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The History and importance of advertising

3830 words (15 pages) Essay in Marketing

5/12/16 Marketing Reference this

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Ads make an illustration and a figurative resource for the business product or service mark. Dissimilar assets can assist to get better the efficacy of ads that evokes an emotional reaction in the viewer’s mind. Advertisers over and over again accept as true that affirmative emotional Ad unswervingly inspires the client to use the mark, while unconstructive emotional significance will deliver the identical outcome by another course. It is often argued that to what extent this pessimistic expressive Ad is encouraging customers to buy a brand. Although the works, its contact is at all times questioned on the base of the character of the client and the kind of produce class for which it was used. The authors have attempted to measure the effect of some selected use negative emotional messages in the context of its application in the consumer ads for the selected product. 


The field of advertising is much broader and diverse. The ads are for two main purposes are to inform and influence. Announcements are made using different resources to create brand image to sell commodities and services that are tricky to distinguish on useful characteristics. The publicity of the word comes from “advert ere” from the Latin word meaning “to activate your mind to.”

The proclamation of the word first appeared around 1665 AD, was used as the heading of commercial information of the shopkeepers. The Advertising is described as whichever paid variety of non private announcement on the subject of a business, products, services or thought by a recognized sponsor. 

Ads have an effect on customer’s inclination and experiences, changes in artefact traits, as well as contributions. It informs consumers about product attributes. As advertisers are increasingly looking for more effective communication, the most careful consideration must be given to selecting the type of gimmick used for each target group. The decade of 1980 has observed an important add to in ads and the awareness of consumer researchers have focused on the role of emotion in advertising appeals. 

Emotional appeals relate to the social security of customers and / or emotional requirements for purchasing products or services. The reasons for consumers in many of their procurement judgments are expressive, and their beliefs about a brand name may be more important than knowledge of their characteristics. Fright is an arousing retort to a warning with the purpose of expression, or at slightest involves, a type of risk. The ads sometimes used to evoke fear resources expressive retort and awakening people to take action to eliminate the threat. The fear appeal in the ad is to arouse downbeat emotional demand and get rid of the threat of an individual. 

One investigation has shown that experimentally encouraged frames of mind or negative beliefs such as fear, guilt, sorrow and empathy and “stronger is better” approach may have a strong influence on the creation of a positive attitude towards advertisement. The consumer experiences a typical response style of processing during the execution of the ads. This style of processing execution response advertising shapes attitudes toward the product or indirectly influence purchase intentions. 

Our goal is to exemplify how the efficacy of ads, in requisites of stances and purposes are exaggerated by the dealing out style of consumers. Ad makers are right, the increasing importance of women in the process of purchasing decisions and, as needed. Our goal is to show how successful marketing is, in stipulations of purchase intentions of women for customer merchandises. The main contribution of this work is to analyze the interactive relationship affect-cognition (i.e., a way of thinking-feeling-processing) effects on the effectiveness of advertising across different executions of the advertising stimuli. 

The following sections review the literature on emotional appeals of negative publicity, the techniques of cognitive processing as well as cognitive response model, moreover displays my research hypotheses followed by a thorough portrayal of the method. Analysis and discussion presented at the end of the document.  

‘Negative Emotional application as well as Cognitive dispensation Style’

Negative demonstration, also recognized further colloquially as “slander” is trying to gain an advantage by referring to negative facets of an adversary or guidelines somewhat than lay emphasis on one’s personal optimistic characteristics or favoured procedures. Downbeat demonstration can be seen in major markets where in thoughts are contentious. In U.S. politics, “insulting” has been termed as “as American as Mississippi mud.” Some research puts forward pessimistic campaiigning is the norm in all political offices, alleviated merely by the dynamiics of a meticulous challenge. 

Appeal to emotion is a fallacy potential makes use of manoeuvring of the emotions of the beneficiary, to a certain extent than compelling reason, to succeed a disagreement. Also this type of thinking may be evident in the leaves emotions and / or other subjective reasoning process considerations influence. This sort of demand to sentiment is a type of red herring as well as takes in quite a lot of rational erroneous beliefs, namely: Appeal to consequences, the appeal to fear, appeal to the adulation, the appeal to pity, appeal to ridicule, Despite the appeal of an illusion. 

Figure 1: Model of cognitive response 


crp.JPG [i] 

One of the most used methods for examining the cognitive processes of consumers to advertising message is the assessment of cognitive responses, the idea that occurs to them to read, view and / or hearing media. Its objective was to establish the sorts of comebacks suggested by an ad meaning and these replies relay to manners toward the ad, brand attitudes and purchase intent. 

Products / Post Thoughts – Thoughts create two kinds of arguments (1) The contradictory dispute (2) The supportive argument. Opinions against the mind are the recipient had to contest the place taken in the message. Supporting arguments are thoughts that assert the claims in the message. Source-oriented feelings: – One of the most significant sorts of answer in this class is the omission of source or negative thoughts about the person speaking to make statements. The receivers do respond to thoughts are the source reinforced. Ad execution thoughts – thoughts run ads consist of thoughts about the ad. Many of the recipients of the thoughts they have when reading or viewing an ad does not refer to the product and / or claims message directly. These are important for its effect on attitudes toward advertising and brand. 

Advertisers are interested in consumer reaction to advertising because they know that emotional reactions are an important determinant of the effectiveness of advertising, as these reactions can be transferred to the own brand or directly influence intentions purchase.

Research Papers Reviewed

Advertising attitude did consist of believability, trust and control dimensions. [ii] 

Advertisements including source are always associated with higher level of attitude toward advertisement than those including only information. [iii] 

Emotional Advertising Appeals have a bigger impact on explicit memory performance than implicit memory performance. [iv] 

The amount of emotional content in advertisement affect the viewers’ opinion of the product, high level had a positive effect and low level had no effect. [v] 

Advertisers employ sensational negative emotional ad message such as those used by FMCG manufacturers exploiting consumers’ fear. [vi] 

The advertisers frequently used the dramatic emotional ad messages design to “Shock the Emotion and Brain Itch” to make advertisement more distinctive and effective. [vii] 

Fear appeals are useful to get individual to think or act in a certain way. Fear appears to be a great motivator as long as individual believe they are able to protect themselves. [viii] 


The objectives of this research was to study the effect of negative emotional publicity on women to know the style of cognitive processing of Indian consumers to the negative publicity and resource for meeting the emotional impact of negative publicity towards the purchase decision consumer. The research design used here is a test after only quasi-experimental (XO1) design. 

The data were obtained from the women through personal interview after the execution of advertising using structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions. The questionnaire was based on the cognitive response model.

Total of three ads were shown randomly to negate the effect of ordering. The three TVads are ads for products namely Saffola, Rexona and the AFL. In the three spots of familiar faces were not used as a source. The brief description of the advertising is so low.

Sr. No.

Name of Product

Name of Brand

Duration of Advertisement



Edible Oil



The Ad shows the threat towards increasing obesity and heart problems and hence providing Saffola oil as the solution.





The Ad shows the risk of perspiration that can sometimes disgrace the individual (emphasis on women) and thus showing that Rexona prevents this.


Fairness Cream

Ayurvedic fair and lovely


The Ad shows the peril of disrespect and failure and thus taking as challenge that with the help of AFL one becomes a recognized and successful person.

As according to the model of cognitive response questionnaire sentences were formed. For thought related products – the type of product used to control cholesterol levels. The message of thought – The delivery of messages through this ad is real. Source-oriented thinking – the characters used in the ad are perfectly congruent with the Ad.

The characters used for the announcement generated a positive attitude toward the brand. Running ads – I like to see this ad Attitude toward the brand – the brand of the product should be used. Attitude toward the ad – the ad is able to convince customers to use the product. purchase intent – I would buy the product. These phrases are measured in the five-point scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Our universe is the area of ​​the city of Mumbai. The sample size is ninety-six. 

Data were collected through questionnaire. The guest with the scale used in the analysis helped target. To examine the different objectives of the study of all the conventional tools, mathematicians and statisticians have been used. For reliability was Cronbach’s alpha test applied. To determine the effect of negative publicity emotional appeal through the cognitive processing style women for consumer products, hypothesis testing and one-way ANOVA was applied. 

There are several limitations to the course of our investigation. The first limitation of this study is the restriction to the city of Mumbai alone, and because of the vast population of India, the sample size is very small compared to the entire population. The second limitation is the lack of time. As we are conducting MBA, efficient time was not available to survey only ninety-six participants. Another limitation was an impediment to our research, our survey took about twenty to twenty-five minutes per side and so the defendant to try at some point may give partial answers.

Data Analysis and Interpretation

Cronbach’s alpha [1] ix

Table 1: Cronbach’s alpha for each of the three advertisements


Cronbach’s Alpha







No. of statements for each advertisement were 8

Table 2: Cronbach’s alpha for all the three advertisements combine

Cronbach’s Alpha

No. of statements



From the above mentioned table conclusion derived is that all statements used for measuring the effect of negative emotional appeal in advertisement are reliable towards cognitive response model because in all cases Cronbach’s alpha is greater than 0.6. [x] 

Emotions used in advertisement affect

Table 3: Affection of emotions used in advertisement

Extremely Affecting


Moderate Effect

Not Affecting

Extremely not Affecting






The advertisements use varied of emotions which affect directly or indirectly to target audience. The table concludes that majority of respondents agree, that emotions used in advertisements affect them.

Descriptive Statistics

Table 4: Mean and Standard Deviation for each of the advertisements



















Std. Deviation



























Std. Deviation



























Std. Deviation









Table 5: Mean of all advertisements according to cognitive response model




All Advertisement

Cognitive Response





Attitude Formation





Purchase Intention





On the basis of descriptive statistics for the dependent variables shown in the tables.For the table of inference were drawn as follows: 

Since, according to the researchers’ model applied model, the cognitive response in Table 4 of the first five columns show the mean cognitive response, sixth and seventh indicates the formation of attitudes and eighth column indicates the intention to purchase. As according to our scale used (mean value below 2.5 means positive contribution of advertising) advertising exposure Saffola the answers of the respondents is positive silence. Respondents strongly agreed with the statements I, II, IV, VII, VIII and iii according to the remaining states, V and VI. For non-respondents Saffola ads are having disagreement to any statement. This shows that the appeal in the ad was very effective Saffola respondents. The advertising exposure Rexona the survey responses is quiet negative. Respondents disagreed with the statements I, II, VI and VII and are indifferent (mean value greater than 2.5 and less than 3.5) for the rest of the states III, IV, V and VIII. For non Rexona ads of respondents have an agreement to any statement. This shows that the appeal in the Rexona ad is having a negative impact on respondents. The AFL advertising exposure to the answers of respondents are in indifferent silence. Respondents agreed with the statements VI and VII, indifferent to view the statements iii, iv, vi, and VIII, and did not agree with the other states i and ii. For announcement AFL respondents have different opinions on all statements. This shows that the appeal in the notice AFL is modest effect on respondents. 

Table 5 shows the cognitive response model showing three different stages for each ad and also the combination of the three ads. The transition from the cognitive response to expose all the ads together have a positive effect, ie resource used in the negative ads have an impact on the individual and therefore is not cognitive response. But if individual ads are taken into account then reveals that Saffola is to have the greatest impact on the cognitive process of the individual than the other two ads. The stage of formation of attitude to bring to light all the ads together have a moderate effect, ie resource used in the negative ads have a modest impact on the attitude of the individual. But if individual ads are taken into account then reveals that Saffola build positive and moderate attitude AFL accumulate while Rexona is the negative attitude toward the ad. The passage of purchase intent to expose all the ads together have a positive effect, ie resource used in the negative ads have a positive impact on the individual decision to purchase the product. But if individual ads are taken into account then reveals that Saffola have a positive impact to the purchase decision and the AFL have a moderate impact to the buying decision, while Rexona have a negative impact to the buying decision. Therefore the overall impact of exposure for all ads is irrelevant. The results obtained through the means were not sufficient to reach a conclusion to the researchers applied the hypothesis test. 

Hypothesis Testing

The measuring power of hypothesis test was based on z score. [xi] Hypothesis test was carried out at significance level (α) 10% i.e. 0.10. At α = 0.10, the table value of z is 1.28. On the basis of one tailed test of proportion, the calculated value [2] was derived.

Ho: Negative emotional advertising appeal does not makes the cognitive response positive.

Table 6: Comparison between Calculated and Table value

Calculated Value

Table Value




Ho is not accepted

Since the calculated value 1.529 is greater than table value 1.28. The null hypothesis is not accepted. Hence it can be concluded that negative emotional advertising appeal makes the cognitive response positive.

Ho: Negative emotional advertising appeal doesn’t helps to form the positive attitude.

Table 7: Comparison between Calculated and Table value

Calculated Value

Table Value




Ho is not accepted

The calculated value 1.96 is more than table value 1.28. The null hypothesis is not accepted. Hence the driven conclusion is that the negative emotional advertising appeal will help to form positive attitude.

Ho: Negative emotional advertising appeal increases the customer intention to buy

Table 8: Comparison between Calculated and Table value

Calculated Value

Table Value




Ho is accepted

Since the calculated value -0.16 is less than table value 1.28. The null hypothesis is accepted. Hence it can be concluded that negative emotional advertising appeal increase the customer’s intention to buy the product.

One Way ANOVA Testing [3] xii

Ho: Different advertising themes have no difference in their effect on individual perceptions.

Table 9: ANOVA output table

Source Variance

Sum of Squares(SS)

Degree of Freedom(df)

Mean Square

F ratio

SSC [4] 





SSE [5] 




SST [6] 


Critical table value of F at α 0.1 (n1 = df for numerator = 2 and n2 = df for denominator = 6) is equal to 3.46. Calculated F > Table F, 21.57 > 3.46 [xiii] , so Ho us not accepted. Thus the conclusion is that the different advertising themes have difference in their effect on individual perceptions.


Emotions used in the ads have a great effect on customers was agreed by 54 per cent of respondents. The results of descriptive statistics Saffola oil product declarations “were strongly agree, by a majority of respondents, while the statements of Rexona deodorant product, had seen AFL disagreement and equity statements cream product, which were indifferent. This derives from that after seeing the ad many positive respondents to the Saffola brand and the AFL, but were negative toward the brand Rexona. Through various scenarios developed by us, the results were negative emotional advertising appeal makes the positive cognitive response, helps build a positive attitude and this increases the customer intends to buy the brand. Different advertising themes have differences in their effect on individual perception. The study reveals that negative ads emotional appeal of the intensity of the negativity is high, then the impact on cognitive processing style and affects the individual perception, therefore the impact purchase intent of consumers. 


Negative emotional advertising appeal play an important role in cognitive processing styles of women. Ads emotional appeal has great impact on consumers’ cognitive style message processing that influences their buying intentions. The level of negativity used in advertising has an impact on the individual’s perception. The high level of ignorance creates negativity toward the advertisement and therefore has a negative effect on purchase intentions. Moderate or low level of negativity creates great impact on the individual’s perception toward the advertisement and therefore has a positive effect on purchase intentions. Furthermore, the research may lead to study what level of negativity is impacting positively to individual style of cognitive processes as resources have a negative impact on the perception of the individual.

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