by train and filing in the morning, filed his story by telegraph which allowed it to appear in the following morning's edition." (Barton, 2010). Eventually, Western Unions created continent-wide telegraphs, allowing communication between many countries in the world. Many years later, before the first world war, the telegraph has increased its efficiency as it developed wirelessly, changing its name from the telegraph, transmitting Morse codes; to the radio, transmitting sound. In 1914, a Canadian inventor, Fessener, "build alternators that could sustain a consistent broadcast wave powerful enough to transmit voices and music over thousands of miles. Radio was developed…" ( ). As an outcome, when WWI approached, people from around the world were able to gain information by listening to described details about the war such as the victories and defeats. Eventually, radio came in use for entertainment where music, news, church services, comic routines, and major sports events from around the world ( ). The advancement of the telegraph to the radio, opened the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell. In the late 1870s, "the first telephone line was constructed, the first switchboard was created and the first telephone exchange was in operation. Three years later, almost 49,000 telephones were in use." ( ). As a result of the evolution of the telegraph to the telephone, countries are no longer isolated from each other and are able to gain in-to-date knowledge about one another. Evidence gathered through statistics to prove that "certain countries have increased their amount of contact with each other…" (Louch, Hargittai & Centeno). Consequently, a global village continues to form as countries from different cultural backgrounds associates and create social ties such as tourism and migration. For example, studies show that "Taiwan and Singapore's contact with Buddhist-Confucian countries has increased marginally…" (Louch, Hargittai & Centeno). Many authentic countries are now open to foreign guests exploring the peculiar country and learning more about the world outside their home. The increase of contact between two countries has allowed individuals to move from one country to another, permanently. This is an effect of telecommunication on the development of the global village as more people from different cultural areas of the world come together. A great example of this situation is the multicultural country of Canada. The country of Canada is open to many diverse individuals with new thoughts and ideas, some seeking safety, education, and employment; therefore, multiculturalism is benefiting both the Canadian society and the migrating populations. Furthermore, the global village not only implicates social aspects, but also involves economic connections between countries in which they benefit greatly from each other, economically. For example, dominant countries also assist developing countries through international trading. Communication between these countries has increased the number of trades in the world, boosting economic possibilities. For example, the use of tariffs when trading allows the poorer countries to develop income, stabilizing and strengthening their economy. The trading process benefits both dealers, again, showing the global village formation. Therefore, through telecommunication, trade has expanded widely, allowing seller and manufacturers to gain more information about the trading goods, the process of shipments, and are able to organize trading processes. To summarize, the creation and development of the telephone has played a major role in the creation of the global village as it allowed and social and economic ties between two countries.

Finally, the world becoming known as a global village began as the invention of the telephone lead to the development of new telecommunication devices, expanding unlimited global connections. After the telephone was invented, technological advancements have increased throughout the world. The timeline of telecommunication technologies developed and allowed increased contact between different countries. The telephone expansion has helped the world communicate with more than one nation, and this ability to interact with countries motivated and led to development of more efficient communication devices. For example, the process of message transmission by the telephone led to the development of the television- the transmission of images. Because of the telephone and its ability to provide international communication, scientists around world were able to combine their knowledge and efforts to perfect the television systems ( ). Ultimately, the ability to transmit images was applied in the mid-1920s by American inventor, Charles Jenkins. Jenkins made a prediction which proves the possible rise of a global village: "It will not be very long now before one may see on a small white screen in one's home notable current events, like inaugural ceremonies, ball games, pageants, as well as pantomime performance broadcast from motion-picture film." ( ). Jenkins prediction was brought to life when young inventor, Philo Farnsworth's developments "led him to invent the first fully electronic television system… [which] replaced radio as the dominant broadcast medium by the 1950s and took over home entertainment." ( ). Other future predictions such as those from reports made by the Indianapolis Star April 9, 1927:

Spectacles may be staged in distant cities and be transmitted for the entertainment of individuals hundreds of miles away. Conversations may be held across the sea and the parties see each other as clearly as though they were gathered in the same room. Distance will be annihilated for sound and sight and the world made immeasurably smaller for the purposes of communication. ( ).

The report's prediction of the world becoming immeasurably smaller indicates the continual rise of a global village. In the 20th century, the television systems in U.S. began to broadcast content to U.S. societies and ultimately expanded "to the most-distant corners of the planet. It has made entertainment one of the nation's most lucrative and influential exports." ( ). The expansion of telecommunication initiated by the telephone to produce the television has also led to the invention of the most dominant form of telecommunication: the internet, transmitting information, sound, and images, in one form. The internet took about 4 decades after television production, to establish, for it is the most detailed and complex communication invention in the world. The internet required theorizations and great knowledge passed from one scientist to another throughout a hundred years, and eventually, "everyone could quickly and easily access data and programs from any site." ( ). Furthermore, the internet has created thousands of softwares to enable a continual growth of a global village. For example, another sign of the development of a global village is the ability of individuals of one country to communicate with their family members and friends in other countries in the globe. A global village indicates that nations are able to communicate with each other as if they were in the same community; thus, the ability of separated family members and friends to communicate, strongly proves this indication. Social networks have allowed this form of communication to occur, in which individuals from around the world are able to video chat and talk through online services. For example, a dominant form of social networks today includes Facebook, "used by the participants…as an economical way to get in contact and stay in contact with people met casually or to communicate regularly with people whom they already have well-established relationships." ( ). The fact that these connections are free of charge, the number of contact between countries is increasing. Additionally, the telephone and its' development is continuing to develop even after the internet came in use. For example, a major advancement of the telephone is its wireless feature producing the cell phone. Communication with cellphones has increased rapidly, and the time it took for information from around the world to be transmitted evolved from hours, to minutes, and to seconds. Also, the availability of the internet in cellphones, allow information to be sent and received, every time, and anywhere. As a result of increased communication by cellphones and internet, the economic and social ties between countries are rapidly increasing. Furthermore, safety in the community is improving due to telecommunication. For example, cellphones enable fast access to safety: "the first 911 call is made in Haleyville, Alabama. Legislation calling for a single nationwide phone number for citizens to use to report fires and medical emergencies was passed" ("Greatest engineering achievements," ). After the development of the cellphones, every year the cellphones are further developing and are being enhanced to increase efficiency. For example, not only can we call and send messages, but pictures and videos are able to be transmitted and sent to a receiver half way around the world. Moreover, other communicable devices such as the television and radio are also being enhanced due to new technological advancements, allowing an even more efficient transmission of information. Also, the telecommunication devices augment economic ties, not only between two countries, but between a large interrelated system of businesses from around the globe. For instance, telecommunication advancements allow countries to communicate with one another, forming business-related relationships such as the practice of stock market exchange. By loaning and sharing stocks, nations are able to connect with companies from around the world to develop profits; thus, integrating their economy. Companies of different countries are able to share "the ownership of a company. When [they] buy a share of stock, [they're] entitled to a small fraction of the assets and earnings of that company." (Brian & Dave, 2011). In these international business-related interactions, both establishments benefit from one another, creating a global community. Another major sign of the global community is the enhancement of the transmission of news. Due to the telephone and its mjor advancements such as the television and internet, countries around the world have fast and great insight to political or major health issues taking place in underdeveloped countries; thus, enhancing foreign aid and donations. For example, the catastrophic outcome of the earthquake in Haiti has been reported through television and internet around the world very quickly; thus, fund raising and public awareness takes place around the world. The ability of a dominant country to help underdeveloped countries shows the formation of a global village. For example, a major cholera outbreak in Haiti occurred in 2010 following the catastrophic earthquake. The communities in Haiti fail to prevent another cholera outbreak due to the lack of clean water, and contamination of water and water sources. As a result of the widespread of awareness in television and internet, countries of high economic authorities have provided Haiti with community health centres, sanitation education, and most importantly, access to clean water. (Sack, 2004). As the world continues to grow as a global community, more telecommunication devices are advancing into a wide range of new possibilities which continues to decrease time and space in the global village. To summarise, the invention of the telephone and its advancements led to the creation of more efficient telecommunication devises, playing a major role in maintaining the growth of a global village.

In conclusion, the creation and development of the telephone has played a major role in the creation of the global village. First, the evolution of the telephone allowed communication to broaden to several regions of the country, initiating the start of a global village. The creation of the telephone eventually allowed telecommunication to expand from coast-to-coast. Lastly, the advancements of the telephone led to increased forms of telecommunication, allowing unlimited communication between all parts of the world; therefore, the world is formed into, and is continuing to form into a global village. Certainly, the evolution of the telegraph to the telephone, and the advancements of high-tech communication systems raised from the invention of the telephone played a major role on the creation and maintenance of what McLuhan termed, the global village.