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Sports Sponsorship For Cricket In Malaysia Marketing Essay

4684 words (19 pages) Essay in Marketing

5/12/16 Marketing Reference this

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2.1 Introduction

This chapter will provide a review of the literature related to the study on Sports Sponsorship for Cricket in Malaysia. An in-depth review of various aspects of sponsorship research will be covered, followed by a review focussing on sports sponsorship and formidable barriers that Malaysian Cricket face in regards to Sports Sponsorship will be explained. Barriers to Cricket Sponsorship serve the purpose of establishing the perimeters related to this study and is useful for the building of the intended framework.

2.2 Sponsorship

The term sponsorship has its origin from the Greek horigia, which is a combination of the words horos (the dance) and iigoumai (I direct or I lead) (Quester, 2001).

The definitions of sponsorship that most frequently cited and accepted definition of sponsorship was defined by Meenaghan (1983) as “an investment in cash or in-kind, in an activity, in return for the exploitable commercial potential associated with that activity” (p.36). Table 1 presents an illustrative sample of conceptualisations of sponsorship in chronological order.

Meenaghan (1991) continues by clarifying that sponsor is essentially buying two things:

The exposure potential which the activity has in terms of audience

The image associated with that activity in terms of how it is perceived

Copeland (1992) noted that all forms of sponsorship involve an “exchange” in which each party offers something of value in order to receive something value. This “exchange value” is the cornerstone of all sponsorship.

The definition of sponsorship typically includes two activities: (1) sponsor pay fee or provide in-kind supports to the sponsee and (2) acquires the right to link itself with the activity in order to achieve marketing and commercial purpose (Cornwell and Maignan 1998; Meenaghan 1983; IGB 2000). Cornwell et al. (2005) coined the term sponsorship linked-marketing emphasising the necessity of leverage sponsorship with other promotional activities. It is widely recognised that sponsorship has become one of the major tools in marketing. Sponsorship is regarded as one of “the most commonly utilised marketing strategies” (Maxwell and Lough 2009, p.188) that perhaps can generate more “money than all media advertising combined” (Harvey 2001, p.59).

Over the past three decades, sponsorship has evolved from a small-scale activity in a limited number of industrialised countries to a major global industry (Meenaghan 1998). Sponsorships is now taking a new shift, since most corporate organisations are engaging in more sponsorship activities as a means of achieving organisational corporate and marketing goals. Sponsorship has undeniably become one of the fastest growing global marketing practices. Engaging in such an innovative communication activity helps in increasing brand awareness, brand preferences, brand recall, projecting the company’s image and above all goodwill. These activities can lead to sales increase and consequently increase organisational value. (Bal, Quester, & Plewa, 2010).

Irwin et al. (2003) argues that sponsorship relationships are based on match between benefits of a sponsorship entity and the marketing objectives of a sponsor. Crowley (1991) suggested that the two most important for sponsorship involvement are to increase product, service or brand awareness and secondly to establish, strengthen or change their image. While McCarville and Copeland (1994) analysed sponsorship into three key elements (a) a sponsor’s contribution of financial support, (b) a sponsor activity that is outside the usual commercial activity of the company and (c) an expectation that there will be a return on investment.

Corporate sponsor expects that the consumer’s positive attitude towards the sponsored event may rub-off onto the product, brand or company. In this perspective, it is essential to study the attitude towards event sponsorship in overall and to assess the image of sponsorship. While consumers sometimes have negative attitude towards advertising, sponsorship as a communication tool often come out as a more positive effects and a level of goodwill depending on the category of sponsorship engagement, e.g. support of cultural activities, sports (Meenaghan 2001). The response to corporate sponsorship activities is for this cause dependent on the attitude and the degree of goodwill towards sponsorship in general. Sponsorship is often misrepresented as being an act of goodwill from the sponsor to the sponsee (Lee, Sandler & Shani 1997). Sponsorship engages the sponsor and the sponsee where the sponsorship aims to communicate beyond these parties to reach a target audience. This communication is enhanced by using the sponsee as an ‘endorser’ in the media. Sponsorship can involve the full range of marketing media and techniques, including relationship marketing (Olkkonen 1999).

Sponsorship objectives have been defined as overarching corporate marketing, communications, or public relations goals aimed to be achieve through sponsorship (Abratt, Clayton, & Pitt, 1987). According to Kuzma, Shanklin, and McCalley (1993), the main principle in selling sponsorships is to enlightening a close match between corporate objectives and event characteristics. To understand the goals and expectations of potential corporate organisations/entity sponsors, there has been an abundance of research but it is difficult to categorise corporate organisations/entity sponsorship objectives in precisely because companies frequently have a number of overlapping and interacting objectives within one sponsorship relationship (Mullin, Hardy, & Sutton, 2007). Abratt et al., (1987) reported that corporations could utilise sports sponsorship to achieve their marketing, communications, and public relations objectives.

Sponsorship investment has been historically focussed towards sports, mainly because of their flexibility as a communication vehicle and because of the opportunity they afford for association with increasingly commercially driven phenomena: sport and sports heroes (Quester and Thompson 2001). With the rise of new media that increase the ability of consumers to avoid normal advertising, the analysts are proclaiming that investment in the form of non-traditional advertising such as sports sponsorships will continue to grow in the future (Harvey, 2001).

.

Table 1: A Chronological Sampling of Sponsorship Definitions

Source

Definitions

System Three (1973)

“The provision of financial or material support (a) for some independent activity which is not intrinsic to the furtherance of commercial aims, but (b) from which the supporting company might reasonably hope to gain commercial benefit,” cited in Abratt, Clayton and Pitt (1987, p. 6).

Royal Philharmonic

Orchestra (1974)

“Sponsorship is the donation or loan of resources (people, money, material, etc.) by private individuals or organisations to other individuals or organisations engaged in the provision of those goods and services designed to improve the quality of life,” cited in Meenaghan (1998, p. 10).

Head (1981)

“An agreement in terms of which a sponsor provides some aid to a beneficiary, which may be an association, a team or an individual, to enable the latter to pursue some activity and thereby derives the benefits contemplated in terms of its promotion strategy,” cited in Abratt, Clayton and Pitt (1987, p. 6).

Meenaghan (1983, p. 9)

“Sponsorship can be regarded as the provision of assistance either financial or in-kind to an activity by a commercial organisation for the purpose of achieving commercial objectives.”

Gardner and Shuman (1987, p.11)

“Sponsorship can be defined as investments in causes or events to support corporate objectives (e.g., enhance company image) or marketing objectives (e.g., increase brand awareness).”

Otker (1988, p. 77)

“Commercial sponsorship as (1) buying and (2) exploiting an association with an event, a team, a group, etc., for specific marketing (communications) purposes.”

Sandler and Shani (1989, p. 10):

“The provision of resources (e.g., money, people, equipment) by an organization directly to an event or activity in exchange for a direct association to the event or activity.”

Meenaghan (1991a, p. 36)

“An investment, in cash or in kind, in an activity, in return for access to the exploitable commercial potential associated with that activity.”

Javalgi et al. (1994, p. 48)

“Sponsorship is the underwriting of a special event to support corporate objectives by enhancing corporate image, increasing awareness of brands, or directly stimulating sales of products and services.”

Ukman (1995, p. 1)

Sponsorship is defined as “a cash and/or in-kind fee paid to a property…in return for access to the exploitable commercial potential associated with that property,” cited in McDaniel (1999, p. 165).

Gardner and Shuman (1988, p. 44)

“Sponsorship may be defined as investments in causes or events to support corporate or marketing objectives.”

The International

Events Group (IEG)

“A cash and/or in-kind fee paid to a property (typically a sports, entertainment, non-profit event or organisation) in return for access to the exploitable commercial potential associated with that property,” cited in Roy and Cornwell (2003, p.378).

2.3 Sports Sponsorship

Sport sponsorship involves an exchange between two parties, in which the sponsor provides the sport property with cash or in-kind products or services, in exchange for the aptitude to attain the fans and participants of said sport property through some form of communication.

Global spending on sports will increase by an average of 3.7 percent a year to $145 billion by 2015, boosted by the Olympics and soccer’s World Cup, according to a study by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP. Sponsorship Growth Spending on sponsorships will rise on average 5.3 percent per year to $45.3 billion, PwC said. In North America that growth should be 6.1 percent, while the European market will increase 5.3 percent, Latin America by 4.9 percent and Asia by 4.4 percent, the authors’ state. This category fell 3.2 percent in 2009 and then increased more than 11 percent last year, PWC said. Growth is expected to be limited to 0.5 percent in 2011 and will jump to 11.5 percent in 2012 (Bloomberg, 2011).

Applying the definition of sponsorship to sports sponsorship, sponsors pay fees or provide equipment or in-kind related items to the event/game, in order to have logos or “few words summarising the brand’s positioning platform” (Pham & Vanguele, 1997, p407) and exposures at the scene or on TV (Lardinoit and Quester 2001; Fullerton and Merz, 2008) depending on the sponsorship types and packages.

Sports sponsorship is not a new construct, but rather one that has existed since its earliest recording form in 1852 when the New England Railroad sponsored Yale and Harvard in a rowing competition (Brooks, 1995).

Creedon (1994) described sport sponsorship as a mere narrowed focus in which revenue is generated by the sports/media marketing complex. Sports sponsorship acquires the most attention for being “one of the most legitimate and cost-effective modes of marketing communication” (Dees et al. 2008, p.80). Barret and Slack (1999) explained sport sponsorship as a complex issue encompassing many institutional and attitudinal factors that must be taken into account to influence sponsorship decisions and initiatives. Presently, sports sponsorship is considered the “dominant sponsorship context” (Olsen, 2010) with two-thirds of expenditures dedicated to sports teams, events, and players (Crompton 2004; Verity 2002).

Stotlar and Kadlecek (1999) suggested that involvement as a sponsor has become more and more consistently based on business objectives and realisation that such involvement is a viable and profitable option for the company. Catherwood, & Van Kirk (1992) described sports sponsorship requests are increasing, but most firms are expecting a reasonable return on their investment in the form of increasing sales and impact on building consumer perceptions of corporate ability and social responsibility.

In sport sponsorship, repeated attendance at sports events resulted in an increase in brand awareness, brand attitude, and purchase intention. Hence, it is assumed that more frequently exposed stimuli such as sponsorship exposure, have positive relationship with sponsorship effects such as attitude towards the brand and brand awareness (Cornwell et al. 2000; Lacey et al., 2007; Pitts G Slattery, 2004).

2.4 Objectives of Sports Sponsorship

Corporate organisations/entity’s promotional, marketing, and/or public relations objectives could potentially be achieved through a sport sponsorship.

Abratt et al. (1987) investigated the corporate objectives of sport sponsors and recognised sports as being a popular choice of sponsorship as it provided two potential markets: the participants and the spectators. A number of corporate objectives were identified from the general marketing and advertising literature which Abratt et al. (1987) believed were significant sport sponsorship objectives. These objectives integrated community involvement, increase public corporate awareness, change corporate image, build goodwill, restore confidence of policyholders and stockholders, counter adverse publicity, aid staff relations, assist in staff recruitment, identify with a target market, facilitate prospecting for the sales force (Abratt et al., 1987).

Irwin and Asimakopoulos (1992) separated sponsors objectives into corporate-related objectives and product/brand-related objectives. Corporate-related objectives included increasing public corporate awareness, enhancing corporate image, changing public perception, getting involved in the community, building business/trade goodwill, and enhancing employee relations/motivation. The product/brand-related objectives were increasing target market awareness, identifying/building image within target market (positioning), and increasing sales/market share (Irwin & Asimakopoulos, 1992).

Increase public corporate awareness: Mullien et al. (2007) claims sponsorship has been used in an effort to enhance the awareness, or educate the public regarding the ability of a company. Marketers have realised consumers must first be aware of their company’s existence before they can possibly purchase corporate organisations/entity’s goods or services. Sport sponsorship has been considering an effective way to gain public awareness and have also sponsors to value the ability of sponsorship in achieving this objective, making ‘increase public corporate awareness’ (Fullerton, 2010; Irwin et al., 2008; Mullin et al., 2007; Shank, 2005).

Enhance corporate image: To enhance a corporation’s image through sport sponsorship, every company go all-out to expose a particular image to customers, stakeholders, and the general public (Irwin & Asimakopoulos, 1992; Irwin et al., 2008). Through sport sponsorship, the sponsoring corporate organisation/entity is able to associate itself with the sport property in the hopes the positive image when the consumers/fans associate with a sport entity are transferred to the sponsoring company (Mullin et al., 2007; Shank, 2005).

Changing public perception: Changing public perception of a company is fairly reliant upon the view of the company and is possible through long-term sport sponsorships. Key to changing this perception is finding sport properties or events which are part of the consumer’s lifestyle (Irwin & Asimakopoulos, 1992; Irwin et al., 2008).

Getting involved in the community: According to Mullin et al. (2007), sport sponsorship has more potential than any other promotional tool to have a direct impact on the community. Sport sponsorship is often thought to be a part of corporate ‘good citizenship’ or community relations and companies engaged in the sponsorship of community-based events are often seen to be in touch with their community and their community’s needs. (Irwin & Asimakopoulos, 1992; Irwin et al., 2008; Mullin et al., 2007).

Building business/trade goodwill: Irwin et al. (2007) added that “Sport offers an opportunity for building relationships with other businesses, affiliates, and trade customers beyond daily business operations”. Sponsorship has been used as a tool to improve corporate relations with a variety of stakeholders (Irwin & Asimakopoulos, 1992; Irwin et al., 2008).

Enhance employee relations/motivation: Fullerton (2010) claims that utilising sport sponsorship to host customers and suppliers, sport sponsorship can also be used as entertainment and rewards for sponsors’ employees. Sport sponsorship has the capability of increasing staff motivation and corporate pride (Irwin et al., 2008).

Increase target market awareness: Meenaghan (1991) says sport sponsorship has been used to increase the overall awareness of a company and numerous sport sponsors have also indicated they use sport sponsorship to increase the awareness of a particular brand within the sponsor’s target market.

Identify/enhance image within target market (positioning): Irwin et al. (2008) iterates sport sponsorship has been found to be a key substitute to mass marketing and sometimes allows companies to target a niche market with very little waste on spectators outside of their target market. Sport sponsorship can be a very powerful vehicle for more individualised communication as people who are attracted to sport properties often share common interests (Irwin et al., 2008; Mullin et al., 2007; Shank, 2005).

Increase sales/market share: Shank (2005) and Irwin et al., (2008) added that sales and market share objectives are the most popular within sport sponsorship. Increasing sales and market share can be attained in several different ways through sport sponsorship such as including on-site product distribution, trials, or the exclusive concessions rights for a given product category, and so on in sponsorship agreements.

2.5 Benefits of Sports Sponsorship

According to Irwin et al. (2008) the success of generating approximately $215 million from 1984 Los Angeles Olympic games corporate sponsorship programs have transformed to start a new era for sports sponsorship. Subsequently, sponsorships rights owners have been confident in the potential of sport sponsorship to make profits while sponsors have taken advantage of the ability of sport sponsorship to communicate with consumers and create business-to business opportunities (Irwin et al., 2008; Masterman, 2007).

Sports organisations are heavily dependent on the revenue from sport sponsorship (Danylchuk, 2000; Jowdy & McDonald, 2002; Kutintara, 2009; Stotlar, 2005; Tomasini et al., 2004) and secure sponsorship support and attainment of sponsorship support is among the most critical tasks of any sports organisation (Copeland, Frisby, & McCarville, 1996). Similarly, corporations have increasingly attempted to integrate sport sponsorship into their marketing mixes (Ali, Cornwell, Hguyen, & Coote, 2006; Crompton, 2004; Javalgi, Traylor, Gross, & Lampman, 1994)

Stotlar and Kadlecek (1999) suggested that involvement as a sponsor has become more and more consistently based on business objectives and realisation that such involvement is a viable and profitable option for the company. Catherwood, & Van Kirk (1992) described sports sponsorship requests are increasing, but most firms are expecting a reasonable return on their investment in the form of increasing sales and impact on building consumer perceptions of corporate ability and social responsibility.

2.6 Effects of Sports Sponsorship

Demonstrating the effects of sponsorship is probably the best way to legitimise it as a marketing technique (Cornwell and Maignan 1998). Irwin et al. (2008) added “Sport sponsorship offers an opportunity for building relationships with other businesses, affiliates, and trade customers beyond daily business operations”. Sponsorship has been used as a tool to improve corporate relations with a variety of stakeholders (Irwin & Asimakopoulos, 1992; Irwin et al., 2008). Much like utilising sport sponsorship to host customers and suppliers, sport sponsorship can also be used as entertainment and rewards for sponsors’ employees (Fullerton, 2010). Sport sponsorship has the capability of increasing staff motivation and corporate pride (Irwin et al., 2008). Sport sponsorship has been deemed an effective way to gain public awareness (Fullerton, 2010; Irwin et al., 2008; Mullin et al., 2007; Shank, 2005), increasing corporate awareness to enhance a corporation’s image through sport sponsorship (Irwin & Asimakopoulos, 1992; Irwin et al., 2008) and enhancing corporate image, altering public perception through sport sponsored sport.

The effects of sports sponsorship have also been investigated through analysis of brand awareness and brand image and corporate ability.

2.6.1 Brand and Brand Awareness Building

Witcher, Craigen, Culligan and Harvey (1991) and Rajaretnam (1994) report case studies that illustrate the positive influence of sponsorship on awareness. Cornhill, a British insurance agency, invested two million euros in a five-year sponsorship of English Test Cricket. As a result, the recognition of Cornhill among the general public rose from two percent to 21 percent, something that was estimated by the authors to have cost approximately 50 million euros had it been done through conventional advertising. Furthermore, the case study shows that sales increased by between 15 million and 20 million euros (Witcher, Craigen, Culligan and Harvey 1991).

Interestingly Rajaretnam (1994) reports a unique case study which made it possible to isolate the sponsorship effects from other promotions. Madras Rubber Factory (MRF Ltd.,) one of the largest automotive tire manufacturers in India, made a major decision in 1984 to discontinue its product advertising campaign and to use sports sponsorship (e.g., sponsorship of Cricket World Cup) as the main form of marketing until 1987. During this period of time, there were no other major communications for MRF Ltd., whereas rival tire companies, such as Dunlop and Ceat, concentrated on product advertising and very little on sponsorship. The results show that, while the awareness of two rival brands, Dunlop and Ceat, remained static or even declined and the awareness of MRF Ltd., showed a significant growth. From 1984 to 1987, top-of-mind awareness improved from four percent to 21 percent; unaided awareness improved from 38 to 68 percent, and aided awareness improved from 92 to 99 percent. Likewise, there are accumulated evidences that corporate sponsorship contributes to building strong brand awareness.

2.6.2 Image Enhancement

Sponsorship is seen as a means to improve consumer perceptions on corporate ability that the company is prestigious, financially stable, credible, and able to produce quality products, and so forth. It is also hoped that consumers will credit the company for its sponsorship and generate favourable evaluations and attitudes so the consumers will favour it in later product choices (Keller 2003).

According to Johnson and Zinkhan (1990), corporate image has been defined in marketing research over three decades as “an overall perception of the company held by different segments of the public” (p.347), which indicates that the corporate image is ultimately determined by the public. This definition implies that sponsor image not only includes cognitive components such as beliefs, known facts and inferences, but also contains affective components such as feelings, evaluations and attitudes. It is also determined by the public’s subjective perceptions of the sponsor, rather than by the reflection of objective reality, although the corporation can influence and shape the image of the sponsor by well-managed marketing programs.

The cognitive component of sponsor image or sponsor belief is further broken down into two categories – corporate ability (CA) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) (Brown and Dacin 1997; Brown 1998). Brown (1998) defines CA as the degree to which the company is perceived as possessing abilities that make it successful, such as a corporations’ abilities to financially perform well or manufactures premium product and services. On the other hand, CSR refers to “the organisations status and activities with respect to its perceived societal obligations” (Brown and Dacin 1997, p. 68), such as a corporation’s level of involvement with local community. According to Mullin et al. (2007), sport sponsorship has more potential than any other promotional tool to have a direct impact on the community. Sport sponsorship is often thought to be a part of corporate ‘good citizenship’ or community relations (Irwin & Asimakopoulos, 1992; Irwin et al., 2008; Mullin et al., 2007).

On the basis of these arguments, therefore, the followings hypotheses are proposed:

Hypothesis 1: To establish relationship between corporate organisations/entity sport (cricket) sponsorship and impacts on building consumer perceptions of corporate ability?

Hypothesis 2: To establish relationship between corporate organisations/entity sport (cricket) sponsorship and effects on attitude towards brand and brand awareness?

2.7 Sports Industry and Sponsorship in Malaysia

Ministry of Sports in Malaysia claims that Malaysian sports industry is relatively young and a fast growing sector and sports related activities contributed approximately RM. 30.2 billion to the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2009. To achieve the government’s Economic Transformation Programme (ETP) target of a high-income nation by 2020 Sports Ministry was launched on a number of initiatives to turn the sport industry into a major contribution to the Gross National Income (GNI). Extra funds have been allocated by the government for construction of more facilities and promoting the country as a preferred venue for hosting International Sporting events to boost the local sports industry.

Tax deductions are offered to corporate bodies that support or sponsor sports event. The view on sports sponsorship has shifted from a corporate social responsibility to a return on investment (ROI) perspective. It is predicated that sports sponsorship will become a major source of funding for sports event in the near future and government’s plan to gradually decrease its funding for the industry and vision by 2020 the government wants all sports development funding to come from private source.

Currently, most companies active in sports sponsorship are non-sports related multinational and global sports brands. The amount of local sports brands participation in sponsorship is still very low and it’s a good opportunity for exploration in this expanse for those who want to be proactive in growing their business.

2.8 Sports Sponsorship for Cricket in Malaysia

There has been a drift that many companies have pursued in the relationship with sports. An enormous increase in the sports sponsorship funds in Malaysia is evident, however, while such earning power may bring some financial benefits to some sports associations/organisations, there is an evident disparity between the amount earned in sponsorship between other sports associations/organisations and cricket association in Malaysia even though the popularity of cricket sport in Malaysia and the Malaysian cricket’s global ranking has increased. According to International Cricket Council global ranking Malaysian cricket is placed at thirtieth spot in global and eighth placing in Asia. The need for private sponsorship for Malaysian cricket has never been greater and is expressing difficulty in attracting and maintaining corporate support.

The tightening economic climate and limited media coverage are the formidable barriers that Malaysian cricket face in regard to sport sponsorship. The media coverage and type of media coverage that cricket in Malaysia receives are both barriers to sponsorship opportunities. Other sports in Malaysia such as badminton, soccer, hockey, and athletics’ events apparent as having a high profile and were more likely to be sponsored than those that were not. High profile events were often associated with high media coverage. Indubitably, cricket sport is extremely underrepresented in media coverage, financial rewards, and sponsorship. Without media coverage it is hard to sell an organisation especially since a sponsor is looking to media coverage as return on investment. Exposure through television broadcast is valuable constituent in attracting corporate sponsors. Increased media coverage provides opportunities for those investing in cricket sport to gain additional value on the investment.

Meenaghan (1994) Copeland et al. (1996) found media coverage and exposure along with product and sports image to be the most significant factors impacting sponsorship and Malaysian cricket struggle with these factors. Those sports which have a favourable corporate and community image are likely to receive more positive response to their sponsorship; therefore, increasing sponsorship related sales (Stipp & Shiavone, 1996).

The lack of media coverage in cricket sport limits the opportunities for cricketers and association to attract sponsorship opportunities which, in many cases, help to further an athlete’s career as well as develop an organisation. Not only does the lack of media attention limit sponsorship, but it also denies young cricketers the opportunities to watch other cricketers who can serve as potential role models. Although some corporations have realised the potential of investing and sponsoring cricket, cricket association are still not able to market their products, talents, athletes and events to a sponsor.

Stotlar and Kadlecek (1999) suggested that involvement as a sponsor has become more and more consistently based on business objectives and realisation that such involvement is a viable and profitable option for the company. It is therefore, important for Malaysian cricket association and their sport marketers to be aware of the various corporate perceptions and obstacles that affect sport sponsorship for cricket in Malaysia.

While there is heaps of sponsorship money is available and vast increase in the number of sponsorship proposals that are received, corporate organisations/entity have been forced to take more selective approach to sponsorship. Corporate sponsors are becoming more and more cautious about where and how they allocate their money. Many times the Malaysia cricket get overlooked and perhaps thought of as a last resort. It is essential for Malaysian cricket association and their sport marketers to know and understand how they can effectively market themselves, what the needs of the corporations are, and how they are perceived by sponsors in the marketplace is important. Unless Malaysian cricket association and their sport marketers begin to understand what corporations are looking for in a potential investment and the potential benefits of what they have to sponsor, the likelihood of received sponsorship support will be minimal. Hence, it is important for Malaysian cricket association and their sport marketers to be aware of so that they can alter their approach, the opportunities they seek with corporations and what they request.

A vast majority of corporations has focused on sponsoring other sports in Malaysia such as badminton, soccer, hockey, and athletics. Corporations and decision makers are now beginning to recognise the opportunities and market presented through the association but much of the current sport sponsorship money, howev

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