The Issues In Shampoo Advertising Marketing Essay

4810 words (19 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Marketing Reference this

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The research offers a worrying glimpse of the future. People are more likely to be evaders if they have satellite or cable. But all is not lost. Evaders do not respond to distinctive, relevant and original advertising that catches them at the right time

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The real issue is creativity. What type of advertisements prevent evaders from avoiding. There is a strong correlation between likeability and awareness. More likeable ads are more effective at generating awareness. Ads should be enjoyable, to help brands build bonds with consumers. Individual advertisers and agencies must identify and understand the motivation of ad evaders and tailor their creative and media solutions accordingly.

Planners must attempt to get psychological insights into the consumer  that goes beyond number – crunching. There are qualitative differences in how people use and relate to media and these have enormous implications on media strategies. There is a hypothesis that the recall of brands would be higher  if they were advertised on programmes that enjoyed higher level of viewers.

SCENARIO OF THE INDIAN SHAMPOO MARKET

“X” shampoo has keratin treatment, “Y” shampoo has total nourishment while “Z” shampoo rebuilds your damaged hair and control dandruff. Aggressive marketing and media blitz has made it a frothy year for shampoo marketers. In one of the most remarkable demonstrations of acceleration, the shampoo market, after creeping up at an average rate of 6 % per annum between 1992 and 1994 and, climbing to 9.55 % in 1995, suddenly raced up to 18.77 % in 1996. In 1997 it went up to 35 % Making the hair flow, and flow and flow, were the unique strategies for generating growth adopted by the three principal players in the shampoo market. A flurry of new launches which saw the introduction of 32 new brands, five brand extensions, 100 new variants, and 122 new pack – sizes, adding up to an unparalleled excitement in what was till then a – one – kind – fits – all product category. So long as it was a generic, generalized – benefits product whose primary value, was that it cleaned hair, no shampoo brand had the loyal following. With a broad swath of appeal, brand USPs were not sufficiently differentiated from one another for any of them to crave out a committed niche.

Also, the limited repertoire of benefits acted as a deterrent to frequent usage and hence growth. The shampoo – marketers fragmented a once homogeneous market furiously, pegging a unique differentiated benefit to each brand and line – extension so as to build a clearly defined segment of users for each. While this helped each brand build a franchise, it served the more important function of giving every user a definite, focused reason to use a particular brand.

The consumer has got used to the idea of using only that brand of shampoo that suits his or her hair the best. this was achieved by launching a series of new brands, as well as repositioning old ones, to peg each to a distinctive benefits. So, Levers rolled out Sunsilk Nutracare (the proposition : hair root nourishment), Sunsilk Ceramides (the proposition : repair damaged hair), Organics (the proposition : hair root nourishment), Organics dandruff treatment (the proposition : hair root nourishment with anti – dandruff treatment), Clinic active (the proposition : presence of pro – vitamin B5), Clinic All Clear with ZPTO (the proposition : control of dandruff – causing microbes, scalp moisturizer, and reduced scalp itch ), and Lux Super Rich (the proposition : inclusion of hair moisturiser ) to join Clinic Plus and Sun Silk.

P&G joined the fray with Pantene Pro – V (the proposition : nourishment of hair from root to tip), Pantene Pro-V Extra shampoo – and Oriflame’s conditioning shampoo.. Through new brand launches companies generated constant excitement to keep interest in the product alive. Even as segmentation offered new value propositions to shampoo users, the marketers baked up that menu with multiple price points, creating several VFM equations. And because they were targeting growth, they cannily priced every new product at a discount to a comparable one while holding out a promise of either matching or greater value. There was also a large successive cut in the excise duty on shampoos : from 120 % in 1994 to 70% in 1995, 40 % in 1996, and 30 % in 1997. Also in India customers are inordinately sensitive to price. There is always a large number of potential customers waiting to buy your product as soon as it becomes affordable.

ORG – MARG ANALYSIS

Although segmentation offered new value propositions to the shampoo users — differential pricing also created several Value for Money (VFM) equations. A promise for greater value or matching benefits at price discounts for every new product gained momentum.

In INDIA customers are sensitive to price. There is always a large number of potential buyers to purchase the product as soon as it becomes affordable.

THE MARKET SHARES

BRANDS SHARE (%)

Sunsilk 20

Clinic 25

Organics 5.5

Pantene 11

Halo 3.4

Optima 3.6

Lakme 1

Ultra Doux 1.2

Flex 0.7

Others 28.6

Promoting the shampoo brands poses another challenge for the marketers, resulting in high adv. spends and media spends. P&G spent 8 crores on advertising Pantene on TV in the first four months of its launch. HLL’s estimated advertising expenditure for each new shampoo launch was between Rs.4 crores and 6 crores in the introductory phase. The ad-to – sales ratio of the companies have shown remarkable jump from 10 % to 20 % compared to the average of 5 % for most product categories.

One of the biggest barriers to shampoo usage is the consumer perception that it harms the hair. Thus companies are focusing on defending the product against accusations by promoting the strength, nourishment and beauty of the hair – ‘The 3 – in -1 Capsule ‘for ultimate hair. Companies are still associating it with modern life styles to find acceptance in semi – urban and rural non-users to build and enlarge shampoo usage levels. Thus companies will have to mould new consumers usage patterns to its own benefit, to have a competitive advantage and stay out there in the longer run with a respectable market share.

A market segment consists of a large identifiable group within a market. A company that practices segment marketing recognizes that buyers differ in their wants, purchasing power, geographical locations, buying attitudes, and buying habits. Because buyers have unique needs and wants, each buyer is potentially a separate market. Ideally, then, a seller might design a separate marketing program for each buyer, though no company is willing to customize its offer communication bundle to each individual customer. The company instead tries to isolate some broad segments that make up a market.

Two broad groups of variables are used to segment consumer markets. Some researchers try to form segments by looking at consumer responses to benefits sought, use occasions or brands. Other researchers try to form segments by looking at consumer characteristics. They commonly use Geographic, Demographic or Psychographic characteristics.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. To study the current Indian market for Shampoos.

2. To analyze the relationship between a specific brand and its buying behavior.

3. To assess whether advertising is influencing the buying behavior of the consumers.

4. To study the impact of the seals of clinical laboratories on the consumers buying behavior.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Keeping in view the Shampoo Market in INDIA which is very crowded and becoming competitive day by day, we decided to study the current scenario of the market.

DATA COLLECTION

The following techniques were adopted for data collection :

1. PRIMARY DATA

Primary data was collected through face to face interviews while filling up questionnaires. (33 RESPONDENTS)

2. SECONDARY DATA

Relevant information was gathered from magazines, newspapers and project reports that formed the secondary data.

3. COMMUNICATION APPROACH

Face to face interviews was taken as the communication approach since it is a better method in cases where slight probing is required.

SCOPE

The scope of the study covers almost all categories of Shampoos. The whole appraisal of Shampoos has been done from the angle of customer satisfaction. Any substitutes of Shampoos like washing soaps or natural products have not been considered. Also Shampoos locally made by the unorganised sector and which are not branded have not been considered.

LIMITATIONS

The probable limitations of this study are as under :

1. The first and foremost limitations was time constraint which was only one month, but still efforts have been made to put the picture as clear and candid as possible.

2. Samples were randomly selected as per convenience so error is bound to creep in the observation.

3. The conservative attitude of the respondents was a limiting factor in gaining information.

SAMPLING

SAMPLE SIZE

A sample size of 33 consumers was chosen, but due to incompletely filled questionnaires and unwillingness and carelessness on the part of the respondents, we were forced to reduce the sample size to 28. This sample size was based upon time and affordability approach.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

Disproportionate stratified random sampling technique has been used in sampling due to the following reasons :

1. It provides information about parts of the universe.

2. It provides help in gaining precision through stratification.

Key findings

± It has been observed that people use not only shampoos but home remedy is also preferred because of its uniqueness of effectiveness. People also use more than one shampoo or keep two shampoos

± Most people have tried one or more shampoos but hardly finds any differences. Except for clinic all clear and organic in which respondents have positively agreed of best shampoo than others.

± People buys those shampoos giving them maximum benefits. Female normally look for shampoo matching with their hair type but male look for combination of benefits i.e. 1st hair problem and then fragrances followed by price.

± An advertisement is the one that influences a lot than any other factors.

± Most people change their shampoos occasionally but there are people who never change their shampoo i.e. they are satisfied with their current brand.

± People normally shampoo twice a week or three to four times a week.

± Most people normally buy sachets available followed by above 250-ml pack.

± Most people know of the brands through advertisements. Next come magazines. And then the newspapers.

± Satisfaction is maximum drawn with people using clinic and organic. These are the brands, which attract most because of perceived quality and brand image.

Brand image of shampoos as a person

± The survey reveals that the Organics user with his Impressive personality and Friendly behavior provides Good company. He is Outgoing and is Similar to most people. He is indifferent to advertisements and Independently makes the major decisions of his life.

± The user of Head & Shoulders has an Outgoing personality and can impress people easily. He is meticulous in nature although he independently takes decisions. He is similar to most people and due to his friendly nature, provides Good company.

± The consumer of Sunsilk is totally independent in making major decisions. He seldom seeks advice from others and is indifferent to advertisements. Although he is meticulous but lacks innovation. His similarity to most people, outgoing and friendly nature, provide good company and accord him an impressive personality.

± The Pantene consumer is very friendly, gives good company and has an impressive personality. He is meticulous and similar to most people although he is outgoing he is not much of an innovator. He independently takes decisions and never seeks any advice from others.

± The user of Clinic all clear is quite innovative while he also does his jobs meticulously. He seldom seeks advice and is indifferent to advertisements as he is independent in taking major decisions in his life. His similarity to most people, his impressive personality and friendly nature always provide good company.

METHODOLOGY

Survey Method

I have chosen the exploratory research method for the research. In this method all the questions are close ended. Except for few questions that needed to be known as in question 10 of asking the satisfaction and dissatisfaction level and know their problems with respect to the brand they have used. The options in the form of yes or no, Ranking & choosing one alternative out of various alternatives, I could not take the open-ended questions in the Questionnaire because of time constraint. The time given for this research is very short to analyze the survey in Depth. The number of question related to consumer behaviour research is 14. Out of which 4 Related to personal details.

· Sample size: 20

· SRSWR

· Sex ratio: 1:1

· The studies were conducted in localities

· Mainly Students were covered and 10 % others considered for the study.[College/school/Univ./inst./housewives]

· Sample coverage 10 male and 10 girls

Other questions were asked about the personalities of the shampoo with the brand image they perceive. [Cool/trendy/aggressive/different/outgoing etc.]

RECOMMENDATIONS

± Target those people who use shampoo and trust the shampoo as their best solution for hair care.

± Develop quality and brand image so that by trial of your brand leaves with a good image and then followed by usage of bigger pack which then will be used by them.

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± Identify the key benefits such as hair strengthening, Missing form shampoo and makes them the USP of new brands. The USP could be rebuilding damaged hair, shiny and healthy hair.

± Look for different problems for which people use shampoo for hair care, falling hair and dandruff’s etc. And deliver the same of high quality and at the same time positioning the brand as solution for your hair problem and which also rejuvenate your hair, and keep your hair healthy to that target group.

± The ideas, associations and images that people have of a shampoo brand determine the demand side of the brand equity equation. There are two ways in which advertising is likely to influence perceived product performance. First, by guiding the expectations about the shampoo experience – process called product enhancement and second, by creating a halo of superiority around the brand via a mechanic termed ” Interest – Status”. There are two key advertising related factors First, the advertisement needs to be remembered. This is important because its main influence is at the point of trial. Second, the message should relate in some way to the experience of ‘using’ the product – for instance, does it create any expectation of what the shampoo would ” feel like to your hair” i.e., how will it take care of your hair and especially to your specifications. But the advertiser should always bear in mind that the benefits proclaimed are in line with what the product can actually deliver.

± Use country wide sampling activity to acquaint potential customers with the benefit of shampoo backing up the effort with advertising to convert intent to purchase.

± Offer value for money impetus for the decision to use the product more intensively

± Again benchmark the company that has well positioned itself in the minds of the consumer and they [consumers] rarely change their shampoo. Here these people are almost satisfied with their current brand because the core features the consumer looks for is being derived from their brand. And so delivering the improved one will make them switch to your brand but it should be well advertised and substantiated

This action of company will have other positive effect of attracting those switchers, changing frequently and/or occasionally and drawing the crowd towards your brand.

± Go for strategic sizing and pricing. Have those packs available in the market so that people have a wider option available and presence of your brand. After a gap of some time check which are the packs that are bought most and assure their availability.

± Last but not the least there are separate issue that have to dealt with being the male and female factor and then growing demand of herbal shampoo. Looking at first point the female factors of buying a shampoo are different than male. A female normally have less problem of falling hair than male and so they look for those hair shampoo that improve from the current position of their hair. [Rejuvenate and healthy etc.] But one common problem [male & female] that they may have is of dandruff’s. And so the company can develop the brand image and quality and communicate better to the target group of these core benefits of your brand i.e., solution for hair problem and thus improving and rejuvenating them. Second point. Can the company in the same line of chemical shampoos change the perception in the mind of the consumer of chemical shampoo having no side affects and at the same time advertise about the possible advantages of using their shampoo and/or can they come up with a herbal shampoo as the product extension and there by building a well brand image. Like the Colgate has done with the already launched product of herbal toothpaste. If yes please go ahead but probe before you plunge.

± The advt. Slogan could be :

± Expert care for every type of hair

± Extra protection for your hair

± Remove dandruff’s in sec’s

± Healthy shiny u ever wanted.

Factors concerning use of a shampoo:

Geographically – it’s the water of particular area, the air pollution that forces one to use shampoo usage.

And thus creating awareness of possible damage of your hair if you do not use it [own brand] these are the negatives outcomes that you [customer] may have [falling hair, dandruff’s].

Stages of decision making process:

In the initial stages of problem —

· Need recognition – dandruff’s, hair falling, strengthening of hair, early precautions from the information gathered or if they see in their friends group of any hair problem then they starts taking utmost care.

· Search for information – in the initial stages of hair problem, people in their friends advises [reference group], family influences [mother], — but more crucial is advertisement Of shampoo and the brands which at that point of time they actually recall [brands that he/she recall includes the pre purchase evaluation, but mostly it is more on internal factor i.e. self – the knowledge he/she has of the brands that he has come across and know to be better product]–

1. buy that brand

2. purchase that brand

3. use it [usage may be according to own knowledge or as said by others [mother, friends or prescribed]

4. Post purchase evaluation after more usage.

5. May be satisfied or may not.

If not satisfied

6. Switch till they get the best or some amount of satisfaction and then stick to that brand

If satisfied

· Stick to the satisfied brand but may try others only if they are convinced from reliable sources and that too from most people and see sufficient evident in that brand of what they expect.

In the above process the stage is initial problem that the consumer faces and then those stages of decision come across.

Now a look at the stages in decision making process after the problem is becoming severe and he/she is not satisfied with any brands:

Need recognition – remains the same but is highly desperate to eliminate the problem that he/she will be facing.

Search for information – now its more external to what he/she gathers from reliable source i.e. family, friends, marketer led – advertisement, magazine or newspaper. But since the problem is acute more is the chances of being influenced by the doctor. There is a high chance of visiting a doctor and looking for ways of to tackle the problem. And in the initial stages of problem discussed earlier the more is the chances of being influenced by advertisements.

Rest the stages are same.

Thus it can be rightly said that if the brands have good advertisement, well positioned in the consumer mind as in the research showed that clinic all clear is most used then advertisement can play an important role in attracting a good crowd and if that crowd captured through advertisement [brand image] substantiate with high quality. Chances of brand loyalty are high towards your brand. But if the customers are not satisfied and the problem becomes severe he/she goes for home remedy or consulting a doctor.

CONCLUSION

Conclusion of survey reveals that the consumer behaviors depend on the following reasons: –

Product quality,

Family influence,

Doctor’s prescription,

Advertisement, Hair problem, Price of the product, and self.

The consumers of shampoo are very sensitive and he is very much aware of the products. Awareness about the product regarding the ingredients is very high in the consumers. Influence in the purchase of the shampoos mainly depends on the hair problem and assurity to solve that problem given by the brand. Influence of doctor and family is also very high.

Attributes of a particular brand also play an important role in the purchase. Attributes like reasonable price, fragrance, quality, & medications plays its significant role. By the analysis we can conclude that consumers in the shampoo market are not much conscious about the price but its quality plays important role.

The study reveals that Pantene has been tried by most of the consumer (16 %). Next comes Sunsilk. Organics and Clinic Plus both (11 %), which have been tried by the consumers.

According to the study Pantene is the most consumed ( 20 % ) brand of shampoo. Head & Shoulders and Clinic Plus both account to 15 % of the total shampoo consumption and Sunsilk is less consumed than these ( 14 %). Organics forms only 5 % of the total shampoo consumption.

The survey showed a number of reasons for consumers using more than one brand or type of shampoos simultaneously. No single shampoo, according to the consumer, was able to fulfill all the hair requirements. Dandruff was the most important hair problem which led the cosumer to use more than one shampoo at a time. Some people use two or more shampoos simultaneously, just for change.

Consumers in the age group below 20 and 20 – 29 are more innovative as compared to the other age groups. It has been observed from the study that females shampoo their hair twice a week, while males prefer using shampoo on alternate days. From the survey it was found that the Medium size pack of shampoos with quantity of 100 ml to 250 ml is the most frequently purchased pack. According to our sample 51 % of the people across different age groups and income groups prefer this packaging.

From the table no. 6 it can be concluded that a majority (58%) of the consumers change their shampoo occasionally. These consumers also tend to test the quality of new launches. Non availability is another factor which to a certain extent, has prompted many consumers to use more than one brand simultaneously. A significant figure of 57% of the consumer tend to shift to another brand due to non – availability of their brands.

From table no. 10 that amongst the factors which influence the choice of a brand of shampoo(s), Hair problems is the most important one. People select shampoo(s) with reference to their hair problems. Hair type also plays a very important role. While selecting a shampoo consumers take care to select the shampoo according to their hair type. The role which Advertisements play can not be neglected. According to study it is found that even advertisements influence the consumers a great deal in selecting a shampoo. At times someone’s reference also helps in selecting a brand. Hair type or hair problems are found to be more significant as compared to the fragrance, packaging and price of a shampoo.

The consumers of Head & shoulders are the most satisfied with all the attributes of the shampoo and the range falls in the interval of 2.5 – 3 on the scale of 1-3.

Next on the list are Organics and Clinic Plus. But these two shampoos need to improve upon the anti -dandruff and hair repairing qualities which the consumer finds is lacking to a certain extent.

Sunsilk to a large extent fails to satisfy hair nourishment, anti dandurff and hair repair needs of the consumer. The satisfaction level lies in the range from 1-1.5.

Clinic All Clear provides high satisfaction to the consumer as far as anti dandruff quality of the shampoo is concerned. But it lacks all other attributes such as hair nourishment, hair repair, conditioning, removing hair problems etc. The satisfaction is very low on the scale. Ayur needs to improve upon all its attributes as the satisfaction level for all of them lies in the range of 1 – 2.

The relatively new concept of using the seal of a Clinical Laboratory on a shampoo bottle does not much influence the purchase decisions of the consumer. 60 % of the consumers remain unaffected by the use of the seal.

Advertisements play a significant role in the purchase decision of the consumers. 33% of consumers are influenced by the advertisements of shampoos they use. The message in the advertisements is paid more attention to, than the role models shown in the advertisements.

The survey reveals that the Organics user with his Impressive personality and Friendly behavior provides Good company. He is Outgoing and is Similar to most people. He is indifferent to advertisements and Independently makes the major decisions of his life.

The user of Head & Shoulders has an Outgoing personality and can impress people easily. He is meticulous in nature although he independently takes decisions.

He is similar to most people and due to his friendly nature, provides Good company.

The consumer of Sunsilk is totally independent in making major decisions. He seldom seeks advice from others and is indifferent to advertisements. Although he is meticulous but lacks innovation. His similarity to most people, outgoing and friendly nature, provide good company and accord him an impressive personality.

The Pantene consumer is very friendly, gives good company and has an impressive personality. He is meticulous and similar to most people although he is outgoing he is not much of an innovator. He independently takes decisions and never seeks any advice from others.

The research offers a worrying glimpse of the future. People are more likely to be evaders if they have satellite or cable. But all is not lost. Evaders do not respond to distinctive, relevant and original advertising that catches them at the right time

The real issue is creativity. What type of advertisements prevent evaders from avoiding. There is a strong correlation between likeability and awareness. More likeable ads are more effective at generating awareness. Ads should be enjoyable, to help brands build bonds with consumers. Individual advertisers and agencies must identify and understand the motivation of ad evaders and tailor their creative and media solutions accordingly.

Planners must attempt to get psychological insights into the consumer  that goes beyond number – crunching. There are qualitative differences in how people use and relate to media and these have enormous implications on media strategies. There is a hypothesis that the recall of brands would be higher  if they were advertised on programmes that enjoyed higher level of viewers.

SCENARIO OF THE INDIAN SHAMPOO MARKET

“X” shampoo has keratin treatment, “Y” shampoo has total nourishment while “Z” shampoo rebuilds your damaged hair and control dandruff. Aggressive marketing and media blitz has made it a frothy year for shampoo marketers. In one of the most remarkable demonstrations of acceleration, the shampoo market, after creeping up at an average rate of 6 % per annum between 1992 and 1994 and, climbing to 9.55 % in 1995, suddenly raced up to 18.77 % in 1996. In 1997 it went up to 35 % Making the hair flow, and flow and flow, were the unique strategies for generating growth adopted by the three principal players in the shampoo market. A flurry of new launches which saw the introduction of 32 new brands, five brand extensions, 100 new variants, and 122 new pack – sizes, adding up to an unparalleled excitement in what was till then a – one – kind – fits – all product category. So long as it was a generic, generalized – benefits product whose primary value, was that it cleaned hair, no shampoo brand had the loyal following. With a broad swath of appeal, brand USPs were not sufficiently differentiated from one another for any of them to crave out a committed niche.

Also, the limited repertoire of benefits acted as a deterrent to frequent usage and hence growth. The shampoo – marketers fragmented a once homogeneous market furiously, pegging a unique differentiated benefit to each brand and line – extension so as to build a clearly defined segment of users for each. While this helped each brand build a franchise, it served the more important function of giving every user a definite, focused reason to use a particular brand.

The consumer has got used to the idea of using only that brand of shampoo that suits his or her hair the best. this was achieved by launching a series of new brands, as well as repositioning old ones, to peg each to a distinctive benefits. So, Levers rolled out Sunsilk Nutracare (the proposition : hair root nourishment), Sunsilk Ceramides (the proposition : repair damaged hair), Organics (the proposition : hair root nourishment), Organics dandruff treatment (the proposition : hair root nourishment with anti – dandruff treatment), Clinic active (the proposition : presence of pro – vitamin B5), Clinic All Clear with ZPTO (the proposition : control of dandruff – causing microbes, scalp moisturizer, and reduced scalp itch ), and Lux Super Rich (the proposition : inclusion of hair moisturiser ) to join Clinic Plus and Sun Silk.

P&G joined the fray with Pantene Pro – V (the proposition : nourishment of hair from root to tip), Pantene Pro-V Extra shampoo – and Oriflame’s conditioning shampoo.. Through new brand launches companies generated constant excitement to keep interest in the product alive. Even as segmentation offered new value propositions to shampoo users, the marketers baked up that menu with multiple price points, creating several VFM equations. And because they were targeting growth, they cannily priced every new product at a discount to a comparable one while holding out a promise of either matching or greater value. There was also a large successive cut in the excise duty on shampoos : from 120 % in 1994 to 70% in 1995, 40 % in 1996, and 30 % in 1997. Also in India customers are inordinately sensitive to price. There is always a large number of potential customers waiting to buy your product as soon as it becomes affordable.

ORG – MARG ANALYSIS

Although segmentation offered new value propositions to the shampoo users — differential pricing also created several Value for Money (VFM) equations. A promise for greater value or matching benefits at price discounts for every new product gained momentum.

In INDIA customers are sensitive to price. There is always a large number of potential buyers to purchase the product as soon as it becomes affordable.

THE MARKET SHARES

BRANDS SHARE (%)

Sunsilk 20

Clinic 25

Organics 5.5

Pantene 11

Halo 3.4

Optima 3.6

Lakme 1

Ultra Doux 1.2

Flex 0.7

Others 28.6

Promoting the shampoo brands poses another challenge for the marketers, resulting in high adv. spends and media spends. P&G spent 8 crores on advertising Pantene on TV in the first four months of its launch. HLL’s estimated advertising expenditure for each new shampoo launch was between Rs.4 crores and 6 crores in the introductory phase. The ad-to – sales ratio of the companies have shown remarkable jump from 10 % to 20 % compared to the average of 5 % for most product categories.

One of the biggest barriers to shampoo usage is the consumer perception that it harms the hair. Thus companies are focusing on defending the product against accusations by promoting the strength, nourishment and beauty of the hair – ‘The 3 – in -1 Capsule ‘for ultimate hair. Companies are still associating it with modern life styles to find acceptance in semi – urban and rural non-users to build and enlarge shampoo usage levels. Thus companies will have to mould new consumers usage patterns to its own benefit, to have a competitive advantage and stay out there in the longer run with a respectable market share.

A market segment consists of a large identifiable group within a market. A company that practices segment marketing recognizes that buyers differ in their wants, purchasing power, geographical locations, buying attitudes, and buying habits. Because buyers have unique needs and wants, each buyer is potentially a separate market. Ideally, then, a seller might design a separate marketing program for each buyer, though no company is willing to customize its offer communication bundle to each individual customer. The company instead tries to isolate some broad segments that make up a market.

Two broad groups of variables are used to segment consumer markets. Some researchers try to form segments by looking at consumer responses to benefits sought, use occasions or brands. Other researchers try to form segments by looking at consumer characteristics. They commonly use Geographic, Demographic or Psychographic characteristics.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. To study the current Indian market for Shampoos.

2. To analyze the relationship between a specific brand and its buying behavior.

3. To assess whether advertising is influencing the buying behavior of the consumers.

4. To study the impact of the seals of clinical laboratories on the consumers buying behavior.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Keeping in view the Shampoo Market in INDIA which is very crowded and becoming competitive day by day, we decided to study the current scenario of the market.

DATA COLLECTION

The following techniques were adopted for data collection :

1. PRIMARY DATA

Primary data was collected through face to face interviews while filling up questionnaires. (33 RESPONDENTS)

2. SECONDARY DATA

Relevant information was gathered from magazines, newspapers and project reports that formed the secondary data.

3. COMMUNICATION APPROACH

Face to face interviews was taken as the communication approach since it is a better method in cases where slight probing is required.

SCOPE

The scope of the study covers almost all categories of Shampoos. The whole appraisal of Shampoos has been done from the angle of customer satisfaction. Any substitutes of Shampoos like washing soaps or natural products have not been considered. Also Shampoos locally made by the unorganised sector and which are not branded have not been considered.

LIMITATIONS

The probable limitations of this study are as under :

1. The first and foremost limitations was time constraint which was only one month, but still efforts have been made to put the picture as clear and candid as possible.

2. Samples were randomly selected as per convenience so error is bound to creep in the observation.

3. The conservative attitude of the respondents was a limiting factor in gaining information.

SAMPLING

SAMPLE SIZE

A sample size of 33 consumers was chosen, but due to incompletely filled questionnaires and unwillingness and carelessness on the part of the respondents, we were forced to reduce the sample size to 28. This sample size was based upon time and affordability approach.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

Disproportionate stratified random sampling technique has been used in sampling due to the following reasons :

1. It provides information about parts of the universe.

2. It provides help in gaining precision through stratification.

Key findings

± It has been observed that people use not only shampoos but home remedy is also preferred because of its uniqueness of effectiveness. People also use more than one shampoo or keep two shampoos

± Most people have tried one or more shampoos but hardly finds any differences. Except for clinic all clear and organic in which respondents have positively agreed of best shampoo than others.

± People buys those shampoos giving them maximum benefits. Female normally look for shampoo matching with their hair type but male look for combination of benefits i.e. 1st hair problem and then fragrances followed by price.

± An advertisement is the one that influences a lot than any other factors.

± Most people change their shampoos occasionally but there are people who never change their shampoo i.e. they are satisfied with their current brand.

± People normally shampoo twice a week or three to four times a week.

± Most people normally buy sachets available followed by above 250-ml pack.

± Most people know of the brands through advertisements. Next come magazines. And then the newspapers.

± Satisfaction is maximum drawn with people using clinic and organic. These are the brands, which attract most because of perceived quality and brand image.

Brand image of shampoos as a person

± The survey reveals that the Organics user with his Impressive personality and Friendly behavior provides Good company. He is Outgoing and is Similar to most people. He is indifferent to advertisements and Independently makes the major decisions of his life.

± The user of Head & Shoulders has an Outgoing personality and can impress people easily. He is meticulous in nature although he independently takes decisions. He is similar to most people and due to his friendly nature, provides Good company.

± The consumer of Sunsilk is totally independent in making major decisions. He seldom seeks advice from others and is indifferent to advertisements. Although he is meticulous but lacks innovation. His similarity to most people, outgoing and friendly nature, provide good company and accord him an impressive personality.

± The Pantene consumer is very friendly, gives good company and has an impressive personality. He is meticulous and similar to most people although he is outgoing he is not much of an innovator. He independently takes decisions and never seeks any advice from others.

± The user of Clinic all clear is quite innovative while he also does his jobs meticulously. He seldom seeks advice and is indifferent to advertisements as he is independent in taking major decisions in his life. His similarity to most people, his impressive personality and friendly nature always provide good company.

METHODOLOGY

Survey Method

I have chosen the exploratory research method for the research. In this method all the questions are close ended. Except for few questions that needed to be known as in question 10 of asking the satisfaction and dissatisfaction level and know their problems with respect to the brand they have used. The options in the form of yes or no, Ranking & choosing one alternative out of various alternatives, I could not take the open-ended questions in the Questionnaire because of time constraint. The time given for this research is very short to analyze the survey in Depth. The number of question related to consumer behaviour research is 14. Out of which 4 Related to personal details.

· Sample size: 20

· SRSWR

· Sex ratio: 1:1

· The studies were conducted in localities

· Mainly Students were covered and 10 % others considered for the study.[College/school/Univ./inst./housewives]

· Sample coverage 10 male and 10 girls

Other questions were asked about the personalities of the shampoo with the brand image they perceive. [Cool/trendy/aggressive/different/outgoing etc.]

RECOMMENDATIONS

± Target those people who use shampoo and trust the shampoo as their best solution for hair care.

± Develop quality and brand image so that by trial of your brand leaves with a good image and then followed by usage of bigger pack which then will be used by them.

± Identify the key benefits such as hair strengthening, Missing form shampoo and makes them the USP of new brands. The USP could be rebuilding damaged hair, shiny and healthy hair.

± Look for different problems for which people use shampoo for hair care, falling hair and dandruff’s etc. And deliver the same of high quality and at the same time positioning the brand as solution for your hair problem and which also rejuvenate your hair, and keep your hair healthy to that target group.

± The ideas, associations and images that people have of a shampoo brand determine the demand side of the brand equity equation. There are two ways in which advertising is likely to influence perceived product performance. First, by guiding the expectations about the shampoo experience – process called product enhancement and second, by creating a halo of superiority around the brand via a mechanic termed ” Interest – Status”. There are two key advertising related factors First, the advertisement needs to be remembered. This is important because its main influence is at the point of trial. Second, the message should relate in some way to the experience of ‘using’ the product – for instance, does it create any expectation of what the shampoo would ” feel like to your hair” i.e., how will it take care of your hair and especially to your specifications. But the advertiser should always bear in mind that the benefits proclaimed are in line with what the product can actually deliver.

± Use country wide sampling activity to acquaint potential customers with the benefit of shampoo backing up the effort with advertising to convert intent to purchase.

± Offer value for money impetus for the decision to use the product more intensively

± Again benchmark the company that has well positioned itself in the minds of the consumer and they [consumers] rarely change their shampoo. Here these people are almost satisfied with their current brand because the core features the consumer looks for is being derived from their brand. And so delivering the improved one will make them switch to your brand but it should be well advertised and substantiated

This action of company will have other positive effect of attracting those switchers, changing frequently and/or occasionally and drawing the crowd towards your brand.

± Go for strategic sizing and pricing. Have those packs available in the market so that people have a wider option available and presence of your brand. After a gap of some time check which are the packs that are bought most and assure their availability.

± Last but not the least there are separate issue that have to dealt with being the male and female factor and then growing demand of herbal shampoo. Looking at first point the female factors of buying a shampoo are different than male. A female normally have less problem of falling hair than male and so they look for those hair shampoo that improve from the current position of their hair. [Rejuvenate and healthy etc.] But one common problem [male & female] that they may have is of dandruff’s. And so the company can develop the brand image and quality and communicate better to the target group of these core benefits of your brand i.e., solution for hair problem and thus improving and rejuvenating them. Second point. Can the company in the same line of chemical shampoos change the perception in the mind of the consumer of chemical shampoo having no side affects and at the same time advertise about the possible advantages of using their shampoo and/or can they come up with a herbal shampoo as the product extension and there by building a well brand image. Like the Colgate has done with the already launched product of herbal toothpaste. If yes please go ahead but probe before you plunge.

± The advt. Slogan could be :

± Expert care for every type of hair

± Extra protection for your hair

± Remove dandruff’s in sec’s

± Healthy shiny u ever wanted.

Factors concerning use of a shampoo:

Geographically – it’s the water of particular area, the air pollution that forces one to use shampoo usage.

And thus creating awareness of possible damage of your hair if you do not use it [own brand] these are the negatives outcomes that you [customer] may have [falling hair, dandruff’s].

Stages of decision making process:

In the initial stages of problem —

· Need recognition – dandruff’s, hair falling, strengthening of hair, early precautions from the information gathered or if they see in their friends group of any hair problem then they starts taking utmost care.

· Search for information – in the initial stages of hair problem, people in their friends advises [reference group], family influences [mother], — but more crucial is advertisement Of shampoo and the brands which at that point of time they actually recall [brands that he/she recall includes the pre purchase evaluation, but mostly it is more on internal factor i.e. self – the knowledge he/she has of the brands that he has come across and know to be better product]–

1. buy that brand

2. purchase that brand

3. use it [usage may be according to own knowledge or as said by others [mother, friends or prescribed]

4. Post purchase evaluation after more usage.

5. May be satisfied or may not.

If not satisfied

6. Switch till they get the best or some amount of satisfaction and then stick to that brand

If satisfied

· Stick to the satisfied brand but may try others only if they are convinced from reliable sources and that too from most people and see sufficient evident in that brand of what they expect.

In the above process the stage is initial problem that the consumer faces and then those stages of decision come across.

Now a look at the stages in decision making process after the problem is becoming severe and he/she is not satisfied with any brands:

Need recognition – remains the same but is highly desperate to eliminate the problem that he/she will be facing.

Search for information – now its more external to what he/she gathers from reliable source i.e. family, friends, marketer led – advertisement, magazine or newspaper. But since the problem is acute more is the chances of being influenced by the doctor. There is a high chance of visiting a doctor and looking for ways of to tackle the problem. And in the initial stages of problem discussed earlier the more is the chances of being influenced by advertisements.

Rest the stages are same.

Thus it can be rightly said that if the brands have good advertisement, well positioned in the consumer mind as in the research showed that clinic all clear is most used then advertisement can play an important role in attracting a good crowd and if that crowd captured through advertisement [brand image] substantiate with high quality. Chances of brand loyalty are high towards your brand. But if the customers are not satisfied and the problem becomes severe he/she goes for home remedy or consulting a doctor.

CONCLUSION

Conclusion of survey reveals that the consumer behaviors depend on the following reasons: –

Product quality,

Family influence,

Doctor’s prescription,

Advertisement, Hair problem, Price of the product, and self.

The consumers of shampoo are very sensitive and he is very much aware of the products. Awareness about the product regarding the ingredients is very high in the consumers. Influence in the purchase of the shampoos mainly depends on the hair problem and assurity to solve that problem given by the brand. Influence of doctor and family is also very high.

Attributes of a particular brand also play an important role in the purchase. Attributes like reasonable price, fragrance, quality, & medications plays its significant role. By the analysis we can conclude that consumers in the shampoo market are not much conscious about the price but its quality plays important role.

The study reveals that Pantene has been tried by most of the consumer (16 %). Next comes Sunsilk. Organics and Clinic Plus both (11 %), which have been tried by the consumers.

According to the study Pantene is the most consumed ( 20 % ) brand of shampoo. Head & Shoulders and Clinic Plus both account to 15 % of the total shampoo consumption and Sunsilk is less consumed than these ( 14 %). Organics forms only 5 % of the total shampoo consumption.

The survey showed a number of reasons for consumers using more than one brand or type of shampoos simultaneously. No single shampoo, according to the consumer, was able to fulfill all the hair requirements. Dandruff was the most important hair problem which led the cosumer to use more than one shampoo at a time. Some people use two or more shampoos simultaneously, just for change.

Consumers in the age group below 20 and 20 – 29 are more innovative as compared to the other age groups. It has been observed from the study that females shampoo their hair twice a week, while males prefer using shampoo on alternate days. From the survey it was found that the Medium size pack of shampoos with quantity of 100 ml to 250 ml is the most frequently purchased pack. According to our sample 51 % of the people across different age groups and income groups prefer this packaging.

From the table no. 6 it can be concluded that a majority (58%) of the consumers change their shampoo occasionally. These consumers also tend to test the quality of new launches. Non availability is another factor which to a certain extent, has prompted many consumers to use more than one brand simultaneously. A significant figure of 57% of the consumer tend to shift to another brand due to non – availability of their brands.

From table no. 10 that amongst the factors which influence the choice of a brand of shampoo(s), Hair problems is the most important one. People select shampoo(s) with reference to their hair problems. Hair type also plays a very important role. While selecting a shampoo consumers take care to select the shampoo according to their hair type. The role which Advertisements play can not be neglected. According to study it is found that even advertisements influence the consumers a great deal in selecting a shampoo. At times someone’s reference also helps in selecting a brand. Hair type or hair problems are found to be more significant as compared to the fragrance, packaging and price of a shampoo.

The consumers of Head & shoulders are the most satisfied with all the attributes of the shampoo and the range falls in the interval of 2.5 – 3 on the scale of 1-3.

Next on the list are Organics and Clinic Plus. But these two shampoos need to improve upon the anti -dandruff and hair repairing qualities which the consumer finds is lacking to a certain extent.

Sunsilk to a large extent fails to satisfy hair nourishment, anti dandurff and hair repair needs of the consumer. The satisfaction level lies in the range from 1-1.5.

Clinic All Clear provides high satisfaction to the consumer as far as anti dandruff quality of the shampoo is concerned. But it lacks all other attributes such as hair nourishment, hair repair, conditioning, removing hair problems etc. The satisfaction is very low on the scale. Ayur needs to improve upon all its attributes as the satisfaction level for all of them lies in the range of 1 – 2.

The relatively new concept of using the seal of a Clinical Laboratory on a shampoo bottle does not much influence the purchase decisions of the consumer. 60 % of the consumers remain unaffected by the use of the seal.

Advertisements play a significant role in the purchase decision of the consumers. 33% of consumers are influenced by the advertisements of shampoos they use. The message in the advertisements is paid more attention to, than the role models shown in the advertisements.

The survey reveals that the Organics user with his Impressive personality and Friendly behavior provides Good company. He is Outgoing and is Similar to most people. He is indifferent to advertisements and Independently makes the major decisions of his life.

The user of Head & Shoulders has an Outgoing personality and can impress people easily. He is meticulous in nature although he independently takes decisions.

He is similar to most people and due to his friendly nature, provides Good company.

The consumer of Sunsilk is totally independent in making major decisions. He seldom seeks advice from others and is indifferent to advertisements. Although he is meticulous but lacks innovation. His similarity to most people, outgoing and friendly nature, provide good company and accord him an impressive personality.

The Pantene consumer is very friendly, gives good company and has an impressive personality. He is meticulous and similar to most people although he is outgoing he is not much of an innovator. He independently takes decisions and never seeks any advice from others.

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